Quinoa- Mom of all grains

Quinoa “the super nourishment” is accepted to be the most nutritious sustenance grain of the world.

About 3,000 to 4,000 years ago, Andean peoples were cultivating quinoa as a staple food. That is why it is supposed as native to Andean also considered it as “mom of all grains”, and it became the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season the usage of “golden implements”. Mujahid Ali*, M. Modassar Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain*
*Horticulture, UOS; **Food Science and Nutrition, UOS


Quinoa “the super nourishment” is accepted to be the most nutritious sustenance grain of the world. It has a place with the family Amaranthaceae its subfamily is chenopodiodieae. It is a dicot plant and is generally 1-2 meters high. The leaves of this plant are expansive having pubescent, smooth to lobed and are on the other hand organized. Surrenders have relatively over to 43 teeth on their edges and in these edges, little granules are shaped giving the appearance as the leaves edges are secured by the sand. These granules hold a little measure of water in them because of which it makes the earth much sticky, so the plant does not have to breathe so much henceforth less water misfortune exhaustive breath when contrasted with different harvests. The stem of the plant is woody and changes in shading that might be red, purple or green. The stem might be either expanded or unbranched. Panicles might be available on the leader of the plant or may arise out of the axils on the stem. A few branches rise out of the principle hub of the panicle which may additionally branch, or sub extended to give the panicle shape. The blossoms are cross-sexual and are self-preparing. Seed is just two millimeters in estimate differing in shading from white to red yet at some point, dark shading seeds are additionally watched.

During the Spanish conquest of South, the united states, the colonists scorned it as “food for Indians” and suppressed its cultivation, because of its repute within indigenous non-secular ceremonies. The conquistadors forbade quinoa cultivation at one factor, and the Incas were forced to develop wheat alternatively

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) has emerged a sophisticated crop in Pakistan. It belongs to own family Amaranthaceae sub circle of relative’s Chenopodiaceae. Its crop peak is set 1-2 meter. It’s been delivered in Pakistan in 2008 with the help of USDA. Its miles originated inside the Andean location of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, and Chile and became domesticated 3,000 to 4,000, years in the past, for human consumption. The crop yield in the Andean vicinity is three t/ha to five t/h. The meals and Agriculture enterprise of the united country declared 2013 to be the worldwide yr of quinoa. It’s far considered as an awesome food because of its important nutritional profile. If we look at its dietary profile it contains 64% carbohydrate and 13% water. It also consists of an excessive quantity of protein which is nearly 17 to 21 percent as compared to rice and wheat which comprise 3% and thirteen%, respectively. Its miles believed that this protein is superior in excellent as evaluate to soybean, wheat, and barley. It includes soluble fibers this is why it’s far a detoxifying agent and do away with wastes from the frame. It has also a good aggregate of amino acids like lysine and Sulphur and has a most suitable level of omega three omega 6 and omega nine. Further, it also incorporates calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus manganese and nutrition A and E are all requirements of man or women.

The most important characteristic of this crop is that it’s far a halophyte and without difficulty develop in saline soil. As we understand 1/3rd of our land is salt-affected so it may be much essential for Pakistan. It also drought tolerant and effortlessly survives below accelerated temperature. It has low input/nutrient requirement for complete crop and simplest want 3 to four irrigations. It’s far climate resilient crop. It has the capability to grow under marginal land and has a capability to grow underneath low rainfall areas, it can also grow in high altitude areas of Pakistan like Hunza valley and Chillas. It’s far greater low-priced to develop due to its high demand in developed international locations.

Happily, this crop acclimatizes to conditions of Pakistan and its developing season is oct-march. Considering that its creation, its manufacturing is increasing daily. The plant can grow at a relative humidity from forty-four to 88 percentage and soil pH tiers from 6 to eight.5. It can tolerate temperature stages from -four to 380C.The most reliable temperature for it is 12 to 20c. Initially, it changed into grown in areas of Faisalabad, Chakwal and Sheikhupura, Haripur, and Hazara, at that point its 1kg seed rate became 3000 rupees. Now extra than a hundred acres is under cultivation of this crop and currently, a fee of 1kg seed is 600 rupees. Now Pakistan is exporting its seed. From an unmarried panicle, we are able to get two hundred grams of seed, so it can emerge as a relatively valuable crop in Pakistan because it generates greater earnings than some other cash crop.

It has over a hundred and twenty coloration verities, however red, white and black are greater common. Apart from coloration all verities are very similar and may be used in the identical recipes. Nutritional variations are minuscule.

It has many fitness advantages. Its grain may be grounded to make the floor. Grains used for making food, biscuit, bread, sauces, pasta, cakes and juices. In European international locations, it’s also popped much like popcorn. Saponins found in a plant is used for making detergent, shampoo, beer, toothpaste pesticides and antibiotics.it may additionally be used in making various sorts of salads.it may additionally be used in nearby sweet dishes like halva and kheer rather of wheat and rice.

It’s also called as pseudo-cereal because it is used as an alternate of cereal and replace wheat in addition to rice. It’s also gluten-free so may be a substitute for wheat. it is additionally useful throughout pregnancy. Due to its extra business reputation, it far wants of the hour to growth its cultivation for the financial stability of use. As we recognize world population is increasing daily. So, to satisfy the demands of growing population we’d develop better genotypes. For this reason, plant breeders might pay it under consideration to develop better genotypes having a high yield to deal with food protection.

Lately, the genome of quinoa was translated in 2017 by a researcher in Saudi Arabia. So, it’s a large breakthrough for present-day researchers to realize more about it the usage of new techniques and information. Initial yield trials have already been beginning at university Agriculture Faisalabad and Barani Institute Chakwal for its acclimatization.

I suggest it need to be paid extra interest with the aid of our scientist in order that we can conquer meals shortage and earn foreign exchange through its export. The government needs to begin undertaking for its attention by utilizing extension branch. It must be delivered in our weight loss plan because it’s far extraordinarily nutritive and beneficial food.

