India accountable for 70 p.c smog in Pakistan

India accountable for 70 p.c smog in Pakistan

The first of its type air air pollution smog looming in Pakistan has 70 in keeping with cent contribution in its environmental degradation from neighbouring country India. The heterogeneous phenomenon of dark carbon debris, vehicular and industrial emissions combined with fog in wintry weather season creates smog.

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Talking to this company, Environmental specialist of Ministry of Climate Change Muhammad Saleem said that Indian farmers had been burning their crop residue after harvesting Kharif season crops, which ends into massive smoke outburst, hence used to be the primary explanation why of smog in Pakistan. “Pakistan’s own contribution to smog phenomenon is quite minimal as India owing to its massive size is number four global polluter of the world in terms of carbon emissions. India is also jeopardizing regional environment with its trans-boundary pollution adding to the prevailing climate change impact,” he added.

To a question, he stated Pakistan regardless of its negligible contribution to world environmental air pollution has taken firm steps to make the country smog resilient. The ministry has effectively carried out Zigzag technology in brick kilns of the rustic and also ensured their closure inside the prescribed period of time of iciness season.

“The ministry was also in contact with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to take up the issue for a dialogue with India on their uninhibited contribution in smog as it was a social and economic issue not only for Pakistan, rather for her nation as well,” he added. He knowledgeable that the Ministry of Climate Change has amicably addressed the placement and known key elements of smog technology within the country other than standard resources particularly brick kilns. “As many as 20,000 brick kilns are working across the country,” he added.

Most of the brick kiln homeowners are the use of plastic bags, previous sneakers and hackneyed leather items to fireplace the furnace for preparing bricks which creates far more than darkish smoke emissions and causes large amount of fuel consumption, he mentioned. He stated the ministry had a hit dialogue with the brick kiln owners who have been sensitized about their contribution to the serious environmental issue.

“The brick kiln owners were shocked to realize the fact and convinced by the ministry to convert their brick producing units into zigzag brick kiln technology,” Saleem informed. He told the exchange zigzag brick kiln era have been introduced to convert firing kilns while the conversion procedure is step by step proceeding across the nation. “The zigzag firing kiln was a continuous, cross draught, moving fire kiln in which the air flows in a zigzag path due to the draught provided by a chimney,” he defined.

Cross-border crop burning cause smog in Lahore

Smog is as soon as once more threatening to choke Lahore and different cities throughout Punjab, as Pakistan sees a gentle upward push in carbon emissions and braces for toxic air pollution blowing from northern India, together with New Delhi. The layer of smog, enveloping the provincial city for the previous two days, has been thickening, decreasing visibility and making breathing tricky for the residents.

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Air pollution brought about via traffic, industries, crop burning and disposal of cast waste are major contributors to smog. With Pakistan witnessing a gradual rise in carbon emissions, the smog is simplest expected to irritate in the impending winters except pressing motion is taken, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Pakistan has warned. Lahore and Karachi are amongst 10 most polluted cities of the sector on the subject of air quality, according to air quality track Air Visual, CEO WWF Pakistan, Hammad Naqi Khan, stated whilst talking at the launching ceremony of WWF’s Living Planet Report 2018 on Tuesday. “The score lately places Lahore at the best of the record, and urgent motion must be taken to take on this factor,” he stated.

He informed that the city air pollution in Pakistan is among the global’s most serious, considerably damaging human health, quality of life, financial system and the surroundings.

Khan recommended other folks to move round with face mask to protect themselves towards breathing problems, eye, nose, and throat infections. Furthermore, Adviser to the Prime Minister on Climate Change, Malik Amin Aslam has assured that the government is taking all conceivable steps to keep watch over smog in the nation.

