Organic livestock farming: benefits, principles, challenges

Introduction to Organic livestock farming:

Organic livestock farming is one among various farming systems that are close to nature & ethics. The use of veterinary drugs & synthetic products in conventional animal farming is continuously increasing the threat to human health. Organic livestock farming method is a land-based activity. In order to avoid environmental pollution, particularly natural sources such as the soil & water, organic production of livestock must in principle present for a close relationship between such production and the land.

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Organic livestock farming not only proves to maintain health & welfare of animals. But is also playing an important role in providing benefits regarding the health of consumers, profit to the producers and sustainability of the environment. Certified organic animals are generally reared by feeding on pastures, fully organic nutrition is provided that is grown and processed by avoiding the use of synthetic pesticides & herbicides. Animals are reared without the use of any genetic modifications & antibiotics or artificial hormones are allowed only when no other option is available that too to a limited extent.

The demand for organic livestock farming is increasing tremendously with the attendant expansion of organic livestock product markets. The presence of developing countries like Brazil & Argentina in exporting the organic livestock products provides welcome opportunities for the other developing countries like India. In order to increase export of organic livestock farming products and develop strong domestic markets a lot of challenges must be overcome by the developing countries. Organic livestock farming has a greater demand & scope in the present global scenario due to more focus on sustainability. Despite its benefits, there are several debatable questions like the circulation of disease organisms, use of medicines & management, etc. regarding organic livestock farming in which further research & re-consideration is needed.

Historical development of Organic livestock farming:

Historically, livestock has always played the main role in organic production systems. During the formative years of the organic livestock movement (the 1920s through the 1950s), the typical organic farms of Great Britain, Continental Europe & North America integrated livestock production with the growth of both food & feed crops.

Livestock provided manure, which is one of nature’s best fertilizers & a good means for recycling nutrients within a crop rotation. Rising organic livestock farming feed alongside food crops, expand rotations; because forage legumes & sod-forming grasses are among the best feeds for ruminant livestock, these soil-building crops physically became part of long sustainable cropping sequences. In such systems, livestock could be fed cull vegetables, weather damaged crops, crop residues, “alternative” grains, and forages & cash crop grains during years of low prices.

Organic agriculture has its roots in traditional agricultural perform in small communities around the world. Farmers passed down knowledge of efficient practices onto subsequent generations. Organic agriculture became observable on a wider scale in the 1960s, when farmers & consumers became concerned that the number of chemicals used in crop & animal production could have negative consequences for human being health & the environment. Since then, it has developed into a more cohesive & organized movement and it is now the fastest growing food sector globally.

Characteristics of organic livestock production systems:

Organic livestock management shall aim to use natural breeding methods, minimize stress, prevent disease, progressively eliminate the use of chemical allopathic veterinary drugs, and maintain animal health & welfare.

Breeds and Breeding

There is a large range of organic farming enterprises. There are farms that focus on scale economies & maximum production efficiency per animal or per hectare. Other farms focus on product quality, self-sufficiency, direct marketing or niche market, etc. These different types of farms may need livestock breeds with different characteristics. At present, organic farmers worldwide keep livestock according to circumstances where breed choice has been based on information from conventional production systems. Such livestock could not be optimally adapted to an organic, low-input farming system.

When animals are genetically adapted to specific or extreme conditions, they will be more productive and production costs will be lower. Also, selecting breeds suitable for the local environment will also safeguard animal health and welfare. Production in intensive systems is associated with high-energy concentrate feeding & regular, prophylactic veterinary treatments and the use of exotic livestock breeds. Livestock breeds developed for use under these circumstances. Organic forage-based livestock systems may need special breeds. Highly productive dairy cows, for example, may endure physiological problems under organic conditions, as they need concentrate.

Feeds and feeding

  • Livestock should be fed with 100 percent physically grown feeds.
  • More than 50 percent should come from farms or formed in the region.
  • Sufficient green fodder must be supplied.
  • Sufficient clean & potable drinking water should be provided.
  • Use of synthetic growth promoters, synthetic appetizers, preservatives, synthetic coloring agents, synthetic amino acids, emulsifiers, urea etc. is prohibited.

Housing:

  • Animals should not be caged, tethered in buildings.
  • Animals should have enough area to graze.
  • Housing must allow sufficient movement.
  • The maximum amount of fresh air & daylight should be provided.
  • Should be reared in herds or flocks of appropriate size.
  • Dry litter material must be used as bedding.
  • Group penning is arranged.
  • The indoor area is complemented by an outdoor area that must be at least 75 percent of the indoor area.

Disease prevention:

  • Selection of breeds to avoid exact diseases. The indigenous breeds are resistant to most of the disease as compared to exotic breeds.
  • Animals should be raised in a manner that promotes good resistance against diseases & infections.
  • Availability of good value feed in outdoor areas strengthens the natural immune system.
  • Adequate space allowance avoids overcrowding & prevents health problems associated with it.
  • Vaccines should be used when diseases cannot be controlled by other manage mental techniques.