As to climatic condition required it is an exceptionally flighty plant which can develop and deliver monetary yield in inconsistent climatic conditions. It has been adjusted to various climatic zones. The plant can grow at the relative mugginess from 44%-88% and can endure temperature ranges from – 4-380C yet the ideal temperature at which it can create greatest is seething from 15 to 200C. It is a water proficient plant and can develop in the low soil dampness. 100 to 200 mm of the precipitation is useful for getting of monetary yield. If there should be an occurrence of cool or low-temperature stretch it has been watched that the plant can endure the – 7.8 0 C of the temperature and still it can deliver the great yield. Along these lines, it is a plant which can be developed in numerous climatic conditions.

Quinoa is an exceptionally nutritious product plant covering every one of the fixings sugars, filaments, fats, proteins and minerals. Quinoa is the most reasonable product plant having greatest protein content alongside all the fundamental amino acids show in it. It is viewed as a perfect harvest plant because of the essence of 13.81 for each penny to 21.9 for each penny protein substance exhibit in it. It has likewise been discovered that the quinoa proteins are better in quality as thought about than the wheat, grain, and soybean. Quinoa is rich in lysine and sulfur though oat crops are deficient with regards to these amino acids in their proteins. Another imperative component of the quinoa is the nearness of high measure of the solvent filaments. Because of the essence of high strands, it is great detoxifying specialist which kill the losses of the body and give the condition of completion and stays in the stomach for quite a while. Quinoa has a mineral profile containing calcium, magnesium, press, potassium, phosphorous, zinc, manganese and a few hints of copper and lithium. It contains vitamin A, E, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin and ascorbic corrosive which are all the necessity of the individual.

Regarding industrialization of the plant, it is utilized for making different items and by items. The saponin introduces in the plant is utilized for the making of lager, cleanser, cleanser, toothpaste, pesticides and anti-infection agents. The pearl grain some portion of the seed is utilized for influencing grain to the floor, bread, scones, dumplings, sauces, pasta, treats, desserts, and cakes. It is likewise utilized for making some other valuable items like beverages, soups, yogurt, and purees. A few results including snacks and puffed quinoa could likewise be produced using it. Kancolla is the sweet assortment of quinoa which is utilized as nourishment edits simply like wheat and rice. Quinoa is additionally named as pseudo oat. The year 2013 has been viewed as the worldwide year of quinoa by doing every one of these exercises. Researchers and governments are endeavoring to make mindfulness among the general population about this notable plant.

The need of immense importance is that we need such plants which could furnish us better nourishment alongside the sustenance security and better creation of atmosphere evolving situation. As the quinoa plant is tolerant to dry spell, saltiness and other abiotic stresses I figure its potential ought to be investigated in Pakistan. It could be effectively developed on uneven territories of Pakistan and in the watered grounds. Endeavors have just been begun in the University of Agriculture Faisalabad for its acclimatization and its potential should be investigated more. Plant reproducers should focus towards this plant and enhance its nourishing quality and in addition, its yield characters ought to likewise be made strides. The sapiens are available in the seed which is nutritiously unwanted fixation ought to be played in enhancing the nature of the plant for its monetary development and commercialization.

Quinoa is tolerant to certain abiotic stretch and nutritiously a decent plant, so I propose that it must be focused by our researchers, so we can beat the nourishment lack alongside nature inviting farming.

Pre- and Postharvest Factors Affecting Quality and Yield in Tomato

Tomato production in the world is nearly about 159 million tons

Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop in the world and also widely cultivated in Pakistan. It is a self-pollinated crop and has a chromosome number of (2n=2x=24). It is used both for culinary as well as industrial purposes. Usama Yousaf & Poonum Rana Author

It has high nutritional value specifically vitamin A and C and relishing flavor. Tomato production in the world is nearly about 159 million tons and one fourth of this is processed for the industry, hence it becomes the highest processing vegetable in the world. In Pakistan also, it is a very economical crop and tomato production in Pakistan during year 2011 was 530 thousand tons. Pakistan not only produce for its own needs but also exports tomato and earns the capital. In the year 2009-10 Pakistan exported 5692 tons of tomato and earned 77 million rupees. Source (agricultural statistics of Pakistan). On an average 42% of tomato fruit is wasted globally due to pre- and postharvest losses. The following study is to indicate the factors involved in these losses and how to prevent these losses.

 It is grown in almost all the areas that have dry and warm temperature because wetness during the monsoon season is very damaging. In similar way in December it is highly damaged by the frost so in these seasons tomato gives dwindling supplies of its produce and fetches exceptionally high price in market. So suitable range required for this is 21-25°C and it requires fertile to sandy loam soil for good performance.

Tomato has some main issues in its production, firstly it is targeted by (TMV & TYLCV) secondly it is damaged by the pathogens and early and late blights and one of the most important is lack of availability of hybrids produced locally. All these factors reduce yield to greater extent so there is need to sort and identify those factors that play a crucial role in enhancing the yield of tomato. There are some important physical factors that can influence the quality and yield in tomato.

Fertilizer Use:

Researchers have identified that nutrition of plant is controlling the quality of its produce. Adequate quantity of a specified fertilizer at a particular time has a specific role for specific desired traits, for example a good supply of potassium chloride in tomato ameliorates the color and reduces the occurrence of yellow shoulder in tomato. Yellow shoulder is an atrophy in tomato that is identified by discoloration in stem scar. Deficiency of potassium chloride can also cause ripening abnormalities. In the same way an increased nitrogen supply can negatively affect the tomatoes in green house. Beyond a threshold value of nitrogen reduces many quality parameters as decline in sugar contents, total soluble solids and reduced flavor. On the other hand, reduced quantity of nitrogenous fertilizer as ammonium chloride can give improved flavor. In addition to these trace elements such as boron also has impact on different traits. The function of calcium application has recently been reported. It has role in prevention of many diseases and also cause decline in fruit firmness during ripening. It has also seen that spraying some salts of calcium on leaves of tomato can reduce the chance of powdery mildew. It can also help in tackling bacterial wilt when present in high quantities.