The minister stated in a observation that cross-border crop burning has greater and continues unabated even though Pakistani Punjab has controlled the issue from its side. Aslam mentioned the government has taken up the issue of trans-boundary air pollution due to burning of crop leftovers with India. He stated there are four major sources of smog: smoke-emitting cars, brick kiln, business and crop burning. The minister informed that brick-kiln house owners had voluntarily agreed to close down their kilns from October to December and that they’d shift their kilns on fashionable zigzag generation which reduces smoke.

He said that the federal government would determine 11 air tracking stations in and round Lahore. “Of these, three stations have been activated in Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Multan, whereas eight stations would be established in the city area,” he shared, adding that a special smog table can be established in hospitals from the place citizens can get assist referring to smog-related problems, like bronchial asthma.

Crop stubble burning, a major supply of pollution, vehicular exhaust and a drop-off in wind speeds have annoyed the smog in and around New Delhi, which is likely to irritate around November 7, when fireworks will activate to have a good time the key Hindu festival of Diwali.

Crop-Burning Is Not The Main Cause of Smog in Pakistan: Study

A Recent learn about has published that crop residue burning in the agricultural sector isn’t the primary contributor to smog and air air pollution in Pakistan. There are other larger factors which reason air air pollution instead of the observe of crop-burning by means of farmers. The findings are a part of a find out about, which used to be carried out to research the reasons of smog and the rural sectors’ part in it. It used to be executed by United Nation’s Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under its challenge Remote Sensing for Spatio-Temporal Mapping of Smog (R-SMOG). The document claims to be the primary evidence of its type based on geospatial research. The study’s purpose is to help government establishments in removing smog.

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Findings of the learn about divulge that the agriculture sector was simplest third in the checklist, with the shipping sector topping the checklist through causing 42% of air air pollution. This is followed by way of 25% from the industrial sector and 20% from the agriculture sector. The FAO world technical professionals reviewed the research findings with the help of knowledge, methods, and equipment validated by means of a wide array of Pakistani professionals and institutions. FAO world technical mavens also reviewed the findings of the find out about.


Punjab Agricultural Minister, Malik Nauman, who was the executive guest in the launching ceremony, stated the Punjab govt is already taking measures to mitigate the smog menace. He mentioned the PTI-led executive used to be committed to offering a hygienic setting to the general public and that’s why Prime Minister Imran Khan started the tree plantation campaign.

Common weeds in Wheat fields of Pakistan

The dominant weeds prevailing in wheat crops were Avena fatua, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Malva parviflora, Melilotus indica, Medicago denticulata, Phalaris minor and Rumex dentatus. Following is the list of coomon weeds in Wheat fields of Pakistan:

Common Name
Dumbi Sitti
Technical Name
Phalaris minor

Common Name
Jangli Jai
Technical Name
Avena fatua
Common Name
Bathu
Technical Name
Chenopodium album
Common Name
Krund
Technical Name
Chenopodium murale
Common Name
Jangli Palak
Technical Name
Rumex dentatus
Common Name
Matri
Technical Name
Lathyrus aphaca

Common Name
Billi booti
Technical Name
Anagallis arvensis
Common Name
Mena
Technical Name
Medicago polymorpha
Common Name
Leh
Technical Name
Cirsium arvense

Common Name
Revari
Technical Name
Vicia sativa

New guar gum-based hydrogel can help save drought-hit crops

The guar gum-based hydrogel is biodegradable and provides organic content to the soil upon degradation. Scientists have developed a hydrogel from gum of guar (cluster bean) that can increase soil moisture and help farmers save their crops in case of water shortage. Hydrogels are community of polymers that can hang great amount of water and are broadly utilized in diapers and sanitary napkins. Synthetic hydrogels are, alternatively, no longer readily biodegradable and their degradation merchandise are considered to be hazardous for atmosphere.

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“The Guar gum-based hydrogel is biodegradable. Besides increasing moisture content, it adds organic content to the soil upon degradation,” explained Nandkishore Thombare, a scientist at Ranchi-based Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums and a member of the analysis group, while speaking to India Science Wire. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) had previous evolved and effectively commercialised a semi-synthetic hydrogel, popularly known as Pusa Gel. It was discovered to save water-stressed crops. “Our work is similar to previous research in principle but we have used a different starting material. Pusa gel uses cellulose and zeolites while we have relied on Guar gum,” Thombare stated.

