گلاب کی کاشت

۱-حافظ محمد کاشف(شعبہ ہارٹیکلچر، جامعہ زرعیہ فیصل آباد )
۲-مجاہد علی (شعبہ ہارٹیکلچر ،جامعہ سرگودھا)

گلاب کا پھول تجارت کا اہم ذریعہ ہے۔ چھوٹے کاروباری افراد سے لے کر بڑے ادارے اس کی تجارت سے جڑے ہوئے ہیں۔گلاب کی صنعت سے وابستہ افراد کیلئے مفید معلومات تفصیل کے ساتھ درج ذیل ہیں۔ گلاب مختلف قسم کی آب و ہَوا اور مختلف قسم کی زمین میں اگائے جاتے ہیں۔ گلاب اپنی خوبصورتی کی وجہ سے پسند کیے جاتے ہیں اس کے علاوہ ان میں خوشبو بھی پائی جاتی ہے۔ گلاب کو کوئین آف فلاوز کہا جاتا ہے۔ گلاب کو مختلف خصوصیات کی بنا پر گروپوں میں تقسیم کیا جاتا ہے۔ مثلاً ہائبرڈ ٹی روز، فلوری بنڈا، مینی ایچرز اور بیلیں۔ دنیا میں گلاب کی 20 ہزار سے زائد اقسام ہیں۔گلاب بطور کٹ فلاور بہت اہمیت کا حامل ہے۔ دنیا میں یہ بہت بڑی مقدار میں درآمد اور برآمد کیا جاتا ہے۔ سب سے زیادہ گلاب اور دوسرے پھول ہالینڈ برآمد کرتا ہے۔ جرمنی سب سے زیادہ گلاب درآمد کرتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ فرانس، برطانیہ، سوئٹزر لینڈ، امریکہ اور یورپی یونین کے ممالک میں کافی مارکیٹ ہے۔ ہائبرڈ ٹی گلاب تقریباً دنیا کے تمام ممالک میں اگایا جاتا ہے لیکن چند اہم ممالک جہاں ہائبرڈ ٹی گلاب اُگایا جاتا ہے درج ذیل ہیں۔ ہالینڈ، جرمنی، یو ایس اے، برطانیہ، فرانس، اٹلی، جاپان، سوئٹزر لینڈ، کینیا، زمبابوے، اسرائیل، کولمبیا، انڈیا، نائجیریا، یوگنڈا اور تنزانیہ ۔

جگہ کا انتخاب:
۔جہاں گلاب لگانا ہو وہاں کم از کم چھ گھنٹے دھوپ پڑنی چاہیے، پودے درختوں سے دور لگانے چاہئیں تاکہ ان پر سایہ نہ پڑے۔ ایسی جگہ کا انتخاب کریں جہاں پودے گرمی اور سردی کی شدت سے بچ سکیں۔

آب و ہوا:۔ معتدل درجہ حرارت اور سورج کی روشنی مناسب مقدار میں پودے کی بڑھوتری اور پھولوں کی پیداوار حاصل کرنے کےلئے بہت اہمیت کے حامل ہیں۔ گلاب بڑے سخت جان ہوتے ہیں ان کو سردی سے بچانے کی ضرورت نہیں ہوتی البتہ گرمیوں میں زیادہ ٹمپریچر ہو تو اچھی پیداوار نہیں دیتے۔ گلاب کے لئے موزوں ٹمپریچر 20 تا 25 سینٹی گریڈ ہے۔ اگر درجہ حرارت 28 سینٹی گریڈ سے زیادہ ہو گا تو پیداوار میں کمی واقع ہو گی۔

زمین کا انتخاب و تیاری:۔
جہاں گلاب لگانا ہو وہاں کی زمین بھربھری، زرخیز اور اچھے نکاس والی ہو۔ زمین کا تعامل (pH) 6 سے 6.5 تک ہونی چاہیے، سخت زمین پر گلاب کامیاب نہیں ہوتا ہے۔ گلاب کے لئے زمین کی تیاری موسم گرما میں کریں تاکہ دھوپ خوب لگے اور موسم برسات میں بارش کے بعد زمین اچھی طرح تیار ہو جائے۔ زمین اڑھائی فٹ گہرائی تک کھود کر اسے تیار کریں۔ پودے لگانے کے لئے 2 فٹ x 2 فٹx 2 فٹ سائز کے گڑھے کھودیں۔ اوپر والی 1 فٹ مٹی الگ کریں اور نیچے والی 1 فٹ مٹی دوسری طرف رکھ لیں۔ پودے لگانے سے کم از کم ایک ہفتہ پہلے گڑھے کھودیں۔ گڑھوں کو کھلا چھوڑ دیں تاکہ روشنی اور ہَوا سے زمین کو فائدہ پہنچے۔ اس کے بعد گڑھا بھرنے کے لئے اوپر والی 1 فٹ مٹی 50 فیصد، گوبر کی کھاد 20 فیصد، پتوں کی کھاد 20 فیصد اور 10 فیصد بھل کا آمیزہ تیار کریں اور اس کو پودے لگانے کے لئے گڑھوں میں استعمال کریں۔