Pruning has positive role in high yield because it reduces the competition between the flowers and fruits being developed. Pruning hence channelize the nutrients to fewer fruits which serves as sink and hence ameliorating the nutrition profile and fruit size of these clusters. Pruning clusters to three fruits is economically efficient and gives high marketable yield. However, pruning also affects other parameters of fruit development but that depends upon genotype of cultivar, fruit to leaf ratio, truss position and developmental stage of sink. Pruning increases the total soluble solids and the greater size of tomato which is in a specific size range gets higher demand and fetches more price.

Maturity Stage:

Tomato can be harvested at different stages as it is a climacteric fruit i.e. it continues ripening even after harvesting. The maturity stage is the descriptor of many traits related to quality. Tomato can be harvested at mature green, half ripen and mature red and each stage exhibits its own postharvest properties. Researchers have noticed that the shelf life of tomato is longest when it is harvested at green stage.

Cultivar Type:

The selection of cultivar to be used by grower is of prime importance. The choice of consumer should be priority and a cultivar having more number of desirable traits and long shelf life should be used. If poor cultivar used then low yield and quality resulting poor market acceptability. Cultivars have differences in color, size, flavor, texture and duration of storage. A tomato cultivar Roma VF seems to show higher sucrose content and lower weight loss in comparison to cultivar Marglobe.


Water is crucial for proper growth and development of plants. Tomato is not drought tolerant plant it needs to be irrigated regularly for good crop yield. Water scarcity being very important burning issue in agriculture so it is required to develop and promote cultivars that can tolerate or give bumper yield even in deficiency of water. Many growers have developed strategies to minimize the water stress and maintain the yield. According to Mitchell water deficiency reduced water accumulation in fruit and yield of fresh fruit but at the same time it increased total soluble solids. Ismail reported that irrigating in morning after three days gives good yield than daily irrigation.

Postharvest Quality maintaining factors:

After harvesting many activities are taking place in the fruit. The climacteric burst of ethylene induces senescence and ripening of fruits and proper release of ethylene is necessary for good quality of fruit and for this reason many practices are done that control the activity of ethylene and hence controlling the fruit ripening and quality. Following are important factors that determine quality of tomato fruit after harvesting.


Temperature plays key role in the maintenance of shelf life of tomato. If harvested fruit is kept at 20∘C then it is very effective in reducing all the metabolic activities involved in ripening and hence giving more time gap for handling the harvested produce. Generally, one-hour delay between harvesting and storing at cool temperature will lead to loss of shelf life to one day. In climacteric fruits rate of respiration and metabolic activities is related to environmental temperature. Higher temperature increases the respiration rate and metabolic activities resulting in increased CO2 production. High level of CO2 creates a stimulus for ethylene production and this ethylene in very little quantity can cause an enhancement in fruit ripening. Higher temperatures hence can lead to rapid degradation of quality of produce. Tomato can be stored at lower temperatures and quality parameters like Nutritional value, flavor, texture and aroma can be protected through cold storage. However, tomato being tropical fruit also damaged by very low temperatures. Temperature below 10°C can cause chilling injury in tomato. The signs of chilling injury include premature fruit softening, irregular color development, formation of pits, off flavor development, water soaked lesions, browning of seeds and high postharvest decay.

Relative Humidity:

The water loss from the fruit is dependent on the environmental humidity. At higher levels of humidity tomato fruit maintains fruit freshness, size, taste and appearance and reduction in humidity cause wilting, softening and juiciness occurs. Optimum relative humidity is 85-90%(v/v) for mature green tomatoes but very high levels to 100% are damaging. The storage of tomato in lower relative humidity cause higher moisture losses and result in shriveled fruits and very high moisture cause fungal and mold development.

Combination of Gases:

Different gases have different roles in fruit senescence and ripening and combination of gases can affect the storage life of fruits. The optimal combination for preventing senescence in tomato is 3-5%(v/v) O2,1-3% and 1-5% (v/v) for green and ripe fruit respectively for CO2 and 94-96%(v/v) of nitrogen is required. Carbon monoxide prevents the infestations of pathogens in fruit and also improves some quality traits. For instance, tomatoes stored in 5–10%(v/v) carbon monoxide with 4%(v/v) oxygen were found to have superior total soluble solids (TSS) and titratable acid (TA) profiles as compared to control samples stored in air. But use of these gases in fruit commodities is lethal for human health so it is avoided.

Calcium chloride application:

Calcium is present in many higher plants and in some plants its deficiency cause problems. In tomato calcium as a fertilizer gives very good yield. When applied after harvesting shows positive effect in ripening of many fruits and vegetables. Postharvest application of calcium chloride causes a reduction in respiration and ethylene and hence it delays senescence in tomato. External application maintains cell wall integrity and prevents from enzymatic degradation. The postharvest losses are also dependent on Physical handling of the produce, a rough handling has more losses than good and fine handling.

Amazing Health Benefits of Potato

Potato is 1st and foremost vegetable cultivated in the world.

Potato is 1st and foremost vegetable cultivated in the world. It is rich source of carbohydrates. It is staple food in most of the countries. Pakistan is a big producer of potato. Okara city is famous for its cultivation. On per acre basis it has more calories than wheat. Potatoes are chiefly made up of carbohydrates and contain small concentration of protein. Potatoes are beneficial for thin or lean peoples who wanted to put on weight. Laiba Saleem*, Fatima Sarwar*, Mujahid Ali**