The hydrogel used to be discovered to take in as much as 800 ml water in keeping with gram and improved porosity, moisture absorption and retention capability of the soil considerably. Water maintaining capacity of soil greater up to 54 per cent of its unique and porosity also higher up to 9 per cent of its unique.

A microscopic analysis of the newly-synthesised hydrogel showed spongy surface and each macro and micro pores which allowed direct penetration of the water resulting in upper swelling capability as in comparison to non-porous and compact surface of guar gum. While the utmost water maintaining capability of untreated soil used to be discovered to be 33.59 according to cent, addition of zero.three in step with cent of powdered hydrogel advanced the capacity through round 54 according to cent.

Addition of hydrogel also diminished bulk density of the soil signifying higher porosity by way of 9 in keeping with cent. Higher porosity improves soil aeration and microbial depend thus bettering total high quality of the soil.

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“Guar gum-based hydrogels have a good potential in agriculture because of their high water absorption capacity and biodegradability. But the study does not mention the degraded products and post-polymerisation effects. The residual effect of grafters and crosslinkers on microorganisms is also not clear,” commented ok S V Poorna Chandrika, scientist with agricultural chemistry department of the Hyderabad-based Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, who isn’t attached with the study.

The analysis team additionally wants to paintings further on the hydrogen it has developed. “We need increase shelf life of the product as its absorption capacity declines over time. Our next plan is to standardise the synthesis process of the product to address that issue. We also need to test its scalability,” Thombare said.

In addition to Thombare, the analysis crew included Sumit Mishra, M. Z. Siddiqui, Usha Jha, Deodhari Singh and Gopal R Mahajan. The study has been published within the magazine Carbohydrate Polymers. e

China dominating in rice could offer export opportunities

As it has with different crops, together with cotton, corn and wheat, China is fast changing into the 800-pound gorilla on this planet’s rice markets.Based on what’s happened in recent times, China is now the highest manufacturer, top client, most sensible stockholder, top importer and a “rising exporter” of rice, in step with a USDA Foreign Agriculture Service global economist.

“One thing to note, as was highlighted in the February 2018 Grain World Market and Trade Report, is China has strengthened its importance in global rice trade not only as an importer but now strikingly also as an exporter,” says USDA’s Rachel Trego.

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Trego, who is staff chief for food grains analysis at USDA-FAS’ Office of Global Analysis, said China’s exports have been quite restricted on account of the high home rice prices within the country till recent months. Most Chinese exports have tended to be to the nearby regional markets equivalent to South Korea, Mongolia and Hong Kong.

Part of that, Trego says, is that China has begun resuming exports to Africa. “These dwindled and just about were right down to nothing by the point of 2012, but, in 2017, approximately two-thirds of Chinese exports have been to Africa.

“There have been a couple of reasons they have been able to enable these exports. China has begun to have some more available supplies of some of the multi-year-old rice from the stocks. China is beginning to auction off and have increasing amounts of sales from the auctions of some of the 2013 rice from the government temporary reserves.”

Less from Thailand

Meanwhile, the volume of rice Thailand has been exporting, especially to Africa, has dwindled, as Thailand is left with handiest the no-longer-good-for-human intake rice inside the country’s home shares.

“Given Thailand’s ending of exporting especially low-priced rice to Africa, China has been able to see some in roads into Africa, as well as beyond,” said Trego, who’s a regular contributor to USDA’s World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates.

“Notably, China’s average export price as reported by China’s custom data developed precipitously in 2017, and this has been quite interesting in that the Chinese customs data also shows that the exports have primarily been of medium-grain rice. Seeing prices in the $500 per range on average for total exports is certainly a shift from where they have been in the past.”