Treatment:

  • Avoid reliance upon routine or prophylactic makes use of conventional veterinary medicines.
  • Non-allopathic medicines, herbal medicines & methods, including Homoeopathy, Ayurvedic medicine and acupuncture should be emphasized.
  • Conventional veterinary medicines are allowed in case of an emergency. If used, the with-holding period for livestock products should be twice the legal essential period.

Challenges of Organic livestock farming in Developing Countries:Developing countries are already producing a wide range of organic products & many are thriving well. Though, most of them are often faced by a number of constraints, such as:

  1. Lack of technical know-how, for example, organic farming practices & production methods. In most developing countries, practical support is oriented towards using technologies that can enhance productivity per unit input and time. The practical knowledge, how about organic livestock farming is restricted to private companies that have access to export & limited local markets.
  2. Lack of market information, for example, which products to grow, which markets & distribution channels to choose, competition, market access. Although most of the population in the developing countries become aware of the health & environmental hazard of inorganic agricultural products, there are no extensive promotion works concerning the negative impacts of these products & initiation of the use of organic ones. In addition, most governments in developing countries are promoting the common conventional production systems which could hamper the market information about the accessibility of organic agricultural products.
  3. Organically produced foods have to meet strict regulations. Entering this profitable market is not easy. Farmers are denied contact to developed country organic markets for two to three years after beginning organic management since such countries will not certify land & livestock as organic before that time, arguing that it is essential for the purging of chemical residues.
  4. Intensive management & this is why farming is mostly done on a smaller scale.
  5. Organic farming is still faced with the difficulty of higher labor input in its operation. Other studies show that the major reason why organic farming requires more labor is to carry out manual & mechanical tasks essential to growth. The preparation for sale on the farm or on the market involves more labor on organic holdings. In fact, this could be a challenge to organic livestock farming because of the rising flow of the labor force from rural agriculture to urban areas where they could enjoy a better payment.
  6. Organic farming is still hampered by the requirement of clarity: Consumers were not always sure about what was actually covered by organic farming and the restrictions it implied. The reasons for the confusion lay, among further things, in the existence of a number of different “schools” or philosophies, the need of harmonized terminology, the nonstandard presentation of products & the tendency to blur the distinctions between concepts such as organic, natural, wholesome & so on. The situation was worsened by cases of fraudulent utilize of labeling referring to organic methods. In the future, organic livestock products will gain contact to lucrative local markets because of the growing income, urbanization & the increasing demand of animal products and these together with the information on the inclination to the requirements of organic livestock products, will make opportunity for the deceitful use of labeling.

Factors influencing organic livestock farming success:

With regard to the legislative side, it is extremely important to note that regulations on organic production embrace a wide variety of organic farms; they agree to use different animal breeds, structures, agro-ecosystem management, feeding strategies, & marketing strategies. As a consequence, organic the livestock farm’s success & perspectives are really different from one place to another. For example, found that the situation in North Germany was in contrast to the region in the south, where the variability of amount & proportion of the different feed types is predominantly independent of the milk yield. Many factors form these differences, such as the ecosystems on which farms are based and consumers’ demands & willingness to pay.

Animal nutrition: Legislation and market

Animal nutrition constitutes the main pillar of organic livestock production. Therefore, found that feeding strategies among Wisconsin organic dairy farms were the main determinants of herd milk production and income over feed costs. This could serve current organic farmers & transition farmers when considering feeding management changes needed to meet organic pasture rule necessities or dealing with dietary supplementation challenges.

In relation to organic feedstuffs, the mainly important obstacles are the difficulty to find them & their prices. This situation is forced by the farms’ high external dependence of feedstuff due to the decoupling between crops & livestock. These facts decrease the organic livestock farms´ adaptability, & their access to feed additives and materials of high quality. As a result, the organic livestock farming sector faces a big challenge that, along with other factors, has to lead to a situation characterized by organic livestock farms without organic products, which decreases their profitability & future perspectives of success. This has been observed also in beef cattle, dairy cow farms, or other species.

One possible result of overcoming this barrier would be the use of local agricultural by-products for animal nutrition since their price is generally low, and according to, they allow adding to their economic value, while providing an environmentally sound technique for disposal of the by-product materials. Moreover, it would lead to either an increase in the incomes for the organic business that sells such by-products or a decrease in the expenditure related to their disposal.

Opportunities for Organic Livestock Farming in Developing Countries Acceptance by Consumers:

Most consumers wish organic foods because they declare it is tastier, as well as healthier both for themselves & the environment. Consumers are ready to pay additional for organic products. Another reason for Organic products prominence is the opposition to genetically customized food. Under organic livestock production process, consumers expect organic milk, meat, poultry, eggs and leather products, etc. To come from farms that have been inspected to prove that they meet rigorous standards, which permit the use of organic feed, prohibit the use of prophylactic antibiotics & give animal contact to the outdoors, fresh air and sunlight.

Consumer demand for certified organic products is mostly concentrated in North America & Europe with the two regions contributing 96 percent of global revenues of certified organic products. Besides a large variety of organic crop products, major livestock products sold are eggs & dairy products. Even though there is less availability & lack of certification process of organic livestock products in developing countries, most of the people, particularly those living around urban areas in are aware of the beneficiary aspects of organic products & thrive to use these products for consumption. Once if the government of these countries endorses organic livestock farming as a policy and if awareness formed & technical assistance is provided among the communities of both urban & rural areas, people tend to produce more of the organic livestock products so this will increase the supply & compensate the price of products.