اقسام:۔

کارڈینل، کوئین الزبتھ، پیراڈائز، اینجلیق، فرسٹ ریڈ، گولڈ میڈل، لیڈیز فرسٹ، گولڈن ٹائم، ایمرلڈ گرین، فریگرنٹ کلاوڈ، آئس برگ، کلیڈئیر، روزی چیک، فارمولاون، تبت، کلاسک، بلیک بکارا، لوگیم، منڈیل اور اینجلیق نیو ریڈ وغیرہ اس کی اقسام ہیں۔

پودے لگانے کا موسم :۔ گلاب کے پودے نومبر سے فروری تک لگائے جا سکتے ہیں۔

زمین میں پودے لگانا:۔

پہلے سے کھودے گئے گڑھوں میں تیار شدہ مٹی کا آمیزہ ڈالیں۔ پودے کو گڑھے میں سیدھا کھڑا کریں اور مٹی ڈالتے جائیں۔ پودے کے تنے کے ساتھ کی مٹی تھوڑی اونچی رکھیں۔ پودے کے ارد گرد مٹی کو اچھی طرح دبا دیں تاکہ زمین میں ہوا نہ رہ سکے۔ پیوند والے مقام کو زمین سے ایک تا دو انچ نیچے رکھیں۔ پودے ہمیشہ دوپہر کے بعد لگائیں تاکہ پودا گرمی کی شدت سے بچ جائے اور رات گزرنے تک وہ اپنا نظام بحال کر سکے۔

پودوں کا فاصلہ:

۔ہائبرڈ ٹی گلاب کے لئے پودے سے پودے کا فاصلہ 2.5 فٹ تا 3 فٹ ہونا چاہیے جبکہ قطار سے قطار کا فاصلہ بھی اتنا ہی رکھیں تاکہ پودوں کی گوڈی اور دوسرے کام آسانی سے ہو سکیں۔

پودوں کو پانی دینا:۔

زمین میں پودے لگانے کے بعد فوراً پانی دینا چاہیے۔ گلاب کو بڑھو تری کے لئے پانی کی کافی ضرورت ہوتی ہے۔ پانی کی مقدار اور تعداد کا دار و مدار زمین کی قسم اور موسم پر ہوتا ہے۔ گرمیوں میں ہفتہ میں دو دفعہ پانی دیں اور سردیوںمیں ایک ہفتہ یا دس دن بعد پانی دیں۔

پودوں کو کھاد دینا:۔
پودے لگانے سے کم از کم ایک مہینہ پہلے گوبر کی کھاد5 ٹرالی فی ایکڑ کے حساب سے زمین میں ڈالیں۔ ہر سال شاخ تراشی کے وقت چار کلوگرام گوبر کی کھاد فی پودا ڈالیں۔ اس کے علاوہ کیمیائی کھاد بحساب 40 گرام فی پودا ڈلیں۔ 10-10-10 یا 12-12-12 (نائٹروجن، فاسفورس اور پوٹاش) کی نسبت والی کیمیائی کھاد استعمال کریں۔ کیمیائی کھاد تین خوراکوں میں استعمال کریں۔ پہلی خوراک جنوری میں دیں، دوسری خوراک جب موسم بہار کے پھول ختم ہوں اور تیسری خوراک وسط جولائی میں دیں، 15 اگست کے بعد کھاد نہ دیں۔

شاخ تراشی:۔

اچھی پیداوار حاصل کرنے کےلئے ہر سال پودوں کی شاخ تراشی کریں۔ شاخ تراشی کے وقت تمام بیمار، کمزور اور سوکھی ہوئی شاخیں کاٹ دیں۔ شاخ تراشی سے بڑھوتری اچھی ہوتی ہے، ہَوا اور روشنی کا گزر آسانی سے ہوتا ہے۔ ہائبرڈ ٹی روز میں درمیانی شاخ تراشی کریں۔ ایک شاخ پر5 سے 7 آنکھیں چھوڑ کر شاخ تراشی کریں۔ شاخ کو کونپل کے 1/4 انچ اوپر سے کاٹیں اور کونپل کی مخالف سمت سے کاٹیں۔ زیادہ تر گلاب کی شاخ تراشی موسم سرما یا بہار میں کی جاتی ہے، اگر شاخ تراشی موسم خزاں یا شروع موسم سرما میں کی جائے تو نئی پھوٹ جلد بنے گی اور کورے سے بُری طرح متاثر ہو گی۔ اس لئے سرد علاقوں میں شاخ تراشی تاخیر سے کی جاتی ہے

