Wheat output likely to remain below projected target this year

Pakistan’s wheat production is anticipated to stay regarding twenty four.5 to twenty five million tons this year, which is 0.25-0.75 million tons wanting the projected target of twenty five.25 million tons, Ministry of National Food Security and analysis officers aforementioned.

A senior official of the Ministry of National Food Security and analysis told Business Recorder, here on Wed that Asian nation is in an exceedingly position to supply bumper wheat crop this year however it depends on atmospheric condition in March: if the temperature remains average the country’s wheat output is anticipated to cross twenty five million tons, however if temperature is on top of the common for the year wheat output is probably going to stay twenty four.5 million tons.

Wheat output likely to remain below projected target this year“This year wheat growers have brought nearly twenty one million acres underneath wheat cultivation, that is sort of one thousand thousand acres but the past year. In arid areas, a decline within the space underneath wheat cultivation, low tide provides and fertiliser shortages square measure probably to cut back the wheat production, however on national level we tend to predict a healthy wheat crop”, the officers aforementioned.

“In Rabi season we’ve got 2 major crops wheat and gram, wheat production is probably going to cross twenty five million tons if atmospheric condition stay favourable, whereas gram production is anticipated to be 550,000 tons this year against set target of 600,000 tons” he added . Gram is especially cultivated in Bhakkar, Layyah, Khushab and Mianwali districts, whereas wheat is being cultivated across the country tho’ geographical region is that the major wheat manufacturing province, followed by Sind and KPK.

“Pakistan wants around 900,000 loads of gram to feed its population on low-cost macromolecule, however the country is at the present manufacturing solely 550,000 loads of gram. within the past, Asian nation was manufacturing nearly 800,000 loads of gram pulse. Even in worst-weather years, the gram production was ne’er less than 5 maunds per acre. sadly throughout the past few years it absolutely was solely two.5 maunds per acre. however and why did the yield call in over seventy % at intervals a matter of few years nobody knows”, Abraham Mughal Chairman Agri-Forum Asian nation aforementioned.

Mughal aforementioned the case could improve slightly if water and fertiliser handiness improves adding that at the present a bag of carbamide is obtainable at Rs one,900 to Rs two,000, that 3 years back was obtainable at Rs 800 per bag. the assembly value of various crops has increased  manifold throughout past few years and farmers square measure unable to buy necessary inputs to extend yield. Farmers have planted wheat over a locality of very little over eight.5 million hectares this year, down from nine.13 million hectares last year once the country created a bumper crop of regarding twenty three.8 million loads of wheat, Mughal aforementioned.

Source: Business Recorder 

Agriculture sector opposes granting NDMA/MFN status to India

The Agriculture Task Force (ATF) of Pakistan-India Joint Business Forum (PIJBF) is vehemently opposition granting Non-Discriminatory Market Access/Most Favoured Nation (NDMA/MFN) to Asian country at this stage.

Agriculture sector opposes granting NDMA MFN status to IndiaPresident, Farmers Associates West Pakistan (FAP) and Co-Chair of Agriculture Task force, PIJBF, Tariq Bucha in an exceedingly letter sent to the federal commerce minister has highlighted that agriculture sector, that is far and away the largest leader within the country, flatly opposes granting NDMA/MFN to Asian country until correct preparations are completed on our facet to guard our sectors from huge Indian subsidies, and find important market access from Asian country for Pakistani merchandise, to make sure the amount enjoying field as per the need ordered down within the cupboard call of bissextile day, 2012.

Unnecessary haste with that the govt of West Pakistan is continuing to open Wagah border and to over 137 things before Asian country lowers its agriculture tariffs and removes every kind of Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) and healthful and Phyto healthful (SPS) barriers that are undermining our negotiating leverage and position. “For Agriculture turn out and product, Wagah route can’t be opened any longer, till a separate bilateral agri-trade agreement is negotiated involving stakeholders together with FAP, and is finalised and signed, supported associate impartial and freelance study for that purpose,” he said.