 (*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Since potatoes prevalently consist of carbohydrates, due to which digestion process becomes easy. This attribute makes them a valid diet for babies or for those people by whom heavy food cannot be digested, but energy is needed. As you know “excess of anything is dangerous” So if one consumes many at regular basis, it can cause stomach problems like acidity. By consuming them secretion of gastric juice increases and peristaltic motion can be stimulated, through which process of digestion become easy and avert problems like constipation and prevent the body from colorectal cancer. Scouring cholesterol out of arteries and blood vessels is also connected with fiber. Other than that, the soft and moist material from potatoes when mixed with honey is used in making skin packs and beneficial for skin. This will help preventing pimples and spots on skin. Again, this soft material will be helpful, if applied to burns, provides quick relief and faster healing. Crushed potatoes and even the water in which potatoes are soaked or washed used for cleaning and skin softening, Specifically, around elbow. There are vitamins present in potatoes like calcium and magnesium, they prevent rheumatism. When potatoes are boiled, the water obtained from them is also very beneficial, it prevents the pain and inflammation in rheumatism. Potatoes are effective in minimizing external and internal inflammation. They are soft, easily digestible and have a lot of vitamin antioxidant capacity, they heal tissues. The inflammation in the intestine and stomach is prevented by potassium and vitamin B6. It is beneficial for those people who have mouth ulcers because they have good dietary element. These are also beneficial for those people who have arthritis and gout because potatoes have an anti-inflammatory effect. There are some types of potatoes especially, russet and red ones, contain flavonoid antioxidants and vitamin A in elevated level, like; zeaxanthin and carotenes, many types of cancers are prevented by them. Also, a study at the Agricultural Research has shown that potatoes have a compound called quercetin, this compound is anti-cancerous and anti-tumorous. Antioxidant properties are present in both vitamin A and C which is present in potatoes and prevent your body from destructive effects of cancer. High blood pressure is due to of many reasons that may include diet, diabetes, tension, non-digestion, nutrient balance and many more, for this several treatments are required. High blood pressure because of tension can be prevented by consumption of potatoes. Because of the abundance of vitamin and fiber, indigestion occur which can be treated by potatoes but if high blood pressure is because of diabetes, then they should not be used. For lowering cholesterol and better functioning of insulin in our body, the fiber present in them become helpful which helps in lowering the blood pressure. That’s why direct association existed between glucose level and blood pressure, glucose level in blood, is regulated by insulin. Glucose level, oxygen supply, several constituents of vitamin-B complex, several hormones, amino acids and fatty acids like omega-3 have a significant impact on complete functioning of brain. This becomes the hindrance towards fatigue and it maintain the cognitive ability and performance. Next oxygen is needed by brain, hemoglobin in blood carries the oxygen; the main constituent of hemoglobin is iron, and potatoes contain iron. So that the oxygen is also transferred to the brain. Elevated level of uric acid lead to kidney stones also called renal calculi. There is calcium and iron which leads to the formation of stones. High concentration of iron and calcium is present in potatoes, so reasonably they do not become a preventive measure for kidney stones, but magnesium is present in potatoes which prevent the accumulation of calcium in the tissues and kidney, therefore somehow, they are considered beneficial for preventing kidney problems. Potatoes have high energy components therefore good for diarrhea patients. They are highly digestible so can be utilized by patients of diarrhea as a diet.  However, don’t worry these health risks affect only a small part of the population. If a person become fine and healthy then a small concentration of fat is not bad or dangerous.

Medical Importance of Jamun Fruit

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines.

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines. It is famous for its cooling effect. It helps to treat diabetes mellitus, ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea. The compound is highly rich in compounds containing anthocyanin, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquecetin and myrecetin. Seeds of jamun contain an alkaloid, jambosin and glycoside jambolin or antimellin which helps to convert starch into sugar Ambreen Afzal*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Shahid Mahmood*
*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines. It is famous for its cooling effect. It helps to treat diabetes mellitus, ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea. The compound is highly rich in compounds containing anthocyanin, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquecetin and myrecetin. Seeds of jamun contain an alkaloid, jambosin and glycoside jambolin or antimellin which helps to convert starch into sugar.

Jamun has a sharp sweet or sour taste. The fruit is rich in nutrients and has several health benefits. Jamun is extremely good for diabetic patients because it has a low glycemic index. It not only prevents common diabetes symptoms like frequent thirst and urination but also keeps your blood sugar level in check.

Jamun juice is excellent for syrup and squash. Later in India, the bottled drink was prepared by cooking the crushed fruits for 10 to 20 minutes at 140-degree Fahrenheit. Then press out the juice, combining it with sugar and water and adding citric acid and Sodium benzoate as a preservative. Jamun of decent size and quality have a sweet and sub-acid flavor. It may be made into sauces and James.

Jamun has a rich an amount of nutrients, like calcium, iron, potassium, and vitamin C strengthens your bones and enhance the immune system of our body. Studies have proved that the fruits also help to increase the hemoglobin count. The two nutrients that are iron and vitamin C are also responsible for health benefit.

Potassium is another content which is present in high amount in jamun. A 100g serving of jamun contains 55 mg of K. people should face a deficiency of this beneficial ingredient if they eat an unhealthy diet and it may also lead to other heart diseases, high blood pressure and stroke. It is good to consume these foods like jamun and tomatoes which are not only rich in this ingredient but also contain many other nutrients which are beneficial for our health.

The leaves of jamun trees are also important. They are good for our digestive system and oral health. The leaves of jamun are also used in Ayurvedic medicines which are used to treat diarrhea and ulcers. They are used in medicines mainly due to its anti-bacterial properties. The jamun fruit, leaves, seeds, and bark are all used in Ayurvedic medicines.

The seeds of jamun are used as an effective acne treating agent. First, crush the jamun seeds and mix cow milk to it, then apply the paste before going to the bed, and wash it in the morning. Its regular application is helpful in curing and treating of acne.

Oily skin problems are also controlled by the mix of jamun pulp, barley flour, amla juice and rose water. Use this mixture as a face mask and wash when it gets dry. To control dark spots from your face the paste of jamun seed powder, lemon powder, gram flour, few drops of almond oil and rose water. and then apply it on your face and wash it when it dries off.

Jamun stimulates melanin which cures leukoderma; teeth related problems can be treated by drinking black jamun juice or by applying black plum juice. Jamun juice is also beneficial in treating of piles. Drinking of fresh fruit juice helps in cough and asthma. It protects us from cold, and acts of anti-aging agents

The fruits iron content acts as a blood purifying agent. people suffering from anemia and jaundice should eat jamun because of its high iron content. Jamun juice helps to improve the immune system of the body. Almost all parts of jamun can be used medicinally. In type 2 diabetes, jamun fruit is most often recognized as an adjuvant therapy.