۔ زمین سے نکلنے والی شاخیں کاٹنا:

۔پیوند کے مقام سے نیچے تنے پر یا زمین سے شاخیں نکل آتی ہیں، یہ شاخیں روٹ سٹاک سے نکلتی ہیں یہ کارآمد نہیں ہوتیں اس لیے وقتاً فوقتاً ان شاخوں کو کاٹتے رہیں

۔گوڈی کرنا:

زمین کو نرم رکھنے اور جڑی بوٹیاں ختم کرنے کے لئے ہلکی گوڈی کریں، زیادہ گہری گوڈی نہ کریں کیونکہ پودے کی جڑیں کٹ جانے کا خطرہ ہوتا ہے۔

غنچوں کی تعداد کم کرنا:۔

یہ طریقہ ہائبرڈ ٹی گلاب میں استعمال کیا جاتا ہے، اس سے غنچوں کی تعداد کم ہوتی ہے لیکن پھولوں کی کوالٹی اچھی ہوتی ہے۔ اس میں مناسب غنچوں کا انتخاب کر کے باقی غنچوں کو توڑ دیا جاتا ہے جس سے پھول کاسائز اور ٹہنی کی لمبائی بڑھ جاتی ہے۔

بیماریاں اور ان کا انسداد:۔
گلاب پر مائیلڈیو، بلیک سپاٹ، رسٹ اور ڈائی بیک جیسی بیماریاں حملہ آور ہوتی ہیں۔ ان کے حملہ کی صورت میں ریڈو مل، ڈائی تھین، مینکوزیب، ایکروبیٹ یا کلپر بحساب 1 گرام فی لٹر پانی میں حل کر کے سپرے کریں۔

کیڑوں کا حملہ:۔
گلاب پر ایفڈ، جیسڈ، تھرپس، ریڈ سپائیڈر، مائٹس اور دیمک کا حملہ ہوتا ہے۔ پودے پر ایفڈ، جیسڈ، تھرپس، ریڈ سپائیڈر یا مائٹس کے حملہ کی صورت میں کلورو پائیری فاس، میٹا سسٹاکس، کونفیڈور، میتھا ڈاکسن یا میتھا میڈو فاس بحساب 2 ملی لٹر فی لٹر پانی میں ملا کر سپرے کریں۔ دیمک کے حملہ کی صورت میں ٹیناکل، کلورو پائیری فاس یا ڈرسبین بحساب 2 ملی لٹر فی لٹر پانی میں ملا کر زمین میں ڈالیں۔پھول کاٹنا:۔

پھول صبح یا شام کے وقت برداشت کریں۔ پھول کی ڈنڈی 40 سینٹی میٹر سے90 سینٹی میٹر تک رکھیں۔ کٹائی کے فوراً بعد پھولوں کو صاف پانی میں رکھ دیں تاکہ پھول مارکیٹ پہنچنے تک تروتازہ رہیں۔

FAMEWS: A MOBILE APP FOR MONITORING & EARLY DETECTION OF FALL ARMYWORM

Fall Armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda), is an insect pest of more than 80 plant species, causing damage
to economically important cultivated cereals such as maize, rice, sorghum, and also to vegetable crops and cotton. It is the larval stage of the insect that causes the damage. FAW reproduces at a rate of several generations per year, and the moth can fly up to 100 km per night.
The insect pest is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. In the African continent, it was first
detected in Central and Western Africa in early 2016. By early 2018, only 10 out of the 54 African states and territories had not reported infestations by the invasive pest. Maize is now the most infested crop in Africa. As a staple crop, it is unlikely that farmers and their families will
want to abandon maize.
FAO and its partners have been at the forefront of tackling FAW and continue to support prevention, early warning,
and effective response. An integral part of FAO’s sustainable management programme for FAW in Africa is the FAW Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS) mobile app. Data from the app provides valuable insights on how the insect populations change over time with ecology, to improve knowledge of its behaviour in Africa and guide best
management.

[embeddoc url=”http://agrinfobank.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/FAMEWS-A-MOBILE-APP.pdf” download=”all”]

Focus on the Fall Armyworm Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS)

The Fall Armyworm Monitoring and Early Warning System (FAMEWS) is a monitoring and education tool that feeds several platforms that are used to make decisions about Fall Armyworm (FAW). Data are inputted via an app for smartphones, which provide exact locations of the source of the information. Data can be collected on FAW prevalence in fields (infested crop plants) or from pheromone traps that attract adult moths.

Data collection is done using FAO’s FAW Guidance Notes and is available in five languages. The app also provides basic background information on FAW and will soon incorporate an Artificially Intelligent Assistant who will provide advice in several languages. Data can be transmitted immediately from the field via telephone or can be saved to the phone and uploaded later when a connection is available. The data go to a national platform, where National Focal Points review and approve the data.