With China changing into a most sensible importer of rice, as neatly, U.S. growers are asking the place the U.S. stands on its skill to faucet into the Chinese import marketplace, which prior to now has been confined basically to within sight rice-producing nations such as Burma and Cambodia.

“USDA has been working actively on a phytosanitary protocol for access of rice to China, and this process has lasted for more than a decade,” Trego mentioned. “On the U.S. aspect, USDA’s Animal Plant Health Inspection Service has been running with the AQSIQ, the related agency in China. We had it signed a couple years ago at the technical stage, however we have been looking forward to it to be signed at the political degree, which was in the end achieved in 2017.

“Although the phytosanitary protocol has been signed, there remain a few steps, including a questionnaire that has been sent to the United States regarding some of the facilities as well as audits,” Trego famous. “While the phytosanitary protocol has been signed, there are still some steps to take before we can begin to see U.S. shipments of rice to China.”

Judging from Chinese home prices relative to one of the most California export costs, U.S. export quotes from time to time were less than Chinese retail prices. “That may suggest some opportunities to be able to ship to China if given the opportunity once the phytosanitary protocol and the necessary arrangements are accomplished,” Trego said.

Types of rice

During the query and answer consultation of the webinar, Trego used to be requested what kinds of U.S. rice could be aggressive in China’s markets?

“The predominant suppliers right now to the China market have been some of the neighboring countries that are sending long-grain rice,” she stated. “As noted from that exporter export quote chart previous, the Asian costs for long-grain are somewhat somewhat lower than those for the U.S.

“So for long-grain it would primarily be focusing on some of the high-end and niche markets. China has been importing, especially because of price, but also because of concerns on food safety, and so really targeting the high end would be helpful for that on long grain.”

For the medium- and short-grain, China has a Tariff Rate Quota for medium-grain, and the U.S. is a foremost medium-grain exporter and is reasonably competitive. “Given the price chart I shared earlier for Chinese retail versus U.S. prices, given the limited competition from other medium-grain suppliers in that market, there could be some great opportunities.”

Agroecology in Action: Forest-Friendly Farming in Ethiopia

On the International Day of Forests, Nicolas Mounard, CEO of Farm Africa, urges motion to rescue the unwell voluntary carbon market that woodland communities in Ethiopia are counting on. Building farmers’ incomes from forest-friendly companies and the sale of carbon credits is the primary approach profiled in our new weblog collection “Agroecology in Action”, produced forward of the Second International Symposium on Agroecology held by way of the FAO in Rome from three-fifth April 2018.

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The stress that exists between agriculture and environmental conservation is likely one of the oldest on file. Balancing the needs of rural folks to utilise herbal assets to devour and earn an income with the global want to protect the environment is a tall order – but there are lots of tactics it can be completed.
At Farm Africa, finding the equilibrium between those two priorities is in our DNA. In Africa, where hunger levels are high and productivity is low, boosting the productiveness of smallholder farmers is essential. But its environmental cost will have to be minimised. Future generations depend on the continent’s vast forests and watersheds closing intact.

The time period “agroecology” was once coined over 50 years in the past to explain the interactions between agriculture and the environment. Now more than ever, as meals production is threatened through a changing climate, rising populations and a dwindling useful resource base, we need to attempt to search out effective techniques to steadiness those two priorities.

The time period “agroecology” was once coined over 50 years in the past to explain the interactions between agriculture and the environment. Now more than ever, as meals production is threatened through a changing climate, rising populations and a dwindling useful resource base, we need to attempt to search out effective techniques to steadiness those two priorities.