Jamun vinegar, extensively made throughout India, is an attractive clear pulp, with peasant aroma and mild flavor. Brandy and distilled liquor called “Jambava “ have made from the fermented fruit.

Jamun fruit can also be used for the cure of cancer. Regularly use of jamun reduce the risk of cancer. Polyphenols, which are present in jamun fruit, fight against cancer cells in the body. Jamun fruit strengthens the bones and may prevent from osteoporosis and other calcium deficiency problems because of the presence of nutrients like calcium, iron, Vitamin C, and Potassium.

Jamun juice along with curd is good for digestive problems. Urinary disorders can also be treated with the help of bark of jamun tree which has antihelmintic properties. To cure urinary infections and urinary disorders, one glass of jambul juice with a half teaspoon of bark powder at daily basis is recommended. Tapeworm infection can also be cured by mixing bark powder with water. Jamun consumption for 2 to 4 months on regular basis helps in hemorrhoids problems significantly.


Grapes contain many important nutrients and dietary fiber that make them an excellent choice for the human diet.

“You don’t have to eat less. You just have to eat right. “Fruit is an essential part of our diet, that provide many nutrients that help the body to proper growth and maintenance of the body. A diet that is rich in fruits has reduced risk of the various condition include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Pakistan grapes are famous all over the world. Grapes are temperate fruit. Baluchistan is our major producer province quantity and quality attributes of grapes. “Sundar Khani” is a famous cultivar of grapes having a delicious taste. We must improve our storage conditions to improve its shelf life as it is highly perishable fruit. By Irfan Ali*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain**
*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS

Grapes contain many important nutrients and dietary fiber that make them an excellent choice for the human diet. The vitamins minerals and fiber in grapes make them a healthful way to satisfy a sweet tooth. Antioxidants also present in grapes that reduce the risk of many diseases in the body. Grapes contain many power-full antioxidants that called polyphenols. Polyphenol has anti-inflammatory and anti-Semitism properties. Restorative may be able to reduce, slow or down the growth of tumors in lymph, liver stomach, breast, colon, skin cancer, and leukemia. Another natural anti-inflammatory that present in grapes called flavonoid Quentin. Research has also proved that chemical also could slow or reduced the cancer growth.

Grapes also contain a great amount of potassium and search prove that a great amount of potassium amount has lower or negative effects on sodium level in the diet. Because sodium level in the amount maintains the blood pressure. In this grapes, intake maintains the sodium level balance so that blood pressure of human body is also kept in control. Fiber is considered an important part grape and for maintains a good cardiovascular system, including heart and blood pressure. Scientific study has proven that Quentin and restorative have reduced or hide the risk of atherosclerosis and protect against the nerve damage caused by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or “bad” cholesterol.

Red grapes contain many antibacterial and antiviral chemical properties. This secure the body from many infections. The antiviral properties of grapes are effective in treating and prevent-in poliovirus and herpes simplex virus.

Grapes are a rich source a high source of sugar, organic acid and polysemy, which together give the fruit it’s very important properties. If a person feels constipation, then he should have recognized to eat the grapes so that he feels relief from the irradiation condition that he felt. Grapes also rich in insoluble that promise the formation and excrete the stool.

Grapes and its seed contain proanthocyanins and moderator these both chemicals are powerful anti-oxidants. When the extract of grape is applying then this protect from harmful UV radiation. These radiations produced a very harmfull effect on the skin. This extract also acts as a sun block and stop the rays that emit from the sun and caused skin problem. This extract is also used in cosmetic products. In its extract, the vitamin E is present that It helps to moisture the skin. The seed extract also contains a chemical that called exfoliate that is used to remove the dead skin and provides a new and soft skin. Grape has the ability to reduce uric acid and eliminate it from the human body. So, in this way the pressure of kidney and keep the kidney healthy.

Grapes have also the ability to slow down the process of aging. But free radicals are the involved in the aging process and its lead the skin with wrinkle and fine lines on the skin. But the anti-oxidants are present with vitamin C that protect the skin from these free medical and radiations that are the main caused by the dead and aging skin. Skin tone is also filled with the grapes when the grapes are Sucre then these are filled.

Grapes contain a chemical called resveratrol to assist to remove extra material to remove from the body in this way the weight of the body is maintained. Resveratrol has also the ability to improve the growth of blood vessels dilation that allows the free movement of blood from the vessels and relaxes the vessels in this way the blood pressure is low. And heart remains in its normal condition. Grape seed oil has a non-greasy texture that does not lace any residue on the scalp, so the growth of hair is increased. And the condition of the dandruff is under control. That why seed oil is immensely popular in aromatherapy.

Grape is one of most important fruit crop in the world and it contains many most valuable elements that necessary for life. The food which contains vitamins, anti-oxidants that help the body to perform its normal functions. Doctors have also suggested to its patient to include the grape in your diet. The grape has health benefits like that skin care. maintain blood pressure, heart disease, improve vision, anti-aging effect, the power to weight loss, youthfulness, skin-softener, protect against sunburns, antibacterial activity, constipation, blood cholesterol, kidney disorders, asthma etc. It very helps to the above mention benefits it is highly recommended.

Nutritional Status of Mushrooms

Mushrooms are a very healthy vegetable and a vital food. Mushrooms are low in calories and also they are low in carbohydrates. But along this mushrooms are a good source of vitamins B, fiber protein, and even trace minerals. Mushrooms are also containing high levels of beta-glucans compounds that compounds keep immune cells and system alert and mushrooms are also an anti-inflammatory food.

 (Adeeba Ilyas*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Farzana Siddique*)

(*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS: **Horticulture, UOS)

It also contains a powerful antioxidant that helps in lowering body-wide inflammation called ergothioneine. In the Asian countries, it was a tradition to use mushrooms as medicine that goes thousand of the year-ago Mushroom are widely used nowadays in western hemisphere because mushrooms are vital, biologically active compounds with significant protective effects. According to research, many types of mushrooms contain a variety of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-viral abilities, it also contains a wide variety of bioactive compounds.

