Effect of weed management practices and spacing on weed control
By MUHAMMAD IQBAL
To study the effect of weed management practices on weed control in wheat, an experiment was conducted at two locations Such as Agricultural Research Farm, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar and Agricultural research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan for the year 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot Design with three replications. The factors included in the experiment were varieties (Bakhtawar-92, Ghaznavi-98, and Inqilab-91) being assigned to main plots, while herbicides such as broad-spectrum herbicide, (2.4-D 72EC + Isoproturon 75 WP @ 623 and 649 g a.i. ha-1, respectively), broad Leaf herbicide, (2,4-0 72 EC @ 711 g a.i. ha-1), grasses weeds herbicide, (Isoproturon 75 WP @ 968 g a.i. ha1), and weedy check (no herbicide) were kept in sub-plots.
The row spacing (18, 25, and 32 cm) were allotted to sub-sub -plots. The experiment was planted on 31 October and 15 November in both years at Peshawar and D.I.Khan, respectively. Data were recorded on weed density and some agronomic, morphological and physiological traits of wheat and net profit and cost benefit ratio were calculated. The data for the individual trait were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were separated by LSD. Variety Bakhtawar-92 was more productive and profitable than Ghaznavi-98 or Inqilab-91. It produced higher number of tillers m-2 (6% and 13%), grain yield (5% and 10%) and net profit (8% and 17%) than Ghaznavi-98 and Inqilab-91, respectively. The plots sown to Inqilab-91 variety, which is tallest and has vigorous early growth, had lesser number of grasses and broad leaf weeds than other verities. In Inqilab-9 I grasses weeds were reduced to 11% and 5%, and broad leaf weeds by 8 and 10% as compared to Bakhtawar-92 and Ghaznavi-98, respectively. The application of broad-spectrum herbicide consistently controlled both grasses and broad leaf weeds in all varieties at all row spacing in both locations and years. The increase in number of tillers m-2 (17%), number of productive tillers m-2 (18%), spikelets spike-1 (5%), 1000-grain weight (4%), biological yield (19%), grain yield (21%), straw yield (18%), harvest index (11%), and net profit (32%) over weedy check was due to application of broad spectrum herbicide, which controlled both grasses and broad leaf weeds. The interaction effect of broad- spectrum herbicides with variety Bakhtawar-92 produced significantly higher grain yield (24%) and net profit (34%), respectively. The interaction of broad spectrum with 18 cm row spacing was also significant in controlling both grasses and broad leaf weeds. The reduction in grasses and broad leaf weeds over the weedy check was 85 and 81%, respectively. The effect of 18 cm row spacing on reduction of both grasses and broad leaf weeds was significant, which ultimately increased number of tillers m-2 (9%), grain yield (10%) and net profit (23%), respectively over the weedy check. The 18 cm row spacing x Bakhtawar-92 interaction significantly increased grain yield (3% and 11 %) and net profit (8% and 23%) over 25 and 32 cm row spacing. In the light of the findings, it is suggested that for the integrated weed management in wheat, the broad-spectrum herbicide may be integrated with planting of aggressive varieties of wheat.
Source: This is Abstract of thesis entitle “EFFECT OF WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND SPACING ON WEED CONTROL IN DIFFERENT WHEAT CULTIVARS IN N.W.F.P PAKISTAN” by MUHAMMAD IQBAL Affiliated with GOMAL UNIVERSITY D. I. KHAN / AGRONOMY, Published in 2002 under Agriculture Chemistry.