Farm Africa is taking motion with the foundations of agroecology in mind. Our programmes analyse ecosystems and paintings with communities on solutions that will benefit each farmers and the local surroundings. Taking Ethiopia for instance, in the low-level rangelands of the Oromia region, this usually comes to improving options for animal feed, in order that grazing can also be saved out of safe spaces. At mid-range altitudes, where livelihoods depend extra on farming than livestock keeping, we now have been operating to introduce high-yielding potato sorts, in order that extra plants can be produced on less land. One contemporary good fortune story then again, comes from the highland forests of the Bale eco-region within the Oromia area of Ethiopia. Building forest-friendly livelihoods in Bale Due to high poverty ranges in Bale, the federal government has found it tricky to keep watch over emerging levels of deforestation. People are driven to chop down the wooded area for food and firewood. Farm Africa has been operating within the region since 2006, helping the neighborhood expand forest-friendly businesses, akin to beekeeping and wooded area espresso production. These businesses have provided economic incentives to cut back the land clearing that used to be up to now going on. Tree planting and the introduction of improved cookstoves have also helped to reduce the unsustainable harvest of fuelwood.

The advantages are clear for farmers like Tahrir Malima. Before, he was once making 20-30 Ethiopian birr consistent with kilo of coffee ($0.30). When his co-operative signed an agreement with the native govt to take part in forest management, he won coaching on espresso harvesting, drying and storing easy methods to preserve the espresso’s unique flavour and to permit his co-operative to command a greater value at the market. He now sells espresso at as much as 50 Ethiopian birr in step with kg, which means he not needs to chop down timber to supplement the cash he makes from espresso. He has invested his further source of revenue in his children’s schooling, and beamed with delight as he showed us the brand new house he has built with a corrugated iron roof that offers a long way higher protection from the elements.

However, the income that forest-based enterprises generates tends to be small compared to what may well be earned by means of converting forests into cropland. This truth spurred Farm Africa to introduce a supplementary source of income for woodland communities to further incentivise them to offer protection to the wooded area: the sale of carbon credit.

In environmental phrases, Farm Africa estimates that the combination of income from wooded area enterprises and the anticipation of income from the sale of carbon credits in the Bale area has stored 12,496 hectares of woodland between 2012 and 2015. The decreased deforestation stopped five.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (MTCO2) from being released into the atmosphere, the similar to taking 1.2 million passenger-driven automobiles off the street for twelve months, consistent with the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

To combat deforestation, woodland degradation and land use alternate which accounts for approximately 12 per cent of carbon emissions, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) developed the REDD+ initiative, a scheme that allows developing nations to promote carbon credit for reductions in carbon emissions generated via avoided deforestation and forest degradation. Communities like the ones we paintings with in Bale have shown that curbing deforestation and lowering carbon emissions through this pathway is conceivable, and that this will also be carried out sustainably.

Urging action to rescue an ill carbon marketplace

The idea behind REDD+ was once easy and compelling: communities can be paid for preserving their native forests. The deal used to be easy: don’t lower down timber, prevent carbon emissions and generate income by selling carbon credit. Forest communities stepped ahead, made the hassle and generated the credits. Sadly, there is a primary discrepancy in the provide and demand. Millions of tonnes of carbon credits are languishing unsold. The quantity traded on the voluntary market fell sharply in 2016 by way of 24%, and credits equal to 56.2 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide were reported as unsold around the marketplace that year.

The marketplace is on the brink of cave in, with an ever-increasing supply of credits a ways exceeding the private sector’s demand for them. Collapse of the market could spell disaster for global efforts to curb deforestation and cut back carbon emissions. Carbon credit have been generated in good faith through wooded area communities in anticipation of being financially rewarded for their conservation efforts, however that income has did not materialise. This means they might go back to having to convert forests into agricultural land to feed themselves. They have been let down via the global private sector’s lack of will to pay for conservation.

Promoting forest-friendly livelihoods has confirmed to be an effective way to advance each agricultural and environmental targets, the balancing act at the middle of agroecology. Now is the time for companies and governments, those most liable for top carbon emissions, to step up to take the time to ensure communities obtain the praise they expect and deserve for safeguarding forests and decreasing emissions.