Mushrooms have many nutrition benefits including the ability to combat disease by providing important minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. It also has the ability to boost the immune system. Mushrooms also fight with free radical so they are called high anti-oxidant food. Its nutritional value also includes their ability to inhibit viruses and also to decrease the severity of illness, in those who are already sick. For example, some mushrooms increase production of B and T lymphocytes which are important immune cells that important immune cells that help to control our response to pathogens / harmful bacteria , toxin other harmful substances and viruses that can make us for the victim to the disease.

In china, 2000 mushrooms species are used in old and new traditional Chinese medicine practices and about 25 parent of those medicine practices are found to fight against harmful tumors effectively. Antioxidants are highly present in mushrooms like red and green peppers, tomato, pumpkins and tomatoes. These are chemicals which harms human’s body cells and lead to cancer. Selenium is an important mineral which helps in the detoxification of cancer causing agents. Selenium is also very important for the bladder.

Mushrooms contain at least 14,000 different plant species the term “Mushrooms” means macro fungus with the distinctive fruiting body which are large enough to be seen with the raked eye. Mushrooms are high in copper selenium, antioxidants and energizing vitamin B. But they are low in sugars, carbohydrates, calories, fat and sodium.

One cup of raw white bottom mushroom has about 2 grams crabs, 1 gram’s fiber, 0.4 milligrams vitamins B2 (riboflavin), 2 calories or 3 grams protein, less than 1 gram fat, 4 milligram vitamin B5 Panthothenic acid, 5 milligram vitamin B3 (niacin), 83 milligrams phosphorus 305 milligrams potassium 0.3 milligrams copper 9 milligrams selection.

Mushrooms fight against cancer, improve immunity lower inflammation, protect heart health, support energy and improve brain function, help with weight management provide vitamin D. By eating mushrooms beta glucans level increase and it increases the T-cell level which means they lower inflammation responses caused by stress environmental factors, poor diet. Mushrooms contain gonoderic acids  lower the blood pressure risk of blood clot cholesterol, triglyceride levels and even help to correct the heart arrhythmia. Reishis also contain lanostan, which is antihistamine that can act as a natural arthritis cure and shitake mushrooms contain chemical compounds e.g. lentinan, that chemical compounds protect the DNA from oxidative damage. Lentinan substance can heal chromosome damage caused anti cancer treatment shitake mushrooms podrida.

This compound which is used as a natural treatment for cancers used in Japan. Cordyceps mushrooms are known as anti-aging mushrooms. It has the ability to produce ATP in a body, because of this ability it helps to increase stamina because ATP is the primary fuel for our bodies. This mushroom is used to increase energy and to reduce stress, fatigue cordyceps are also act as protectors of mitochondria which is a power house of cell by prohibiting into cordial swelling and by increasing activities of antioxidant substances. Mushrooms can help as a natural cancer remedy by decreasing the growth and production of cancer cell division. The nutritional benefits of mushrooms are due to the presence of special polysaccharide compound called beta-1.6

Mushrooms are beneficial to improve bone health, increase iron absorption; present diabetes treat anemia lowers the cholesterol level. Mushrooms are not vegetables but basically, it is edible fungi having varies scientific names. Generally, mushrooms are saprophytes. So intake of mushrooms will lower the cholesterol level. Because of the presence of fiber and certain enzymes in them. Balancing of cholesterol between good cholesterol and bed cholesterol is essential to present many cardiovascular diseases e.g. heart attack stroke. In Amebic patients, areal of iron is lower than normal level. So the mushrooms are a good source of iron. Thus intake of mushroom can treat anemia. Because of deficiency of calcium condition like osteoporosis develop in adults. Mushrooms are an excellent source of calcium. It can reduce joint pain is provide a rich amount of calcium and phosphorus. Thus it treats osteoporosis as well mushrooms also contain naturally existing antibodies which are similar to lecithin. These antibiotics inhibit the fungal infection and microbial growth. Mushrooms are a good combination of vitamin A, B complex vitamin. These strengthen the immense system copper is present is mushrooms. It has a number of beneficial effects in the body. Copper can ultimate and regulate the absorption source of recession which strengthen nails hat and teeth.

Vitamin B is present abundantly mushrooms such as thiamine (B1) riboflavin (B2) vitamin B helps in the formation of red blood very important for health brain. Doctors advised pregnant women to take of folic acid or folate which is abundantly present in mushrooms. Mushrooms are also offer an alternative source of vitamin D.

It is the best way to lower cholesterol level naturally in the body by consumption of more and more mushrooms. They also maintain blood pressure and regulate circulation. Iron is abundantly present in mushrooms. Mushrooms also contain an appreciable amount of zinc. Mushrooms also contain copper in good quantity. Mushrooms help in fertility. It is must be included in the healthy diet.

Medical Facts of Peach

               (By Ayemen Mubashar*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Shahid Mahmood*)

                     (*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

To maintain health is the priority of man. To maintain good health, diet is of major concern. Allah has blessed us different fruits and vegetables. Horticulture is providing us products for good science. Like other fruits peach is a juicy and versatile summer fruit with a lot of health benefits. Other than the invigorating taste and fragrance, peaches are rich in carotenoids and offer an assortment of medical advantages.