Moreover, he said, SAFTA doesn’t apply absolutely to the complexities concerned underneath the World Trade Organization regime with relevance agriculture. it’s a 15-page agreement with incomplete annexes, and needs important and severe redefining, restructuring and amendments with careful neutral input and approval, just in case it contemplates agri trade between the countries owing to huge current and future subsidies given to agriculture in Asian country that ar an indicator of unfair trade.

Nowhere will the SAFTA agreement need West Pakistan to terminate its sensitive list in 5 years. “Pakistan’s agriculture sector vehemently opposes any longer phasing out of agricultural things from the sensitive list. we’ve got scan the SAFTA Agreement rigorously, and apprehend that there’s no such categorical demand. Any reductions created on the sensitive list ar discretionary, and despite the fact that a review of the list is needed each four years, a ‘review’ doesn’t need a discount in it,” he declared.

Within the ASEAN regime, that may be a way more sturdy FTA than SAFTA, as an example, there ar things that stay for good on a “highly sensitive list”, he said, adding that any representatives of the govt of West Pakistan United Nations agency agrees to needless reductions of the sensitive list should apprehend that they’d be doing therefore with none legal demand, and would be violating the principle of keeping tier enjoying field that was set down within the aforesaid cupboard call, within the wake of the big subsidies given by the Indian government.

He steered that to effectively counter the big subsidies on agriculture before gap Wagha and granting NDMA/MFN to Asian country, the govt of West Pakistan should initial place in situ tariff rate quotas per crop that equal the grant given to every crop on the Indian facet, to make sure tier enjoying field. “The on top of steps should be verified by FAP, representing the agri-sector. Once that’s done, we tend to may move forward on negotiating a separate agri-trade agreement for bilateral trade with Asian country,” he added.

It has been discovered within the letter that granting NDMA means Wagah ought to still be closed to all or any Indian merchandise, as a result of no different country’s merchandise comes through Wahga. “Therefore, if all merchandise are restricted from Wagah, that might accommodates Non-Discriminatory Market Access. By granting Wagah access to over 137 Asian countryn merchandise would quantity to granting India even additional favourable terms than needed by a grant of NDMA/MFN. Granting Wagah access to over the present agriculture things can considerably weaken Pakistan’s economy, and already beleaguered agriculture sector,” he said.

Tariq declared that Congress Party is probably going to lose within the coming elections in {india|India|Republic of Asian country|Bharat|Asian country|Asian nation} thus the agriculture sector powerfully opposes granting NDMA/MFN to India notably once the new Indian government is merely few months away and will lift any concessions that ar given to West Pakistan by the outgoing Congress government. ‘At this juncture, National Tariff Commission (NTC) doesn’t nevertheless have the capability or provisions to effectively counter unfair trade practices like the anticipated selling and significant subsidisation of agricultural merchandise by the Indian facet,’ he said.

Before giving any longer trade concessions to the Indian facet, he same the Ministry of Commerce should demonstrate that the NTC has the power, capability and therefore the powers to effectively defend Pakistan’s agriculture from the anticipated onslaught of unfair Indian trade practices of selling and significant subsidization. “Since 2011, the Ministry of Commerce has acknowledged that the NTC lacks such capability, and nevertheless the NTC has not visibly improved. The Ministry of Commerce thus cannot in sensible conscience open Wagah or to over 137 things before it may build a strong NTC’.

Concluding Tariq same, though the agriculture sector isn’t loth to trade with Asian country in an exceedingly structured, phased and effectively negotiated agreement, we tend to feel that the govt of West Pakistan has so far did not improve the capability of its establishments or place in provisions to afford required protection to its domestic sectors, to assist survive the anticipated onslaught of Indian agricultural turn out and product. ‘Thus, till such time that the govt of West Pakistan demonstrates that it’s serious concerning safeguarding Pakistan’s domestic agriculture from unfair competition, we’ll oppose any move for granting NDMA/MFN and additional gap of Wagah’.

Source Business Recorder 

Is your organic produce really pesticide-free?