Encourages Biodiversity:

Organic livestock farming provides energy for microbial activity & this has been suggested as an indicator of change for soil properties because the size & activity of the microbial quotient is directly related to the amount & quality of carbon available.

Organic livestock farms often explore biodiversity than conventional farms since it is usually with more trees, a wider diversity of crops & many different natural predators, which control pests & help prevent disease.

Livestock farmers could tend to think of insects as pests:

mosquitoes & various flies come to mind. Yet dung beetles & other similar insects help to take manure into the soil, where it feeds the microorganisms & eventually the pasture plants. Pollinators that assist the ecosystem function are beneficial to livestock & insects are vital to the food chain. You can encourage insects by having a diversity of flowering plants & by not using broad-spectrum insecticides

Benefits of Organic livestock farming:

Environment: Organic farmers & ranchers use practices that reduce impacts on the off-farm environment. They implement plans to avoid manure runoff, instead of using compost as fertilizer it to conserve nutrients. As well, farmers use sustainable practices such as crop rotation & cover crops to maintain soil fertility and protect soil & water quality.

Animal health: Pasture-based diets develop ruminants’ digestive health, making the rumen less acidic. This lower acidity increases the number of beneficial microorganisms that help ferment ruminants’ high-fiber diet. Pasture-based systems have been exposed to reduce hock lesions and other lameness, mastitis, veterinary expenses, & cull rates.

Although livestock is generally the last part of the farm to be certified organic, they are often central to the farm & can contribute to its success. Livestock plays an even critical role in organic farms than they do on conventional farms. Livestock on an organic farm plays the main role in:

Nutrient cycling: a process in which nutrients are returned to the soil through manure & compost. Amending soils with animal manures can increase microbial biomass, enzymatic activity & alter the structure of the microbial community.

Incorporation of feed crops, such as alfalfa, grasses into crop rotations assists to build soil organic matter. Increasing cropping options, adding diversity of the agro-ecosystem.

Weed control: feed crops can be used to suppress & control weeds and animals can be used to graze out weeds on crops or pastures

Preparing the ground for cropping:

Livestock farm such as pigs can ‘Plough’ rough or new land earlier than planting vegetables or grains, reducing tillage & weed control costs.

Interrupting insect & disease cycles by taking land out of cropping.

Adding value to grasslands & promoting the use of green manures Reducing the financial risks of farming by converting lower quality grain crops & screenings into profit and spreading income more evenly over the year.

Organic Certification:

It is a certification procedure for producers of organic food & other organic agriculture products. In general, any business straight involved in food production can be certified, including seed suppliers, dairy farm, farmers, food processors & retailers. Certification is basically aimed at regulating & facilitating the sale of organic products to consumers and also prevents fraud.

The five major certifying bodies which monitor the standards for organic production & having worldwide acceptance are:-

– EU regulation (1804/1999),

– Organic Food Products Acts (OFPA) of USA,

– Draft Guidelines of Codex / WHO/ FAO,

– UK Register of Organic Food Standards (UKROFS)

– International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM)

Steps required for certification:

  1. The local certification group has to be contacted to know their standards as they vary from area to area & type of production.
  2. Study the standards & check by the certification agency if there is anything that is not clear.
  3. Submit a completed application & fees to the certification agency. Confidentiality is secure.
  4. The certification agency’s certification group will consider the application & if anything is in order, will hire a third party inspector to create an on-farm assessment periodically.
  5. The inspector submits a comprehensive report & committee member’s made a decision based on the report & sells products as ‘certified organic’. Some agencies charge licensing fees & have official stickers or labels, which may be purchased.

The followings are the National Standards for Organic Livestock Production (NSOLP) In India:

  • Landscape
  • Fertilization Policy
  • Animal husbandry management
  • Length of the conversion period
  • Brought –in Animals
  • Breeds & Breeding
  • Mutilations
  • Animal Nutrition
  • Veterinary Medicine
  • Transport and Slaughter

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How to improve sugar recovery from cane

DESPITE an build up in space underneath cultivation, timely rain, considered use of fertilisers, advanced cultural practices and higher management, sugar disaster continues to be looming massive within the country. Apart from low procurement value presented by way of mill house owners, one of the crucial major reasons for the crisis is the poor sugar recovery charge from the overwhelmed cane. Sugar recovery here’s infrequently eight according to cent whereas in many countries it’s 12-14 in step with cent. The average cane yield at the charge of 53 ton consistent with hectare is some distance beneath the prevailing doable of the country’s crop.

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Irrespective of coverage and financial components which can be beyond farmers’ succeed in, some necessary measures to scale back the price of production and toughen cane restoration come with improved production practices, nutrient and water control, insects pest control, post-harvest handling along side exploiting the possibility of ratoon crop.

Improved manufacturing practices: Preparatory tillage is crucial operation in sugarcane cultivation. Since sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop penetrating as much as 90cm within soil, tillage practices can assist in development of higher root device and optimal growth of the crop. For right kind enlargement some farmyard manure and inexperienced manure should be added to the soil one month prior to land preparation.