  • The peels and the mash of peaches have huge cell reinforcement properties and additionally adds to their defensive impacts. Cancer prevention agents, for example, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-kryptoxanthin help in searching the oxygen-inferred free radicals and secure the body against the unsafe impacts of different sicknesses.
  • Peaches contain potassium, which is fundamental for legitimate nerve flagging and cell working of the body. An absence of potassium in the body can prompt hypokalemia which can influence the solid quality and can cause a sporadic pulse.
  • Peaches are rich in phenolic and carotenoid mixes, which have against tumor and hostile to malignancy properties, and help in battling various kinds of growths, for example, bosom disease, lung tumor, and colon malignancy. Studies have bolstered the way that chromogenic corrosive and neochlorogenic corrosive present in peaches apply advantageous impacts in hindering the development of bosom tumor cells without influencing the ordinary cells,
  • Peaches help in keeping up solid skin inferable from the nearness of a decent measure of vitamin C, which additionally gives a resistance against hurtful free radicals and contaminations. Peaches likewise apply defensive impacts on the skin against bright radiation.
  • Peaches are generally utilized as a part of the restorative business for the assembling of skin creams and magnificence packs. The abundance of flavonoids and fundamental vitamins and minerals in peaches help in sloughing off dead cells, and in addition hydrating and rejuvenating the skin. The cancer prevention agents advance quicker recuperation of skin issues, for example, imperfections and spots.
  • Peaches are rich in beta-carotene, which gets changed over into vitamin in the body. Beta-carotene assumes an essential part of keeping up sound visual perception and forestalling different eye maladies like exophthalmia and visual impairment.
  • In expansion to this, these segments show in peaches monitor the retinal tissues against the harm caused by free radicals and the potential damage caused by high-wavelength light.
  • Peaches are profitable amid pregnancy because of the nearness of an extensive variety of basic vitamins and minerals. Vitamin C helps in the solid development of the bones, teeth, skin, muscles, and veins of the child. It likewise helps in the assimilation of iron, which is to a great degree vital amid pregnancy.
  • Peaches are useful for keeping up solid stomach related wellbeing because of their soluble substance and fiber. Dietary fiber in peaches ingests water and aides in anticipating stomach issue like blockage, hemorrhoids, stomach ulcers,
  • Gastritis, and sporadic defecations. It likewise helps in purifying and disposing of the dangerous waste from the digestive organs and keeping the body from contracting different stomach issue, including stomach malignancy.
  • The nearness of magnesium in peaches anticipates pressure and uneasiness in the body and helps in keeping the sensory system quiet. An insufficiency of magnesium can influence the working of the focal sensory system, bringing about hyper-energized muscles and the expanded action of nerve signals. An investigative research considers directed in this respect has proposed that the admission of magnesium-rich sustenance alongside vitamin B6 has great impacts in the treatment of focal sensory system hyperexcitability in youngsters.
  • Peaches contain bioactive parts that have demonstrated advantageous impacts in battling weight-related scatters. The nearness of phenolic mixes in peaches has calming and hostile to stoutness properties which help in battling metabolic disorders.
  • Peaches are rich in ascorbic corrosive and zinc, which help in the ordinary working of the body and help to keep up a solid safe framework. Zinc and vitamin C apply solid injury mending and cancer prevention agent properties that assistance in battling diseases and diminishing the predominance and seriousness.
  • Research has demonstrated that phenolic mixes show in the peel and mash of the clingstone peaches help in keeping up bring down levels of LDL cholesterol and animating great HDL cholesterol.
  • Peaches are a wellspring of zinc, which has hostile to maturing properties. The utilization of zinc-rich nourishments, for example, peaches advances the generation of antibodies and represses the cell harm caused by free radicals
  • Peaches contain phosphorous which, alongside calcium, helps in reinforcing bones and teeth, and keeping up and repairing the substantial tissues. It likewise helps in the aversion of different bone ailments like decalcification, which can prompt osteoporosis, especially in post-menopausal ladies. Utilization of sustenance rich in phosphorus, for example, peaches advances re-mineralization of bones and keeps up their inflexibility.
  • Peaches are helpful for purging and detoxifying the body, and they help with flushing out destructive poisons from the liver and kidneys. Peach separates have hepatic-protectant components and are profitable in treating the state of hepatic-harmfulness caused because of delayed treatment for different infections like a headache, tuberculosis, and diabetes.
  • The internal portion of peaches is recommended to be useful in treating the state of blood stasis in which the blood winds up latent. Blood stasis may emerge as an outcome of a long-haul inadequacy of blood and may bring about the dryness of blood.
  • Peaches contain press, which is essential for the development of hemoglobin in red platelets. The utilization of sustenance like peaches is vital amid every one of the phases of life, including youth, pre-adulthood, adulthood, and stages, for example, monthly cycle and pregnancy. So, we should add peaches in our diet along with our major fruits.

موسم کی صور تحال اپریل 2018-04-1

شمال مشرقی پنجاب (راولپنڈی، لاہور، گوجرانوالہ ڈویژن)، بالائی خیبرپختونخوا (مالاکنڈ، ہزارہ، پشاور، مردان، کوہاٹ ڈویژن)، اسلام آباد، فاٹا، گلگت بلتستان اورکشمیرمیں کہیں کہیں جبکہ بنوں، ڈی آئی خان، سرگودھا، فیصل آباد، ژوب اور قلات ڈویژن میں چند مقامات پر تیزہواوٰں اور گرج چمک کیساتھ مزید بارش کا امکان ہے۔ ملک کے دیگر علاقوں میں موسم گرم اور خشک رہیگا۔

بدھ کے روز: ملک کے بیشتر علاقوں میں موسم گرم اور خشک رہیگا۔ تاہم مالاکنڈ، ہزارہ، پشاور، راولپنڈی، گوجرانوالہ، لاہور، فیصل آباد، سرگودھا ڈویژن، اسلام آباد، فاٹا، گلگت بلتستان اورکشمیرمیں چند مقامات پر تیزہواوٰں اور گرج چمک کیساتھ بارش کا امکان ہے۔

آج (منگل) سے جمعرات کے دوران کراچی سمیت ملک کے جنوبی علاقوں میں درجہ حرارت معمول سے 4سے5 ڈگری زیادہ رہنے کا امکان ہے۔