The unimaginable success and sustained growth of the organic movement over the past many decades has LED to several positive changes for the overall food offer, that embrace the enhanced convenience of unpolluted food. however there’s a standard misperception among several within the natural health community that every one organic food, and significantly all organic manufacture, is adult mistreatment fully no pesticides, herbicides, or different external inputs.

In truth, some organic foods square measure, indeed, adult with chemical inputs, which can return as a surprise to some. however the great news is that these inputs aren’t constant because the inputs used on standard manufacture, and don’t contain any artificial ingredients. In most cases, natural and organic pesticides square measure developed fully from plant and herb parts, and truly promote the health of each plants and soil.

Is your organic produce really pesticide-freeDepending on the dimensions, scope, and focus of a specific organic farm, variable cultivations standards will be de jure utilized and still be thought-about organic. Small-scale, family-operated biodynamic organic farms, as an example, is also ready to with success grow all their manufacture mistreatment fully no chemical interventions any, whereas larger-scale organic farms may have to use bound chemical solutions to their crops in accordance with the official organic standards established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

“Organically created fruits and vegetables square measure adult in an setting absent of artificial chemicals, yes, however the notion that they are adult while not chemicals in the slightest degree is fake,” explains Doug Smith from ElephantJournal.com regarding the difficulty. “The reality is, most state laws enable organic farmers to spray an entire gamut of chemical sprays, powders and pellets on their organic crops. That is, if they’re ‘organic’ or natural chemical sprays, powders and pellets.”

Some organic inputs could have questionable safety records, say some
Are these approved-for-organic growing chemicals safe? affirmative, however presumably no, in step with some. because it seems, bound natural pesticides and pesticides like rotenone-pyrethrin, as an example, or Spinosad, is also probably harmful to humans. the previous was joined in a very 2011 study printed within the journal Environmental Health views to probably inflicting brain disease, whereas the latter is claimed to be extremely cyanogenetic to insects and fish.

Sure, not all organic crops square measure adult mistreatment these chemicals — several organic growers, in fact, really do use solely all-natural cultivation ways that cause no risks to human health. however some organic crops, as well as some types of organic lettuce, have allegedly tested considerably higher certainly organic-approved pesticides and herbicides than their standard counterparts have for rather more harmful artificial pesticides and herbicides.

What will this mean for you and your family? whereas the goal here isn’t to tarnish the organic label in any means — organic certification is presently the most effective and most trustworthy system we’ve for regulation the assembly and sale of unpolluted, chemical-free food — it’s vital that readers bear in mind of the very fact that chemicals square measure still generally used on organic foods. Natural News readers can recall that we have a tendency to self-addressed this issue recently because it pertains to organic apples, a number of that square measure de jure sprayed with antibiotics to shield against leaf blight.

At constant time, organic growers WHO are within the business for years insist that even if bound organic growing chemicals is also used on some organic crops, the follow is safer and much superior to traditional growing ways. One organic farmer, commenting on Smith’s assessment of the difficulty, states: “I’ve ne’er place something on my crops that i could not eat,” and goes on to elucidate that his ways square measure a lot of safer for the earth and other people “than what I did before i used to be organic.” and plenty of others within the field echo this sentiment.

Sources for this article include:
http://www.elephantjournal.com
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110214115442.htm
http://www.naturalnews.com

Canadian government to review 23 pesticides banned in Europe

Have any plan of what percentage chemicals are introduced into our environments since WWII? A half-decade agone, the count* was over eighty,000. Some square measure used for large atomic number 47, some square measure in medicines and processed foods, toys and home items, and a few of them square measure within the air and water.

Industrial chemicals, most of that square measure barely tested by the those that build them, square measure omnipresent. Most toxicities square measure typically not complete till huge adverse health reports square measure created. we are the guinea pigs, the canaries within the mine for the chemical firms that lie all the thanks to the bank.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), what is left of it, is short-handed and engulfed by the constant barrage of freshly factory-made chemicals. they don’t seem to be nonetheless held with the older chemicals that are in industrial use for many years. The higher management positions at the Food and Drug Administration, executive department and Environmental Protection Agency square measure corrupted by business lobbyists and former business insiders WHO make the most of the revolving door system that promotes favoritism at the upper levels of business and government.