Selection of quality seed is vital for top yield. Seeds for types of sugarcane with variable sugar contents are available in several portions of the country. Sets or cuttings used for propagation must be fresh and juicy, unfastened from insect pest and disease and nine-10 months outdated. Eyes buds for seed will have to be fully advanced from planted crop. The seed should be handled with correct fungicides.

Planting time and method: Appropriate planting method and time greatly affect growth, maturity and yield of the crop.
To maximise production, it is necessary to practice planting times without affecting yield from overdue planting. However, September crop is harvested with higher yield of 25-35 in line with cent and higher sugary recovery due to sumptuous vegetative expansion compared to February plantation.

Appropriate seed charge with proper row or furrow spacing are the important thing to attaining optimum plant population for top manufacturing. Generally for medium to thin types top seed price is used than thick cane with a view to get desired plant inhabitants and to facilitate intercultural operations. Recently, spaced transplanting method with unmarried eye set, paired row and broad furrow row method were presented in neighbouring country; those should even be attempted here.

Nutrient & water management: Water and fertiliser requirements of sugarcane are very top. Framers must deal with irrigations in sugarcane specifically throughout the summer and will have to regulate irrigation requirement according to to be had water at farm level. The crop calls for 16-20 irrigations. Drip irrigation saves 40-70 in step with cent water, improves sugar restoration as much as one in step with cent, will increase fertiliser use efficiency, saves electrical energy in pumping, improves insect and pest keep watch over, and reduces labour prices. Although first of all installation prices are prime, it can be overcome by different benefits.

For correct mineral nutrition of the crop, it will be significant to have knowledge of expansion body structure. However, fertilisers’ potency may also be greater when they’re applied thru irrigation water as in case of drip irrigation.

Pest control: There is need of built-in practices to keep an eye on weeds, bugs and pests in sugarcane to get top yield. These include intercultural practices for weed regulate, earthing up, and alertness of herbicides for correct weed keep watch over with the assistance of technical professionals.
Inter-culture: To stay field unfastened from weeds inter-culture of crop is beneficial because it supplies right kind aeration within the efficient root zone. Hoeing is finished for better aeration water penetrability and weed keep watch over. In sugarcane intercropping of onion, potato and so forth. is finished for buying top economic returns at early stages of cane crop. Inter-crop species should be restorative, now not heavy feeder, with shallow root machine and of brief duration.

Ratoon management: For top advantages ratooning is vital in sugarcane via eliminating the expenses at land preparation, planting subject matter costs and planting bills. By just right irrigation and nutrient management, it is higher to get prime yield from ratoon crop. Ratooning of cane harvested earlier than February is most popular. The sugar restoration in ratoon crop is also higher and it matures earlier than the plant crop.

Cane from the fields to be kept for ratoon should be reduce at ground degree. Sugarcane planted in two row strips 90 cm aside now not most effective ratoon well but in addition gave upper yields for every of three planting treatments than three and four-row strip planting techniques. Fill the gaps; keep watch over the weeds, insect pests and sicknesses correctly. In case of serious attack of any insect, do not stay the crop as ratoon.

For better crop, disease-free, wholesome seeds will have to be used. Preferably disease-resistant sorts treated with fungicide must be planted. Diseased vegetation will have to be got rid of from the sphere and must both be buried or burnt.

The cane will have to be harvested after it has attained maturity obtaining most weight via adopting right technique warding off field losses. Harvesting of both immature or over-aged cane with fallacious method ends up in lack of yield, sugar recovery, deficient juice high quality and problems in milling.
One month prior to harvesting, irrigation must be stopped and the harvested crop must no longer be left within the field for lengthy. If at all stored in the field for longer duration, it will have to be lined with trash. Different sorts should be harvested in keeping with their period of maturity. The crop harvested all over February-March provides excellent ratoon crop.

Several strategies are available to resolve the maturity of the crop in order that it may be harvested at proper time. Many farmers harvest their crop in accordance with its age and appearance. Sometimes farmers harvest the crop even sooner than it attains maturity necessitated by mills call for. Delays in harvesting are also reasonably common, particularly when there’s extra cane space. Harvesting must all the time be at right time using right way for better yield.

In many nations together with ours even nowadays harvesting is finished manually. Among several tools, the chopping blade is normally heavier and facilitates easier and efficient slicing of cane. Manual harvesting calls for professional labour as mistaken harvest ends up in lack of cane and sugar yield, poor juice high quality and problems in milling. But the issue is that harvesting labour is becoming scarce and dear.

There could also be need to establish extra research institutes for the advance of crop manufacturing and higher recovery from the beaten cane with a view to reach autarky in sugar and earn foreign exchange.

New web-based platform to help with micro irrigation

A crew of interdisciplinary scientists have pop out with an online gadget that guarantees to considerably ease the process of making plans and implementing micro-irrigation programs for agricultural fields. With water increasingly turning into a scarce commodity, farmers and different stakeholders in agricultural sector had been looking for novel concepts to develop more crops from the same quantity of water.