Then the data flow to a global platform, where decision makers can review the data to set priorities and researchers can use the data to better understand the FAW’s ecology in Africa, permitting larger-scale and longer-term decision-making. The application is open to use by all authorized users and the data will be freely available, permitting use by farmers, associations, extensionists, government officials and donors. The data will also be used as the basis of the FAWRisk model, which will examine the risk to food insecurity due to FAW, as well as other models and simulations.

Role of Various Mineral Salts in Plant Growth

By H. M. Bilal, Mujahid Ali, Rabbia Zulfiqar (Horticulture, UOS)

Plants can’t grow without mineral elements. The nutrients they need are soluble minerals. The dissolved ions are exactly the form they take up. If the dosage is controlled, there is no harm in applying a mineral salt to the soil. However, mineral salt is a real boon as a fertilizer in certain applications. Long before scientists understood the role of sodium or chloride in crop production and plant disease management, farmers routinely applied sodium chloride to mineral salt-tolerant crops to boost vigor and yields.
Livestock, poultry and pets need mineral elements for optimal health and development. All domestic and wild animals need mineral salt, just as humans, salty water that washes over agricultural fields during storm events and extreme tides can severely degrade a soils’ ability to produce traditional crops like corn and soybeans. This is already happening to some of Delaware’s coastal farmers and the frequency and extent of these flooding events may increase in the future because of climate change and sea level rise if no other preventative measures are implemented. UD Cooperative Extension, in collaboration with other partners, is investigating an alternative mineral salt-tolerant crop that may be able to sustain the productivity of these impacted lands. Salinity is one of the most brutal environmental factors limiting the productivity of crop plants because most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity caused by high concentrations of mineral salts in the soil and the area of land affected by it is increasing day by day. For all important crops, average yields are only a fraction – somewhere between 20% and 50% of record yields; these losses are mostly due to drought and high soil salinity, environmental conditions which will worsen in many regions because of global climate change.
Mineral salt is generally defined as a white crystalline substance which gives seawater its characteristic taste and is used for seasoning or preserving food.
In chemistry, a mineral salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. Mineral salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH
3CO−2), and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2−4 ).
Mineral salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Mineral salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali mineral salts. Mineral salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic mineral salts. Neutral mineral salts are those mineral salts that are neither acidic nor basic. Different mineral salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g., mineral salty (sodium chloride), sweet (lead diacetate), which will cause lead poisoning if ingested), sour (potassium bitartrate), bitter (magnesium sulfate), and umami or savory (monosodium glutamate).
Solid mineral salts tend to be transparent as illustrated by sodium chloride. Mineral salts exist in many different colors, which arise either from the anions or cations. For example:
• sodium chromate is yellow by virtue of the chromate ion
• potassium dichromate is orange by virtue of the dichromate ion
• cobalt nitrate is red owing to the chromophore of hydrated cobalt(II) ([Co(H2O)6]2+).
• copper sulfate is blue because of the copper(II) chromophore
• potassium permanganate has the violet color of permanganate anion.
• nickel chloride is typically green of [NiCl2(H2O)4]
• sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is colorless or white because the constituent cations and anions do not absorb in the visible part of the spectrum.
Mineral salts are normally electrical insulator. Molten mineral salts or solutions of mineral salts conduct electricity. For this reason, liquified (molten) mineral salts and solutions containing dissolved mineral salts (e.g., sodium chloride in water) are called electrolytes. Mineral salts characteristically have high melting points. For example, sodium chloride melts at 801 °C. Some mineral salts with low lattice energies are liquid at or near room temperature. These include molten mineral salts, which are usually mixtures of mineral salts, and ionic liquids, which usually contain organic cations. These liquids exhibit unusual properties as solvents.
Strong mineral salts or strong electrolyte mineral salts are chemical mineral salts composed of strong electrolytes. These ionic compounds dissociate completely in water. They are generally odorless and nonvolatile. Strong mineral salts start with Na__, K__, NH4__, or they end with __NO3, __ClO4, or _CH3COO. Most group 1 and 2 metals form strong mineral salts. Weak mineral salts or weak electrolyte mineral salts are, as the name suggests, composed of weak electrolytes. They are generally more volatile than strong mineral salts. They may be similar in odor to the acid or base they are derived from. For example, sodium acetate, NaCH3COO, smells like acetic acid CH3COOH.
First, you need to define what you mean by “mineral salt.” If you’re talking about common table mineral salt, NaCl, that is not good for plants like. It kills them. It has nothing in it that plants can use and destroys cells by pulling moisture out, as well as wrecking the pH.
However, mineral salt is another matter altogether. Mineral salts are necessary for plant life to exist. In natural soil. These mineral salts are either already present or are formed as minerals are broken down by chemical action and microbial processes. Minerals have to be in the form of mineral salts before they are accessible to the plants. So, even organic and natural fertilizers still have to have their mineral content converted into mineral salts for the plants to use them.
Mineral salts unused by the plants stay in the soil and raise the salinity level over time, which makes the soil less and less productive although people put more and more fertilizer on it. That is why some people prefer to use organic fertilizers there’s less chance of the mineral salt concentration getting too high. Minerals are used by plants in very small to microscopic amounts. Plants make their food from light air and water. The minerals are a very small but essential part of the substances the plants use to conduct their life processes. Sodium and chloride are typically viewed as waste ions that plants do not need. This can be true if their levels are high in a water source. However, research has shown that plants do use these elements in small quantities
Sodium is not an essential element for plants but can be used in small quantities like micronutrients to aid in metabolism and synthesis of chlorophyll. In some plants. It can be used as a partial replacement for potassium and aids in the opening and closing of stomates, which helps regulate internal water balance. Chloride is needed in small quantities and aids in plant metabolism, photosynthesis, osmosis (movement of water in and out of plant cells) and ionic balance within the cell.
Salinity reduces plant growth through osmotic and toxic effects and high sodium uptake ratio values cause sodicity (Sufaid Kalar), which increases soil resistance reduces root growth and reduces water movement through the root with a decrease in hydraulic conductivity
A wide range of adaptations and mitigation strategies are required to cope with such impacts. Efficient resource management and crop/livestock improvement for evolving better breeds can help to overcome salinity stress. Such strategies being long drawn and cost intensive. There is a need to develop simple and low-cost biological methods for salinity stress management which can be used on short-term basis. Microorganisms could play a significant role in this respect. If we exploit their unique properties such as tolerance to saline conditions genetic diversity, synthesis of compatible solutes, production of plant growth promoting hormones, bio-control potential, and their interaction with crop plants.