Canadian government to review 23 pesticides banned in EuropeHere’s a “legal” trick that chemical firms use to cover their products’ toxicity. restrictive agencies solely look into the active ingredients of pesticides and herbicides. however there square measure different chemicals in a very product that square measure meant to spice up the active ingredient. the precise formulas square measure withheld as proprietary trade secrets. The Uniform Trade Secrets Act supports this secrecy while not reference to health or ecological implications. company profits trump public welfare de jure.

For example, Monsanto’s Roundup contains glyphosate as its active ingredient, thus that is all that gets tested. Since it’s in many herbicides already, Roundup gets rubber-stamp approval while not reference to the key “inert” merchandise that are literally adjuvants.

However, there has been another polemic study by the parents that brought US those rats with gross tumors when their long-run exposure to GMO corn and Roundup.

Seralini and also the boys within the research lab analyzed all the inert ingredients of 9 major chemicals and discovered that each one however one pesticide contained inert ingredients additional harmful than their active ingredients. Roundup was the worst.

Sometimes it is the natural action of these ingredients combined, and generally it’s one or 2 alone which will be worse than the active ingredients. (GM Watch, supply below)

Canadian activists push for investigation of pesticides and herbicides employed in Canada
In August of 2013, Ecojustice filed four lawsuits strict that Health Canada examine twenty nine pesticides illegal in Europe. Canadian federal law mandates that any pesticides or herbicides illegal by even one nation of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development should be evaluated for safety in Canada.

At first, the tormenter Management administrative unit (PMRA) of Canada refused. then again attorneys for Ecojustice started taking part in hardball with lawsuits strict the administrative unit to fits federal law. therefore the agency united to review twenty three of the twenty nine chemicals, one amongst that could be a common weed killer anonymous  within the supply article, in all probability Roundup.

Four of the remaining six chemicals still have restricted use in Europe, and 2 don’t seem to be employed in Canada. therefore the six chosen to not be reviewed stands with each side in agreement. Consequently, the PMRA requested that Ecojustice drop its proceedings, considering it superfluous and unwarranted in light-weight of their plans to review those twenty three chemicals.

Source: Natural News

Grow your own pharmaceuticals

It’s very straightforward to grow powerful medicines which will lower your sterol, shield your heart, scale back your risk of upset, enhance system perform, and shield you from polygenic disease and lots of different chronic diseases. each plant could be a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant provided naturally. It’s sort of a multi-million dollar pharmaceutical laboratory that takes raw materials and converts them into healing medicines. It will this freed from charge, while not asking something back from you aside from a bit little bit of care, some water, and a few daylight.
If you’re thinking that regarding however plants operate, they are quite exceptional producing engines. They take nutrients out of the soil, greenhouse gas out of the air, water, and photons from daylight. Then, through a fancy system of metabolism and chemical change, plants manage to convert those components into healing phytonutrients, together with vitamins, enzymes, wholesome oils, fiber, proteins, and sophisticated carbohydrates. and they turn out all of those fantastic phytochemicals that we’re currently learning additional regarding in terms of preventing, and even reversing, chronic diseases like cancer.

Plants offer you an additional factor, too: the energy of life. this can be another variety of nutrition, that I decision “vibrational nutrition.” It’s one thing that you simply cannot get from synthesized pills or factory-made foods. you’ll be able to solely dig from plants, as a result of it’s to try and do with the energy of living, respiration organisms.

grow your own pharmaceuticalsFor nearly each chronic unwellness, there’s a plant which will treat it. area unit you battling cancer? Grow yourself some garlic, onions, and broccoli. area unit you battling high cholesterol? Grow and eat some blueberries. area unit you littered with macular degeneration? you’ll be able to grow a good form of berries. If you are within the right climate, you’ll be able to grow nut trees that offer wholesome oils right off the tree. In fact, despite what style of climate you are in, there area unit plants as healing drugs which will be grownup in your region, whether or not you are within the nice white north, or the jungles of Central America. whether or not you are in a very dry desert climate, the plains, forest, rainforest, swampland, the icy north, the mountain range, or the Smoky Mountains, there area unit plants you’ll be able to grow which will facilitate heal you.