A fifth of the world’s healthy land degraded in 15 years

First land degradation evaluate document by way of UNCCD presentations nations in emergency mode to halt land degradation through 2030 By Richard Mahapatra The global needs emergency steps to prevent desertification that now grips virtually all nations. This emerged clearly after the first day of the 17th Session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation (CRIC17) of the United Nation’s Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in Guyana.

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The preliminary evaluate record circulated by the Secretariat of UNCCD reveals that in the first 15 years of the millennium, 20 in keeping with cent of the world’s productive and healthy land has degraded.
More to it, drought and desertification now have an effect on 169 countries that lead to land degradation. The evaluate is in line with data submitted by way of 135 international locations. Land degradation affects over 3.2 billion other folks on the planet.

In October 2015, after the sector adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), the 12th Conference of events to UNCCD counseled the SDG Target 15.3. Under this goal is an idea referred to as land degradation neutrality. By September 2018, 77 international locations have set targets to halt land degradation, and 46 of the ones were formally followed via governments

Arguably, that is for the first time the sector has standardised information from international locations to make an estimate of land degradation and the unfold of desertification. “The first piece of good news is that we know more and more about what is going on… how much land we have degraded globally in the first 15 years of this millennium, how life has changed for the communities living on degraded lands, how droughts are evolving globally, the changing status of endangered biological species, and the financial resources available to address desertification,” says Monique Barbut, Executive Secretary of the Convention. Joseph Harmon, Minister of State, Guyana, the host nation, says, “The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development globally.”

Arguably, that is for the first time the sector has standardised information from international locations to make an estimate of land degradation and the unfold of desertification. “The first piece of good news is that we know more and more about what is going on… how much land we have degraded globally in the first 15 years of this millennium, how life has changed for the communities living on degraded lands, how droughts are evolving globally, the changing status of endangered biological species, and the financial resources available to address desertification,” says Monique Barbut, Executive Secretary of the Convention. Joseph Harmon, Minister of State, Guyana, the host nation, says, “The continuing degradation of land and soils is a severe threat to the provision of ecosystem services and economic development globally.”

Barbut, also, cautions that given the level of the issue, countries are still no longer doing enough relating to land governance, education, demography and land use planning. She appeals them to be “brave” to take in urgent movements to curb desertification and land degradation. However, there appears to be spike in governments’ efforts to battle desertification in recent times. In the final 4 years on my own, 82 international locations have committed to forestall land degradation by way of 2030. More than 40 international locations have now drought management plans, including India, that purpose to mitigate droughts. “Momentum is with us,” says Barbut.

Kitchen gardening – which vegetables to grow in summer

Today i am going to proportion an important subject Kitchen gardening – which vegetables to develop in summer. Here are some of the greens which can be grown in summer in lahore, karachi, peshawar and different similar climates. The perfect time to plant those greens is from February 15 to March 31. But you’ll be able to plant/sow them any time between March and May relying upon the type of vegetable.

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For seeds, combine outdated manure or leaf compost & soil in 1:4 and for seedling transplant or mature vegetation in 2:5.Prepare a soil mix which is unfastened, doesn’t compact and drains smartly for instance in the event you water them in huge volume it must drain totally in 1 minute.. if the water is status then upload small amount of sand in it. Mix neatly with neatly rotted manure which has no scent..

 Okra (ladyfinger) – Bhindi بھنڈی Suitable for pots as well. Sown in February for April crop and however in June/July for September crop.

 Bitter gourd (karela) کریلہ  Mint (pudina) پودینہ Suitable for pots as well.

 Aubergine/ Egg plant (brinjal) Baingan بینگن. Suitable for pots as neatly.Does neatly with well manured soil, however watch out not to over-water or over-feed.

 Bottle gourd (lauki) کدو, ridge gourd (tori) توری and inexperienced gourd (tinda) ٹینڈا Sown in March and April for End May crop. Then once more in June/July for September crop

 Tomato ٹماٹر Suitable for pots as well .