گزشتہ 24 گھنٹوں کے دوران

خیبرپختونخوا، بالائی پنجاب، اسلام آباد، فاٹا، گلگت بلتستان اور کشمیر میں کہیں کہیں جبکہ کوئٹہ، ژوب ڈویژن، جنوبی پنجاب اور بالائی سندھ میں چند مقامات پر تیزہواوٗں اور گرج چمک کیساتھ بارش ہوئی۔ سب سے زیادہ بارش خیبرپختونخوا: رسالپور44، پشاور (ائیرپورٹ42، سٹی40)، پاراچنار21، بالاکوٹ، پٹن19، کاکول، مالم جبہ14، دیر09، چراٹ08، دروش، کالام، لوئر دیر، سیدوشریف05، میرکھانی03، کوہاٹ01، کشمیر: گڑھی دوپٹہ19، مظفرآباد13، راولاکوٹ02،  پنجاب: کامرہ18، سیالکوٹ (کینٹ06، ائیرپورٹ02، )اسلام آباد (سیدپور05، گولڑہ02)، خانپور02، بہاولپور، مری، راولپنڈی01، سندھ: لاڑکانہ09، موہنجوداڑو05، دادو04، روہڑی02،  گلگت بلتستان:استور08، چلاس، گوپس04، ہنزہ، بگرورٹ02، بونجی01، بلوچستان: زیارت07، بارکھان06، کوئٹہ01ملی میٹر ریکارڈ کی گئی۔

گزشتہ روز ریکارڈ کیےگئےگرم ترین مقامات کے درجہ حرارتشہیدبینظیرآباد 46، پڈعیدن45، دادو میں44 ڈگری سینٹی گریڈریکارڈ کیا گیا۔

Agri Tech Asia Karachi

Agri Tech Asia Karachi

10. – 12. April 2018 | Agro technology show

Agri Tech Asia is an exhibition for agro technology and part of the international food, agro technology and machinery show Food, Agri & Livestock Asia. Key international and regional suppliers will be displaying their latest products and services and have the opportunity to network and establish business contacts with decision makers and influencers. Agri Tech Asia will be held simultaneously with Milk Tech Asia, Meat Tech Asia, Seafood Asia, Bakery Tech Asia, Drink Tech Asia and Food Safety Asia.

For the twelfth time there is the Agri Tech Asia on 3 days from Tue., 10.04.2018 to Thur., 12.04.2018 in Karachi.

Hidden Health Treasures of Pomegranate

                     (By Mahnoor Khalid*, Umm-e-Habiba*, Mujahid Ali**)

            (*Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Pomegranate is one of the world’s oldest known fruit and has long been considered a symbol of health and fertility. Pomegranates have been a popular fruit in the Middle East, Asia, and India throughout history but in recent have become very popular in other regions of the world, China is now one of the largest producers of this beneficial fruit and it is famous also because of their many health benefits and outstanding nutritional value. It is also one of the most beneficial fruit to consume. After splitting apart the pomegranate’s tough outer layer complex chamber of red seeds lies in it. These small seeds are the only part of the pomegranate that is edible, but a numerous study proves their nutritional value is considerably greater than what you might expect.

Research indicates that pomegranates reduce artherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) which is the leading cause of heart disease and cancer the two very common chronic diseases in Pakistan. Pomegranate inhibits many forms of cancer, especially the prostate, breast, lung, and skin cancer. A 2012 study reports that cytotoxic activities of pomegranate extract are used for the treatment of prostate cell line by induction of apoptosis. A 2014 study published in Molecular Carcinogenesis highlights the anti-proliferative effects of pomegranate extract in breast cancer cells. According to a study published in experimental dermatology in June 2009, pomegranate juice and oils can protect our skin from solar radiations, thereby help to guard us against skin cancer associated with excessive sun exposure. The results from the researchers show that the anthocyanin and tannins present in pomegranate provide effective antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. These same properties also provide anti-aging benefits and can protect us from the degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and rheumatoid arthritis.

A study published in the journal of inflammation in January 2009 found that pomegranate juice can inhibit the inflammatory activity of the excess mast cells. (Mast cells are the cells present naturally in the body and play an important protective role but can become an aggressive inflammatory force when imbalanced). The researcher’s results proved to pomegranates concentrations of naturally occurring antioxidants.

Studies have shown that the regular intake of pomegranates and pomegranate juice can reduce LDL cholesterol in both animals and humans. A study featured in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2000, discovered that pomegranate juice help to inhibit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in humans. Excess LDL cholesterol is one of the biggest sources of coronary heart diseases, which is the most common type of heart disease in the united states.

By keeping our blood pressure in control has been found to reduce the chance of heart attack and stroke. UK’s Express, researchers at “Queen Margaret University in Edinburg found that people who consume 500ml of pomegranate juice every day for four weeks had unsaturated fatty acids in a lower quantity which are commonly linked to the storage of abdominal fat. A 2011 study published in complementary therapies in clinical practices tells us that pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces blood pressure.

Pomegranate that stimulates estrogen and serotonin receptors in the body, thereby boosting our mood and reducing feelings of sadness and depression than why many people feel better after eating a pomegranate, there’s a good reason, researchers even suggest that long-term consumption of pomegranates and pomegranate products could regulate serotonin level in the brain and can treat low moods caused by chemical imbalances.

Pomegranates are surprisingly rich in nutrients. In fact, their seeds contain more fiber and minerals than many other more popular fruits. A 100g serving of pomegranate seed provides 18.7g carbohydrates,13.67g sugars,1.17g fat,11g dietary fiber and 1.67g of protein. For example, one whole pomegranate contains about 11grams of dietary fiber (this is twice the amount of fiber of an average sized banana) 29 milligrams of vitamin C and 46 micrograms of vitamin K. In all three instances, these numbers average at about 50% of our daily intake recommendation. Iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium (a powerful mineral that optimizes the nervous system, regulates metabolism and maintains healthy kidney function), folate, manganese, selenium, and zinc are other nutrients found in this nutritious fruit. The pomegranate is also a reliable source of omega-6 fatty acids.

Like all other fruits, pomegranates are best for health benefits when eaten raw. While purchasing them, select organic pomegranates that you feel heavy for their size and have unblemished skin. These are the best quality pomegranates and they can be refrigerated for up to two months without affecting their nutritional value.