FOOD SECURITY IN PAKISTAN

By M. Modassar Ali*, Abdullah Bin Masood*, Mujahid Ali** (*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Food security is defined as per the World Food Summit in 1996, Food security exists when all people, always, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs, and their food preferences are met for an active and healthy life. And the food Insecurity is defined as the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food. Food security is a major concern in the developing countries. It is a major issue in countries of Africa. Pakistan is country having a huge population confined to a limited area, and as per the census of 2016 the population of the republic was 193.2 million. There is a significant increase in population of Pakistan as comparing to the census of 1998 when it was about 132 million. The area of Pakistan is about 796098 Sq. Km. Comparing to its area, Pakistan has a vast resource in all terms. It is the blessing of nature on Pakistan. It has four seasons, a proper rainfall, readily available water throughout the year, a vast variety of fruits and vegetables readily available throughout the year, a highly fertile land and much more uncountable. Besides all the resources the state Pakistan must bear a burden of huge population. Food, Fiber and Shelter are the basic human necessities. At the time of its formation Pakistan hardly had any reliable resources. There were no proper water channels and water resources. Agriculture technology was at its dead levels. There was a poor formation of all the government institution and a list of problem to be solved. With the time being the country improved its resources and dealt with several problems. New dams were constructed under “Indus Water Treaty”. The government itself got stabilized. Agriculture sector was given a great attention especially in 1965-69. Food security, still, is one of the major problem in Pakistan but it would be true if we say that Food Security is the real problem of Pakistan. There are several areas of Pakistan where the problem of food is at its dead levels, these includes the desert of “Thar” and the areas of Sindh and Baluchistan. Natural Calamities, poor law and order, poor rate of literacy, poor organization of government departments, pollution and old technology of agriculture have led to a sharp decline in food security across the country. 21st century is the time when nations around the world are improving their Agriculture resources, technology and techniques. Their agricultural productivity is being multiplied by numbers. They are preventing disease prevalence by universal vaccination, solving the problem of environmental pollution and equipping the latest techniques and technology related to agriculture. They are managing a well-managed agricultural institutions and departments that have a key role in the development of the sector. Their farmer is educated and trained. Another addition in the food sector are GMO Foods. Developed countries are putting a great attention on GMO Foods. A lot of new and more reliable verities have been produced and work is going on for production of more. Pakistan have no national strategy and plan to counter the problems or for the improvement of the agricultural sector. Pakistan has no proper institution or councils to fix the agricultural problems. The government of Pakistan is seeking no attention for development of agricultural sector. With the massive population increase the country is leading towards the widespread famine and hunger. Food security is in fact, much more than just food production, distribution and consumption. Food is the top most priority of every living being since their inception. Food gives the energy to grow and maintain the body functions. There are certain agricultural technologies that have affected the aroma, taste and the culture of food. Use of Insecticide, pesticides, rodenticides and fertilizer have led to a couple of problems concerning food safety. Two more terms related to food security are Food safety and food sovereignty. Food Safety is related to the handling, preparation, processing, storage, and transportation in ways that prevent foodborne illness. Food can serve as a medium for the growth of microorganisms and hence can transmit diseases from person to person. The food can also get contaminated with external factor during its storage, processing, transportation and preparation. So, food safety should be a major concern while dealing food security. Food sovereignty is a broader term, it is much more complicated and is confined to a person’s choice. Food sovereignty is about the right of peoples to define their own food systems. The advocates, of food sovereignty, put the people who are related to productions, distribution and consumption of food at the center of decisions on food systems and policies, rather than the demands of local markets and local corporations that are believed to have dominated the global food system. So, the terms “Food Safety” and “Food Sovereignty” should always be associated when dealing with term “Food Security”. Food should be safe in terms of contamination (microbial, physical or Chemical), food should be safe by any means of adulteration, food should be in its pure form and it should be free from any harmful chemical fertilizers and insecticides or pesticides. The chemical fertilizers and insecticides/pesticides spoil the food, make it contaminated and then this food is not good for human consumption. Summing up, the food security is the major issue now in Pakistan. Serious attention must be given to the agriculture sector, a proper department should be formed, and check and balance must be taken. Institutions should be formed that have a concern for safety of food. So, integrated approaches, advanced technology, techniques and methods should be adopted for advancement of agriculture sector.