This is one in every of the most areas of analysis on that i am focusing without delay. i am performing on finding new ways in which for individuals to additional simply grow plants that have a healing potential. i might wish to share with you what I’ve learned to date, so invite you to remain up-to-date, as a result of there is a ton additional sensible info coming near this subject. One goal I actually have is to make or promote some type of device which will perform as a home pharmaceutical manufacturing plant, with which individuals will plant seeds and primarily get pleasure from a inactive operation that grows these plants while not requiring a lot of effort on their half.

It’s quite silly to pay $100 per pill to a pharma once you will grow more practical and safer prescribed drugs right in your own residence, balcony, or curtilage. In fact, the word “pharmaceutical” suggests that “plant drugs.” The word “pharma” has identical root utilized in the word “farming,” after all. therefore medicines extremely do have their origins in plants. It’s solely through the atrocious politics of pharmaceutical corporations these days that folks have forgotten the plant origins of drugs. What i am hoping to try and do is assist you come back to to the plants, as a result of the plants have the healing characteristics that we want.

For widespread adoption, we want one thing that works while not soil. Soil works nice for the outside, however if you actually desire a system that works for people that do not have yards, soil is clearly not the thanks to go. There area unit currently plant growing technologies accessible that grow plants much more with efficiency with much better yields than with soil. they are not essentially new, though there area unit some new technologies rising in these fields. i am talking regarding tank farming and aeroponics. tank farming has been around for quite an whereas. it’s the growing of plants in nutrient solutions that haven’t any soil. Basically, you are exposing the plant roots to liquids containing the nutrients required to grow. this can be achieved through Associate in Nursing ebb-and-flow agriculture system, or another agriculture configuration.

You may be shocked to be told that you simply will grow plants while not soil. the fact is that the soil is simply a medium that holds nutrients for the plants. therefore if you get obviate the soil, however still offer the nutrients to the plant roots, they are going to be simply fine. In fact, you’ll be able to increase yields through this method versus growing them in soil. I’ve done this myself in several experiments, within which I’ve planted identical plants in soil vs. a agriculture system. I actually have found a lot of quicker growth and bigger yields in a very agriculture system. agriculture systems do need electricity, and that they take some effort to be told the way to operate properly. however they will be terribly profitable. they are additionally much more moveable than growing plants in soil, as a result of it’s easier to maneuver a receptacle, a timer, and a pump than it’s to maneuver four hundred lbs of soil.

If you would like to spice up yields on the far side those achieved by agriculture systems, a stronger system to use is Associate in Nursing aeroponic system. this can be what you see at the Epcot Center in American state, wherever agriculture scientists area unit victimisation this technology to grow vertical stands of plants. They basically spray the roots with a nutrient resolution on regular intervals.

Spraying the roots of a plant each quarter-hour with this nutrient resolution has benefits over the agriculture approach, as a result of you are able to make even additional expanse between the nutrients in your liquids and also the roots of the plant. In my expertise, Associate in Nursing aeroponic system produces considerably bigger yields than the agriculture system. If you’re thinking that regarding what is chargeable for that increase, you understand that it is the bigger expanse of the smaller droplets of water being sprayed on the roots.

You can purchase home-built aeroponic systems on the web. None of them area unit extremely elegant, however they work, and that they do turn out outstanding plant yields. Right now, i am growing tomatoes, peppers, zucchini, herbs, strawberries and even watermelons on aeroponic systems. Plant growth is extremely aggressive, though i’m having some challenges obtaining the tomato plants to fruit (it’s in all probability simply a nutrient oversight on my half, thanks to my relative ignorance in plant chemistry).