 Spinach پالک

 Capsicum Suitable for pots as smartly

 Cucumber کھیرا That contains hari mirch and shimla mirch. They love heat. Sown in February and March for crop in April

 Sweet Peppers شملہ مرچ Suitable for pots as smartly

 Radish مولی

 Cabbage بند گوبھی

FAO report analyzes the causes of smog in Punjab focusing on agriculture

Lahore: A New find out about analyzing the reasons of smog associated with the agriculture sector with an goal to help government establishments within the building of appropriate policies, motion plans and interventions to alleviate unfavourable results of smog on financial system, health and atmosphere in Punjab was launched in Lahore nowadays. Mr Malik Nauman Ahmed Langrial, Minister for Agriculture, Punjab launched the record. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) beneath its venture R-SMOG (Remote Sensing for Spatio-Temporal Mapping of Smog) has prepared this file upon the request of the Punjab government. This is a first of its sort proof based geospatial analysis which will even give a contribution to findings on emissions and drivers of smog.

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Role of Agriculture and Biotechnology to Eliminate Smog

The contribution of the agriculture sector to smog in the course of the apply of crop residue burning is very important even though it’s only the third sector via air pollutant emissions. Sectoral emission inventory of Punjab displays that the foremost portion of general air pollutant emissions come from the transport sector which holds 43% percentage, adopted by 25% from business sector and 20% from agriculture.

Satellite data of atmospheric pollution are being extensively used globally within the decision-making and environmental management actions of public, personal sector and non-profit organizations. Minister Langrial highlighted the collaboration between government and FAO and preferred the technical reinforce equipped by means of FAO within the preparation of this file. Welcoming members, Ms. Minà Dowlatchahi, FAO Representative in Pakistan stated: “We remain committed to support government efforts to help devise appropriate strategies and action plans to mitigate the contribution of the agriculture sector to causes of smog particularly in relation to crop residue burning. This report provides insights into the importance of the design and implementation of appropriate climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies and actions. In particular, these should be an integral part of any plan for the revitalization of the Agriculture sector.”

Smog is one of the several varieties of air pollutants that motive harm to human functioning. It is most often a mix of several types of pollution (nitrogen oxides, Sulphur oxides, aerosols, smoke or particulates, etc.) with fog. Certain meteorological and climate stipulations also lend a hand these pollution suspend within the decrease atmosphere as a result of which the pollutants form a dense visual layer of smog. In addition, smog is a transboundary issue that requires regional cooperation. The analysis findings, have been reviewed via the FAO world technical mavens on knowledge with a geographical element, strategies and equipment and validated by way of a big selection of Pakistani experts and establishments. Mr Douglas Muchoney , Head of Geospatial Unit at FAO Rome at the occasion stated “ This ia an important study to help us look at the effect of Smog on human health. We also need to remember the pervasive effects of smog on terrestrial and marine and aquatic life and its overall impact on biodiversity.” Using Satellite primarily based measurements to watch and identify the reasons of higher ranges of Smog, the findings determine the relationship between Smog and the follow of rice residue burning practices by farmers within the rice belt of Punjab. The report is aimed toward coverage and choice makers, and recommends the status quo of smog monitoring and early-warning programs. It also highlights the wish to enhance farmers adopt mechanized farming and undertake local weather good practices to lend a hand increase yields. Pakistan suffered one of the crucial very best demise tolls on the earth from air air pollution in 2015, when in step with UN estimates hundreds misplaced their lives because of the high degree of good debris in the air. This phenomenon engulfs several towns in Punjab province particularly Lahore all over the winter months and has advanced into a public health and economic emergency. FAO is also sporting out water accounting in the Indus Basin the usage of geospatial information and techniques. With more than 30 years of enjoy in building and use of geospatial databases, strategies and tools FAO helps nations implement suitable solutions and assists government efforts to create sustainable meals techniques.