CITRUS: IMPORTANCE, PROCESSING AND PROBLEMS

(Junaid Ul Hasan, M. Modassar Ali, M. Yousaf Quddoos)
(Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha)

Pakistan is known worldwide for some fruits, citrus is one of the most important to be counted. Pakistan is a place where high-value citrus is produced and is exported to a number of countries. The citrus produced in Pakistan is well known and demanded in the international market. Among the horticulture crops, citrus is most famous in Pakistan. A significant increase in the production was observed from 2001-2010. Pakistan is ranked at 10st in the list of citrus producing countries in terms of area and production. The demand of citrus either fresh or processed is increasing day by day among the consumers. In a report by FAO, the largest producer of Citrus is Brazil followed by China then the United States. In Pakistan the most of citrus is cultivated in the Punjab, because of the suitable temperature and climatic conditions. Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrub in the family rue. Includes many varieties i.e. kinnow, mandarins, grapefruits, pomelos, lime, lemons, blood orange, bitter orange, calamondin, citron, key lime, and kumquat. It has high nutritional value and contains phytochemicals of great importance. Phytochemical include carotenoids (beta-caroteneluteinbeta-cryptoxanthin), and flavonoids. Vitamins includes vitamin c, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid and others. Minerals includes calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, potassium and zinc. It was firstly developed by H. B. Frost in citrus research center California. Citrus is grown in tropical to subtropical climates. According to a survey in 2015-16 total citrus production of Pakistan is 2.36 million tons on an area of 206,569 hectares. Kinnow is the largest fruit containing 12 to 25 seeds per fruit and has globular shape. Seeds are major problem in out of hand eating so seedless (triploid) varieties had also been developed. Naturally seeds are diploid or tetraploid. Seed has two parts seed coat and embryo. There is a small hole in the seed coat through which pollen tube passes and radical emerges. Embryo has three parts radical plumule and cotyledons. Roots are present at the bottom end and their function is to absorb nutrients and also to anchor the plant with soil. Best soil for citrus has pH from 6.0 – 7.0. Basically, taproot system is present. Citrus has evergreen leaves with the life of almost three years. Citrus consists of single fleshy fruit. Exocarp is called flavedo and mesocarp is called albedo. The endocarp contains juice vesicles and is the edible part of fruit.  It has high demand over all the world due to its special flavor, odor, juice content and vitamin c. Some important export markets for kinnow are: Bahrain, Dubai, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, the United Kingdom and Vietnam. Harvesting of citrus is done during December to February when outer color of fruit becomes orange. Best time is mid-January to mid-February (TSS 12:1 to 14:1). Harvested by sharp clipper called as secateurs from the stem. Stem is removed as early as possible because it can cause damage to other fruits when packed. It is a loose peel fruit so harvesting by direct pulling is avoided as it can cause harm to fruit. Processing of citrus includes following steps starting from the orchard. First step is picking (with the help of manual clippers), transportation to processing plant, washing and drying (in order to remove dirt and dust), waxing(in order to prevent water loss), drying (for wax stability), grading and sorting (basically a quality parameter and done on the basis of color and size), packing, weighingchilled storage (at least 72 hrs. is mandatory or recommended under the temperature of 2ᵒc to 4ᵒc to increase the shelf life of kinnow or to sustain the quality of kinnow for a stipulated period), shipment port, shipping, and at last delivered to international market. Quality and standard includes the parameters like juice content, shiny surface, and blemish free and insect free fruit. Other includes gap certifications, skilled labor, blast chillers and controlled atmosphere rooms. Farm management has also an important role in determining citrus quality. There are a lot of problems related to citrus, diseases are one of them. Some important bacterial diseases of citrus are citrus variegated chlorosis, citrus canker and black pit. Fungal diseases include albinism, Alternaria brown spot, Alternaria stem-end rot and anthracnose, black mold, blue mold, black rot, branch knot, charcoal root rot, damping off and fusarium rot. Viral diseases includes citrus mosaic, bud union crease, citrus yellow mosaic, navel infectious mottling, psorosis and satsuma dwarf. These diseases either bacterial or fungal effect the quality of citrus badly. The market of citrus also falls by these. Pest attack is also a major problem. Tylenchulussemipenetrans Cobb. And other nematode species are associated with the rhizosphere of diseased plants. One of the most dangerous disease Citrus cancer is bacterial basis caused by Xanthomonas Pv. Citri. Colletotrichumgloeosporioides Penz. causes citrus whiter. In spite of these, there are attacks of pests during storage and maybe during transportation. Several measures should be taken to avoid any kind of past attack either in the field or in storage or transportation.  Now comes the problems related to citrus processing. Alternate bearing phenomenon means low yield in alternate year, there is lack of competitiveness in citrus industry which makes it underdeveloped, there is poor management practices during handling, transportation , storage and shipment of fruit, citrus of Pakistan has higher demand but higher number of seeds is a major problem, long growing period of kinnow and late maturation, growers purchase poor quality seeds from unspecified nurseries which results in lower yield, lack of R&D facilities and internationally accredited laboratories is one of the major cause, Pakistan citrus processing industry is labor dependent and facing shortage of skilled labors, attacks of various diseases, imbalanced fertilization and load shedding are some important constraints. In Pakistan citrus industry is facing many pre-harvest and post-harvest problems. These problems greatly affect the citrus quality and its exports. This ultimately results in economic loss to the economy of the country and also to the farmer. These problems include lack of education, poor organization of the institutions, undeveloped citrus industry, lack of management during sewing, growing, harvesting, storage and transportation and packaging.  The problems from citrus growing, its development, harvesting, transportation and storage lead to the poor quality of citrus. Summing up, Citrus is an important Horticulture product in Pakistan, it shares an important part in raising the economy of Pakistan and the citrus of Pakistan is known all over the world by its name. It is highly nutritious and readily available. Citrus processing industry is being raised in Pakistan and fighting with the major problems related to its processing, transportation and storage. There are several diseases that lead to poor quality of citrus. Pest attack is also a major problem in reducing the quality of citrus. Finally, measures should be taken to control diseases and improve the quality of citrus.