When i am able to retire these plants for the season, i am going to snap some photos of the foundation mass to indicate y
ou simply however effectively aeroponic growth systems are often. you will be completely astonied at however quickly and sharply these plant root networks will grow.

The bottom line here is that i feel home-grown plants area unit aiming to create an enormous comeback within the years ahead, and we’re aiming to see nutrient-rich styles of plants (like red carrots with lycopene) that treat and forestall chronic unwellness, in addition to new technologies that permit hands-free cultivation of healing plants. After all, World Health Organization has to build a $100 million drug manufacturing plant once nature will manufacture all the medication you wish for the value of one or two of seeds? I say, let nature build the medicines.

IDA may give $160 million for rehabilitation of barrages in Sindh

International Development Association (IDA) can possible provide to produce $160 million for Sindh Barrages Improvement Phase-I Project to safeguard the reliable supply of water to regarding a million hectares through the rehabilitation of the Guddu barrage and therefore the improvement of O&M capability of the Irrigation and Power Department.
$160 million for rehabilitation of barrages in SindhAccording to IBRD report, Pakistan’s agricultural sector is sort of altogether enthusiastic about irrigation. Irrigated land provides over ninety p.c of agricultural production. Agriculture in most areas isn’t doable while not irrigation as a result of the climate of Asian country.
Annual rain over abundant of the realm isn’t over 150mm each year with high evaporation rate, starting from one,250mm to 2,800mm each year. Given temperature change and high increase rates, current varieties of water resources management square measure wide recognised as being unsustainable and inadequate to confirm future water convenience for food security, economic process, and therefore the wants of the setting, report mentioned. IBRD report mentioned that the barrages square measure strategic hydraulic assets.
Barrages square measure wont to raise the water level within the watercourse in order that irrigation water is amused to the most and link canals by gravity for varied uses. Barrages also are used for watercourse management and flood management, act as a supply of water system for all sectors of the economy, perform as bridges over rivers, and square measure usually used for utility crossings like gas pipelines. Therefore, the condition and therefore the safe and reliable operation of a barrage have extensive implications for the resource and economic process of all sectors of society. Guddu barrage has major issues of safety. The other, Sukkur barrage, is one in every of the oldest and serves regarding 3 million area unit of agricultural land. It conjointly has many issues of safety. The Kotri barrage was restored in 2000.

Olive Cultivation-Bringing Peace to FATA

Olive Plantation Initiatives

45% land of FATA is suitable for olive cultivation

(GIS study conducted by IOA and PODB)

Most suitable areas includes

–Bajaur 79,899 ha (53.4 %)

–Mohmand 75,167 ha (34.2 %)

–Kurram 93,676 ha (19.1 %)

–SWA 37,134 ha (6.4 %)

–NWA 51,319 ha (15.3 %)

Olive Cultivation-Bringing Peace to FATAWhy Olive Plantation

• Plant of Marginal land

• Minimum land preparation cost

• Minimum inputs cost

• High rate of return

• Simple value addition

• Wide range of products

• Fruit bearing life >900 years

• Suitable for many areas

• Can reduce import bill

• Great export potential

Issues/challenges

• Sustenance of farmers

• Security concerns in FATA

• Farmers education & training

• Limited saplings available

• Infrastructure (road, market)

• Water scarcity

Implementation Strategy

• Implementation to start from FR/closer to settled areas

• Ownership of Politicians, PAs, Maliks and Notables

• Selection of areas with irrigation resources

• Sustenance of poor growers

• Free distribution of saplings

• Monitoring through satellite imagery/third party audit

• Training of farmers

• Small oil extraction units to be developed by ABEI, PARC

Benefits

• Environmental improvement

• Marginal land utilization

• Development of village entrepreneurship

• Employment generation

• Livelihood improvement

• Export potential

Source: Presentation highlight taken from Pakistan Agriculture Research Council Website for original Presentation Click Here

Moong growers advised sowing

Punjab Agriculture Department (PAD) has advised the growers of spring plantation of ‘Moong’ crop to complete their sowing during the first 15 days of March as these days considered most suitable for this crop. A spokesman of the department said here on Wednesday that Moong can be sown both in irrigated and rain fed areas with equal success and less pest attack is registered on spring crop of Moong as compared to Kharif. moong-growers-advised-sowingThe spokesman said that NIAB Moong-2006, NIAB Moong-2011 and AZRI Moong-2006 should be sown in irrigated areas while Chakwal-6 should be sown in Barani areas.