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Micro-irrigation programs involving sprinklers, drippers and other such tools are being increasingly deployed. a Big challenge has been in designing them. There is a want to take note several facets such as how much water could be required, the layout, capability and measurement of the water pipe networks and the collection of sprinklers and drippers that must be deployed. It is a tedious process and involves lot of calculations.

The new machine evolved by the analysis team addresses this factor. Called DOMIS (brief form for Design of Micro-irrigation System), it is a web-based utility and is helping design customised micro-irrigation programs for particular person agricultural fields underneath different agro-climatic prerequisites and circumstances for any crop.

DOMIS, which has an interactive graphical interface, works via three major steps. It first partitions all of the field into blocks of specific dimensions. It then determines probably the most appropriate format plan for the pipes. Finally, it estimates the water requirements of the field and vegetation, in response to native agro-climatic and stipulations.

It does its calculations in response to quite a lot of elements including agro-climatic data of the area, sort and density of vegetation and soil sort, besides the sector size. The design gives solutions when it comes to several facets together with dimension of the pipes in addition to kind and collection of sprinklers which are wanted. It can also pop out with an estimate of the largest fraction of the sector which may also be irrigated in a single cross. Besides, it may give an estimate of expenditure which a farmer or grower would want to install this complete machine in his field.
Speaking to India Science Wire, Dr Neelam Patel, who headed the group, mentioned,

“India has a potential of about 69 million hectares which can be covered through micro-irrigation methods and the Government of India has also allotted about Rs 5,000 crore for a programme to set them up. However, presently, putting up a micro-irrigation requires considerable expertise which is not easily available to a common farmer. This application solves the problem. It can be can be accessed through computers as well as smart-phones.”

The online platform, she mentioned, is also designed to offer information about more than a few govt schemes in agricultural sector, companies promoting and implementing micro-irrigation in several states of India. Its database has data with regards to aspects like agro-climatic prerequisites, major vegetation grown, crop characteristics, ground water availability, soil types for about 642 districts of 29 states and 7 union territories of the rustic.

Besides Dr. Patel, the analysis workforce included T.B.S Rajput and Deepak Kumar, from Water Technology Centre of Indian Agricultural Research Centre, New Delhi; Sita Ram from National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Kolkatta; and Sushil Kumar Singla from Department of Land Resources beneath the Union Ministry of Rural Development.

Pakistan warned against deadly wheat pest

The Internati­onal Maize and Wheat Impro­vement Centre (CIMMYT) has cautioned Pakistan to take steps to offer protection to its plants from the ‘fall armyworm’ (FAW), a devastating pest that has been identified for the first time on the Indian subcontinent.

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Director-General, CIMMYT, Dr Martin Kropff, now visiting Pakistan, held a meeting with Minister for National Food Security and Research Sahibzada Mehboob Sultan on Thursday and offered cooperation of the Mexico-based organisation in tackling the prevalent risk of FAW in Pakistan.

“We want that our future cooperation in this regard must continue, and Pakistan may not only ensure a prompt surveillance system but also bring more disease-resistant varieties of wheat and maize,” Dr Martin said.

Native to the Americas, the pest is understood to eat over 80 plant species, with a specific preference for maize, a prime staple crop world wide.

The fall armyworm was once first officially reported in Nigeria in West Africa in 2016, and rapidly unfold throughout 44 nations in sub-Saharan Africa. Sightings of damage to maize plants in India because of ‘fall armyworm’ mark the primary record of the pest in Asia.

The pest has the possible to unfold briefly no longer best within India, but in addition to different neighbouring countries in Asia, owing to appropriate climatic stipulations, in line with a pest alert revealed by means of the National Bureau of Agricultural Research, a part of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Dr Martin stated that CIMMYT is amazed at the remarkable luck of wheat programme in Pakistan. Director CIMMYT’s Global Wheat Programme, Hans Braun emphasised the need to be cognisant of securing the centered yield in wheat as the global local weather trade may pose a really perfect challenge and one Celsius drop in temperature all over the evening time would possibly lower seven according to cent of wheat yield, hence with aggregate of clever interventions and good subsidies, huge ends up in meals safety could be achieved.
Mr Mehboob Sultan appreciated the contributions of CIMMYT in Pakistan since the green revolution and stated that the existing government used to be bold for the revival of agriculture and breakthrough in agro-research.

Blockchain Revolutionizing Agriculture, Food Sectors

A New study presentations that blockchain generation will push into the agriculture and meals supply chain markets. Blockchain era is revolutionizing the agriculture and meals sectors through boosting the decision-making competence of organizations, in keeping with a find out about by means of Research and Markets.

The study, called Blockchain in Agriculture Market (and Food Supply Chain), Application (Product Traceability, Payment and Settlement, Smart Contracts, and Governance, Risk and Compliance Management), Provider, Organization Size, and Region – Global Forecast to 2023, stated that disbursed ledger era (DLT) has attainable applications within the food and agriculture sectors, especially in the spaces of monitoring and traceability, agreement and fee, governance, good contract, possibility, and compliance control.