رواں سال مون سون کے دوران ملک میں 10 کروڑ پودے لگائے جائینگے

سرکاری ریڈیو کے مطابق وزیراعظم کاپانچ سالہ سرسبز پاکستان پروگرام ملک اور اس کے عوام کو سیلاب سمیت موسمیاتی تبدیلی کے تباہ کن اثرات سے محفوظ رکھنے کیلئے کی جانے والی کوششوں کاحصہ ہے۔جنگلات ملک کو موسمیاتی تبدیلیوں کے منفی اثرات سے  نکالنے کاموثر ذریعہ ہیں

ملت ٹریکٹرز کا پیداوار اور فروخت کا نیا ریکارڈ

ملت ٹریکٹر زلمیٹڈ نے مالی سال2017-18میں 42500ٹریکٹروں کی پیداوار اور فروخت کرکے ٹریکٹر انڈسٹری میں ایک نیا ریکارڈ قائم کیا ہے ، اس موقع کو یادگار بنانے کیلئے کمپنی کے احاطہ میں ایک تقریب منعقد کی گئی جس میں چیئرمین ملت گروپ سکندر مصطفی اور چیف ایگزیکٹو آفیسر ملت ٹریکٹرز لمیٹڈ عرفان عقیل نے 42500ویں ٹریکٹر کی چابیاں ایک کسان کے حوالے کیں

Drip irrigation system beneficial for farmers

SARGODHA  – The Agriculture Department has urged farmers to install drip irrigation system in their fields as it is cost effective and offers handsome returns.

According to Agriculture Officer Ramzan Khan Niazi, over 60 per cent water could be saved through drip irrigation, compared with open water courses. He said that the government was also providing 60 per cent subsidy on installation of system.

He said that drip irrigation system is neat, clean and smooth system in which farmers could save fertilisers, labour, water and timing up to 50 per cent, he said and added that drip irrigation system is beneficial for barren, sand and any other kinds of soil and also reduces weeds.

He said that a comprehensive campaign has been launched under the Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (PIPIP) to overcome water scarcity in the province. He said that under this project, the Agriculture Department is installing drip & sprinkler irrigation and giving subsidy to farmers for installing this system.