Source: Business Recorder

Growers urged to complete sunflower sowing

Punjab Agriculture Department (PAD) has warned the growers to immediately complete sunflower sowing as further delay will result in lower per acre yield. A spokesman of the Department said here on Monday that best time for spring plantation of sunflower in Southern Punjab including Multan, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan Division is till February 10. Growers urged to complete sunflower sowingWhile in Sahiwal, Faisalabad and Sargodha Division best time for sowing is till February 15 and for Lahore, Gujranwala and Rawalpindi Division the suitable time is till end of February. He further stated that the growers should adopt latest technology to get maximum per acre production.

Source: Business Recorder

What is Ebb and Flow Hydroponics and How Does it Work?

What is Ebb and Flow Hydroponics and How Does it WorkEbb and flow hydroponics is a method of growing plants hydroponically that is known for its reliability, simplicity of operation and low cost of investment. Pots or a flood tray are filled with a grow media such as gravel, clay pellets, lava rock etc. These do not function like soil or add nutrition to the plants but will anchor the roots and will function as a temporary reserve of water and nutrients. The hydroponic solution floods the system four to six times a day and is allowed to drain away in between flood cycles.
With this system a water tight flood tray or pot, containing either clean gravel, clay pellets or lava rock is used as the rooting medium. The system is then periodically flooded for short periods of time (5 to 15 minutes) with a nutrient solution pumped from a reservoir. By placing the reservoir below the flood tray, with a over flow drain, the nutrient solution can drain back by gravity through the pump with the same line that supplied the water and nutrients during the flood cycle. Our favorite media is lava rock with this type of system. Lava rock drains quickly and traps air and will not leave a clay residue if using clay pellets, which can clog the water pump after time.

Aeration of an ebb and flood system is one of the most important things of the system. Let me explain, when the system floods it is in a deep water culture mode. Your reservoir may contain an air delivery system such as a air stone to keep the water saturated with oxygen and eliminate a pathogen problem. During the flood cycle the oxygenated air is pumped into the tray or bucket for 5 to 15 minutes. During this 5 to 15 minute period there is no additional air and oxygen being supplied to the tray or bucket. So even though you are now in deep water culture mode your plants are not receiving the amount of air and oxygen as if they were in a deep water culture system. The reason why is a deep water culture system has air constantly pumped into the reservoir 24 hours a day in which the roots are submerged. During the ebb cycle, or draining of the tray or bucket, air is now pulled down into the grow media supplying oxygen to the plants. At this point until the next flood cycle the roots again are being deprived of fresh air and oxygen.

Drawbacks to Ebb and flood hydroponic systems:
1. Pathogens in reservoir, flood tray or pot due to stagnated water during drain time which can contaminate the entire system due to the shared water source.
2. Limited amount of oxygen available during flooding of tray or pot.
3. Limited amount of oxygen available while in the ebb or drain stage.

Is there a solution to the problem above?  Ebb and flow hydroponic system to help eliminate the problems above. By adding Air Injection Technology at the very bottom of the media in your current flood tray or pot you will eliminate the drawbacks to a ebb and flood hydroponic system. You will also increase the plants growth rate and have healthier plants. 1. Pathogens in the flood tray or pot are eliminated because there is a constant supply of oxygen 24 hours a day weather in the flood stage or drain stage. 2. Constant supply of oxygen during the flood stage just like true deep water culture. 3. During the ebb or drain stage there is constant air being delivered to the plants roots 24 hours a day weather in the flood or drain stage. This will bring your current Ebb and flow hydroponics system up to date and will allow you to take full advantage of your ebb and flood hydroponics system at minimal cost.