“The global blockchain in agriculture and food supply chain market is estimated to be valued at $60.8 million in 2018 and is projected to reach $429.7 million by 2023, at a CAGR of 47.8% during the forecast period,” a part of the learn about reads. “According to the FAO, every year about one-third of the food produced globally is wasted, which calls for a need to estimate and manage the actual supply and demand of food products so that these products reach the needy.”
Researchers mentioned that during the blockchain network, issues of food wastage might be quickly and successfully solved. The anticipated build up within the call for for transparency within the provide chain is noticed to spice up the growth of the blockchain marketplace additional.

At the similar time, the study forecasted North America to emerge as the blockchain leader within the meals and agriculture provide chain marketplace between 2018 and 2023 when it comes to price. The North American region represents the economies of the USA and Canada, which cling the most important share of the world’s blockchain in food and agriculture provide chain.
It noted the biggest investments in analysis and building (R&D) of the most recent technology used within the food and agriculture commodities buying and selling comes from North America. This reality will additional push the adoption of blockchain era in the region, the study stated.

In addition, the presence of worldwide era providers, including Microsoft and IBM, within the area, coupled with one of the most greatest shops and meals processors, like McCormick & Co., Dole Food, and Walmart, may just contribute to the quick enlargement of blockchain in the food and agriculture supply chain marketplace in North America.

In August, SOZO CEO Jansen Chok announced the release of the first-of-its-kind decentralized solution for the agriculture and meals industries that were developed by way of execs and farmers with huge experience in food production, agriculture, retail gross sales, and logistics.

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Importance of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) plant due to its several uses benefits to agriculture and industry

Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is very important plant due to its several uses benefits to agriculture and industry. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is occasionally called “Mother Best Friend” and called Miracle tree. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is found to be native to the sub-Himalayan regions of the north-west India and Pakistan. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is a fast growing drought resistant tree and belong to family Moringaceae, with 13 known species. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is easy to grow from seed or cuttings. Its maximum height is 10-12m, while its trunk can reach a diameter of 45 cm. The flower is approximately 1.0-1.5 cm long and 2.0cm wide. Flowering starts with in the first six month of planting.

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It can grow in most soils Such as sandy soils and climatic condition or marginal areas. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) tree is easy to propagate, and is fast to grow. It is found to be the most nutrients rich plant discovered till now. It is a rich source of nutrients amino acids, antioxidants and also has antiaging and anti-inflammatory. Zeatin is present in excess amount in moringa leaves. Growth enhancing compounds like ascorbates, cytokinin, phenolic and minerals like K, Fe and ca make it a tremendous crop growth enhancer. The best use of moringa leaf extract is that it acts as a plant growth enhance , Lab experiments showed that moringa spray had a wide range of beneficial effects on crop like plant resistant to disease  and pest , longer life- span , heavier roots, stem and leaves, produced more fruit, larger fruit, increase in yield 20-30%. It is a deciduous tree.

Erum Rashid, Zahoor Hussain, Shahla Rashid

College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha.

Various sources of plant extract are used but moringa is gaining much attention these days. Moringa leaves roots fruit and flower used as vegetable. Morimga leaves are a source of vitamin A and C, iron, calcium, riboflavin, β- carotene and phenolic acid like growth substances. Moringa leaf extract can be used as biostimulants, hence its leaf extract in water contains growth enhancing substances

These days’ farmers are well about the application of organic fertilizer to improve their production as well as farming land. In order to fill the demand of organic fertilizer, one of such option use of moringa leaf extracts as fertilizer. The nutritional quality of food raised by organic farming in comparison to traditional farming is a current issue that continues to attract interest and generate discussion consumer regard organic food not only as better, but also a safe more hygienic and free of chemical residues and artificial ingredients.

Foliar appliance of moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract helpful for the vigorous growth, deeper root development, seed germination,  and delay of fruit senescence . Moringa leaf extract also improve yield quality /quantity capacity of crop to resist adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, plants treated with moringa leaf extract exhibited more disease and pest resistance. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) control soil borne fungal diseases, might prove to be effective than fungicides. Not only are bio-agents environmentally friendly compared to chemical methods, but they have also been revealed (in several in-vitro studies) to effectively reduce pathogen growth.  Hence different investigation evaluates that foliar application of moringa leaf extract in enhancing fruit set, quality and yield of plants. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract is an organic technology which increases, growth of most vegetable and field crops. This phenomenon is similar to artificial hormonal effect because the extract holds the most common form of naturally occurring cytokinin in plants such as zeatin. The vegetables crops include rape, cabbage and tomato, while field crops include common beans and maize.

Moring (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract is a technology which is cheap and environmentally safe to use. It achieves best when used in combination with artificial fertilizers. Hence it is a very important synergistic component and alternative to synthetic fertilizers for rural poor. Moringa grown at household level it is always accessible and available to the grower. According to different studies Moring (Moringa oleifera L.) have various valuable medicinal effects to humans which include AIDS/HIV related diseases. Moringa has demonstrated to be a potential source for investigation as researcher have motivated their emphasis to “Miracle tree”.

Due to its medicinal properties and health benefits Moringa has been used for centuries. It also has antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant properties. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) may lead to modest reduction in blood sugar and cholesterol. It may also have antioxidant and antiflammatory effects and protect against arsenic toxicity. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves are also highly nutritious and should be useful for people who are lacking of essential nutrients.

Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) has a great possible in improving nutrition and support immune function of poultry and animal. Seed eaten green or dry. Moringa leaves can be used as a feed supplement, to improve feed efficiency of livestock performance. Different studies have shown that the use of moringa seed extract has led to a decrease in heavy metal contamination of groundwater.

Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) tree is one of the large amount nutrient-rich plants in the world. Moringa has several uses for plant and soil such as a natural growth stimulants and green manure. Exogenous appliance of moringa leaf extract, whether it is an aqueous or ethanol extract, improve the production in various crops, because moringa leaf extract possesses great antioxidant activity and rich in plant secondary metabolites such as ascorbic acid and total phenols, making it a potential natural growth tonic. For harsh environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought moringa leaf ethanol extract is a natural plant growth enhancer, low cost and enhances the tolerance of plants in these unfavorable conditions.

Rabbit Farming for Meat

To fulfill the meals demand for growing population, we have to to find out other ways of meals manufacturing. The rabbit known as “Micro-Livestock” generally is a great supply of food manufacturing. There is a great opportunity of rabbit farming in our country. Rabbit needs small position and no more food for survival. Rabbit meat contains high ratio of protein, power, calcium and vitamin than other species of animal.

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The cholesterol fat and sodium is less than other meat. The meat of rabbit may be very testy, easily ate up and all non secular people can consume it. They grows very fast and the female rabbit produce 2-8 baby every time.

Rabbit Farming for Meat

They eat very low quality food and make prime quality of meat. Raising rabbit is usually a great source of revenue supply to the unemployed people and landless farmers. So, we need to elevate rabbit to meet the call for of protein in addition to to scale back poverty from our society.

We generally elevate rabbit as puppy. But if we raise them commercially then it will be a perfect source of source of revenue and a wonderful means of employment. The annual demand of meat in our country is about six million lots. But most effective a million lots of meat produced in our country, remainder of the meat we import from foreign nation.

According to the call for simplest 15-20 % of animal protein comes from the cattle which could be very less compared to the requirement. Further, this demand is increasing with population expansion.

An grownup person needs 120 grams of meat day-to-day. But we get best 20 grams on a mean. So, we will consider rabbit farming as a possible direction of animal protein. It is so easy to take care of rabbit farm than other animals. Every particular person of the circle of relatives can handle it.

Species of Rabbit:
There are many species of rabbit are available in our country. Among those Dark Gray (inner), Fox, Dutch, New Zealand White, New Zealand Black, New Zealand Red, Belgium White and Chinchilla are maximum favourite.

Rabbit Meat Quality
In many analysis it has discovered that, young rabbit meat is very top quality than the grownup rabbit meat. And the meat quality of male rabbit is high than female rabbit meat.


In many analysis it has discovered that, young rabbit meat is very top quality than the grownup rabbit meat. And the meat quality of male rabbit is high than female rabbit meat.

The quantity of ldl cholesterol and lipids increases and decreases protein with the increase of the rabbit age. On the opposite hand, female rabbit meat contains more lipid, fats and cholesterol.

Benefit of Rabbit Farming:
There are many benefits of farming rabbit. The primary advantages of raising rabbit in step with our country economic and ecological condition are described bellow.

.The rabbit is a very fast breeding animal.
.Their food changing fee is best than different animals.
.One female rabbit can provide delivery 2-eight child rabbit at a time.
.Rabbit will also be raised in a short place.
.More manufacturing can also be made in little cost.
.Rabbit meat may be very nutritious.
.In meat production it has a place after poultry.
.Wast subject matter of the kitchen, grass, plant leaves and so forth. are favourite food of rabbit. So, we will be able to elevate them using this commodities.
.Family exertions can be successfully carried out to rabbit farming.

Method of Raising Rabbit:
With a small investment we will be able to make area for rabbit in our house backyard or in development roof and get started rearing rabbit. We could make house for rearing rabbit in two methods.

Deep Litter Method:
This means is acceptable for less quantity of rabbit. The flooring will have to neatly made concrete. 4-5 inches intensity litter must make with husk, rice straw or wooden lath. In this technique at most 30 rabbit can be raised. The male rabbit will have to keep in a separate room from the female. In this method the possibilities of being suffering from sicknesses is prime. Moreover, it is vitally tricky to control the rabbit in this system.

Cage Method:
To stay rabbit commercially this technique is the most efficient. In the program the rabbit are saved in a cage made with iron plate. This cage could be very useful for raising more rabbit. In each and every cage it need to have the facilities of vital space. Male and female rabbit should stay break free every different. They should stay in identical rood when thy want mating to supply child rabbit.

Food Management
Food eating rate and nutrient requirements varies in step with the rabbit age and species. For right kind nutrition of an adult rabbit its food must contain 17-18 % crude protein, 14 p.c fiber, 7 % minerals and 2700 kilo calorie/kg of metabolic power.

Green leafy greens, seasonal vegetable, spinach greens, carrots, Muller, cucumber, inexperienced grass and vegetable wast can easily used as the food of rabbit. For business goal poultry food can also be served to feed the rabbit. Accordance with right kind food management they will have to provide sufficient water in line with their call for. Thus a farmer can be good fortune in rabbit farming.