He said it is high time to start water saving awareness campaign as in the next century wars would be fought over water. Drip irrigation installation could help a lot in saving available water. He said that a comprehensive campaign has been launched for increasing per acre yield and reducing cost of cultivation by adopting drip irrigation system.

The government is helping farmers adopt this system by providing drip irrigation equipment at subsidised rates and providing 60% subsidy on installation of drip irrigation system.

Well of Death

Well of Death: There are much more blessing of Allah on us and water is one of those. Water covers two third of theearth’s surface. Human body comprises 75% of water. Only the brain comprises 85% of water and approximately 90% of the blood flowsthrough our veins also contains water. It is also significant to several functions in living organism and plays a vital role in digestion, metabolizing body fats. More importantly it maintains the body temperature. Doctors recommend 8 to 9 cups of water in a day, about 20% of this fluid comes from food intake so additional 8 cups beverages will replace 6 cups lost from urine and 4 cups lost elsewhere. Pure water has no color; test and smell.There are three forms of water such as liquid, solid and gas. Evidently water is one of the important elements responsible for life on the earth. Drinking and using neat and clean water is a sign of hale and hearty health and genial environment. Water contains Hydrogen+ Oxygen, which is very essential for living organisms. Water is not only necessary for human beings but also required by plants on different stages for their growth to become healthy and to survive for long time so it can provide quality fruits which will be rich in nutrients after consuming.

                                         Waste water impacts all kind of living creatures. Wastewater is simply water that has various pollutants depending on what it was used for.Municipal wastewater (also called Sewerage)comes through residential source including toilet, bathing, laundry, sink and others (contain body waste, containing intestinal disease organisms).some wastewater is discharged by commercial enterprises and manufacturing processes. Process wastewater contains rinse including residual acids, toxic chemicals and planting metals; discharging of such kind of wastewater in oceans or rivers, which spreads many kinds of disease. Killing fishes and destruction of other form of aquatic life as well as can negatively affect the water for drinking purposes and household needs.

                                         Sewerage drains directly or indirectly into major drainage basin with minimal or no management. That has serious impacts on the quality of environment and health of people. Pathogens are susceptible to human health. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low level, and can remain a threat for long periods because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue.

                                         Agriculture and Farming is the reason for survival of human’s lives in the world. It is essential for survival; without which there would be famines. For thousands of years, agricultural was a natural process which did not influence the land. In fact, farmers could pass their land for many generations and it would still be fertile as ever. However, modern agricultural practices and some unskillful farmers have started the process of agricultural pollution. This process causes the degradation of the eco-system, land and environment.

                                         Since early in history, people have dumped Sewerageinto waterways; use of sewerage water for irrigation of crops is an old practice in many big cities of Pakistan.Sewerage water is used as potential source of irrigation for raising vegetables and fodder crops which are directly or indirectly consumed by human beings.

                                         Sewerage water contains large amount of nitrogen + phosphorus and other elements. Nitrogen require by plant for their vegetative growth such as plant height, leaf size etc. plant absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrate. Some limited number of elements are required by plants, but excessive amount of that elements which sewerage water contains causes injuries for plants, humans, livestock and other living organisms and environment.when field is treated by wastewater of sewerage and factories some amount will be absorbed by plants and other will remain on the surface of the soil and that will increase the PH level and toxicity of soil and that water will leach down to underground water system through soil and will pollute underground water which we are using for drinking and other needs of life. plants which are treated by sewerage water and factories waste water reaches to bear fruit. Such fruits will be harmful for us and livestock.

                                         Many viral, bacterial, fungal, and pathogenicdiseases which are directly or indirectly caused by wastewater likeskin diseases,malaria, cough, fever, diarrhea, kidney stone, heartattack, degradation of digestive, respiratory, nervous systemand human allergies etc. Specifically, bioaerosols emitted by wastewater treatment plants can impact the air quality in negative ways. In past, microbial concentrations in the surrounding air from the aeration tanks of wastewater treatment plants at different heights and different distances.More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater.

                                         Our planet has the significant ability to heal itself, but there is a limit to what it can do and we must make it our goal to always stay within safe boundaries. That limit is not always clear to scientists, so we must always take the safe approach to avoid it.Some unskilled farmers are not familiar with the health hazard products which they are producing through wastewater. We should aware our farmers to the disadvantages of caused by these agricultural products, which are produced through wastewater to keep living creature safe from health risk. Our government should organize seminars on small level, guidance programs on radio, awareness programs on television should be telecast and articles in newspapers should be published specifically about the negative impact factors of usage of wastewater in cultivation of different corps to make them aware about ups and downs.Any kind of washable agricultural product should be washed before use.

Authors:
Muhammad Bilal Khan, Erum Rashid, Shahla Rashid
(University College of Agriculture University of Sargodha)