Like organic, transition to digital farming needs support

Changing farming practices is at all times dangerous and if we wish EU farmers to enter the digital generation, we wish to enhance them financially for a certain transition period, as has been the case with switching to organic farming, agriculture skilled Luc Vernet instructed EURACTIV.

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“When a farmer changes his practices there is always a risk. For instance, when they go organic, there is a risk to face, because they change the production model and may be confronted with 2-3 difficult years of important losses,” Vernet said.

“If we want farmers to go digital, we need to secure them for a certain transition period of time and I think eco-scheme could do that,” he added.

Vernet, a senior marketing consultant at Farm Europe suppose tank, which specialises in EU agricultural affairs, commented at the European Commission’s proposals for the post-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), stressing that they lack a vision for digitisation.

“We need a common vision and strong leadership in order to create a dynamic in the sector. If we don’t do anything, we will only have an elite of big farmers in a position to invest in the new digital tools,” he warned.

“What is the new model? The Commission basically says ‘we don’t know what the future is’ and asks the member states to come up with a vision and find the proper policy by themselves,” the French professional emphasised.

For Vernet, digital farming will have to take centre degree for two reasons: first for the reason that profitability of Europe’s farming sector is low and secondly as a result of the use of inputs should be decreased.

“We currently have this debate on chemicals and precision agronomy. How can we make sure that in the future agriculture does not disturb the ecosystem but plays with it in order to be productive and efficient by using fewer resources?” he wondered.

“With precision agriculture, farmers will be able to water only when it’s necessary and use the right quantity in order to optimise the production. In terms of pest and disease control, we know that either chemical or organic are toxic.”

“If we don’t use them, we will go back to the old days, where we had food security issues. We need to control the diseases in a wise way. Clearly, digital farming is the way.”

The agri-food business has criticised the Commission’s proposals on the sector’s digitisation, saying that they disproportionally focal point on controls and no longer on a transition toward precision farming practices. By using satellite tv for pc systems like Copernicus, the EU government targets to simplify and optimise controls.

The eco-scheme

Vernet defined that the eco-scheme provision in the Commission’s proposals is an “empty box” as only a few part of the finances shall be devoted to green measures, on a voluntary basis.

“Why don’t we design the eco-scheme at the EU level in a way that supports certain transitions? A transition which will have a double objective: the economic and environmental. If we want to have sustainable agriculture in 5-10 years’ time, it has to be profitable as well,” he added.

“We could focus the eco-scheme on digital, precision farming, conservation farming all the models that are emerging and we see that are profitable for the farmers and the society,” he said.

In addition to the eco-scheme, Vernet also suggests improving the funding measures in the second Rural Development pillar.

In an interview with EURACTIV Romania, EU Agriculture Commissioner Phil Hogan stressed out that with the brand new delivery style, it’s as much as the member states to decide how they’ll use their finances to digitise the sector.

But for Vernet, this may increasingly lead EU member states to a deadlock, as the EU government proposes a large cut in the second one pillar and the income support, and within the period in-between it tells the member states: do higher with less.

“If such a proposal goes through, member states will have to keep the income support and simultaneously invest with 23% less money in the second pillar. If we don’t have a strong EU-wide orientation, the member states won’t have the capacity to drive the sector in a certain direction. The proposal gives no room to member states to drive a change in agricultural policy.”

The professional praised the Commission, on the other hand, for its “string push” to extend the capability of advisory services.

“Owning a GPS does not make you a digital farmer. We need to work on an eco-system around digitisation where you have the farmers making the decisions, with the right tools, but also the cooperatives and advisors that can transform big data into meaningful precision agronomy.”

He mentioned that today, this eco-system is fragmented, as the primary actors of digital farming are coping with items of the farmers’ puzzle: precision nutrient, precision seeding or precision irrigation, amongst others.

12 hybrid rice varieties to be available from July

At least twelve new hybrid rice ­types will probably be to be had to farmers for cultivation ­throughout the following Kharif crop season starting in July. The new varieties were licensed through the Variety Evaluation Committee of Pakistan Agriculture Coun­cil (Parc) in Islamabad on Wednesday after reviewing twenty-six proposals.

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Research on these sorts was performed at the rice research laboratory of National Agriculture Research Centre. A senior reliable of NARC told Dawn that following the approval by the committee, the brand new hybrids of rice can now be imported from China.

So some distance, 130 different varieties of rice have been developed of which at least twelve varieties are recently sown by means of farmers in rice rising spaces of the country. Punjab is the most important with regards to the crop’s manufacturing, adopted by Sindh after which the remaining portions.

In addition to the 12 types, an open pollinated variety of rice for business cultivation was additionally licensed through the committee. While farmers can keep seeds of pollinated rice selection, the hybrid needs to be modified after every crop.

Parc chairman briefed the committee in regards to the upcoming initiatives on rice beneath the Prime Minister’s ‘National Agriculture Emergency Programme’. Presiding over the variety evaluation committee assembly, Member Plant Sciences Division of PARC, Dr Abdul Ghafoor emphasized the function of quality seed for productiveness and profitability of farmers.

Representatives of seed companies favored the role of Parc for atmosphere new benchmarks for checking out of rice varieties in Pakistan.