Pink Bollworm: Biology And Host Preference in Laboratory

Scientific Name: Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders

Family: Gelechiidae


Stages of Pink Bollworm

Pink bollworm has 4 stages that is egg, larvae, pupa and adult.


Eggs are elongating and oval having 0.1mm length and 0.5mm width. Newly laid eggs are slightly greenish in colour but at maturity they turned reddish.


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The larvae are white with a dark head at initial stage.  The full-grown larvae are 10 to 12 mm long and are white with a double red band on the upper portion of each segment.


The pupa is almost 8 to 10 mm long, reddish brown; posterior end pointed and terminating in a short, no long setae, spines or hooks, except on last joint. At maturity, the pupa becomes much darker; the adult’s eyes can be seen prominently under the gena of the pupal skin, and the segmentation of the adult antennae and legs becomes discernible.

Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Ayesha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib.

Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad.


They are brown with a wingspan of 15 to 20 mm. 

The adults are dark-brown moths measuring about 12 to 20 mm across the wings. The head is reddish brown with pale, scales. Antennae are brown and the basal segment bears a pecten of five or six long hair-like scales. The have scaled proboscis.  

Forewings are elongating and oval, pointed at the tips and bearing a wide fringe. The hind wings are broader than the fore wings, and silvery gray in colour with a darker, iridescent hind margin.

Host preference of pink bollworm larvae:

Cotton bolls were collected from cotton sticks placed at field area of Entomological Research Institute, (AARI) Faisalabad. Cotton bolls were brought into Biological Control Laboratory. The larvae were separated from cotton bolls into a petri dish (6cm×0.5 inches). Further these larvae were used to check the host preference. The environmental conditions were 25 ± 30 % RH and 55 ± 65 ®C Temperature.

Three Choice Bioassay:

A glass petri dish (15 cm× 2.5 cm) was used having weight of 218.39 grams. Three hosts including okra, Abelmoschusesculentus, cotton, Gossypiumhirsutumand tomato, Solanum lycopersicum after weighing themthose were placed in petri dish at different positions. okra (3 g), cotton (2.53 g), tomato (5.81g). It was observed that larvae moved towards cotton boll after 6 minutes and started feeding.However, it reached on okra after 10 minutes. This showed that larvae preferred cotton as compared to other hosts.

Two Choice Bioassay:

 In the presence of okra and tomato, it preferred okra but didn’t feed as good as on cotton. Similarly, in case of cotton +tomato and okra +tomato, it preferred cotton and tomato respectively.

Free Choice Bioassay:

In free choice assay, above three hosts were placed in separate petri dishes and larvae was released at centre and stop watch was on. It was observed that towards cotton boll larvae moved within 4 minutes and start feeding, while it moved towards okra after 8 minutes and didn’t feed well and it reached on tomato almost after 15 minutesbut didn’t feed at all.

Rice Production in Myanmar/Paddy Cultivation in Myanmar

Rice Production in Myanmar/Paddy Cultivation in Myanmar


Rice remains the main food in Myanmar. In terms of the production of rice, Myanmar is placed in the sixth position in the world’s rice production. Grown on ver 8 million ha, meaning that more than half of the country’s arable land, rice is the country’s most important crop not only in terms of countries GDP but also in providing the food security for the country and the rest of the world. The country has seen significant growth from 18 million tonnes to 22 million tonnes of rice production from 1995 to 2010. The growth is accounted for the expansion of the area and yield increase with advanced techniques.

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Despite having explosive growth in production, Myanmar has seen a dramatic drop in the in the rice exports during the period. It was attributed to the drastic growth of the country’s population that needed more food. Although the country’s annual per capita rice consumption has been declined slightly from 170 kg to 141 kg during 1990 and 2009; however, the total rice consumption has been increased by more than 60% in the same period on the account of the surge in population size. In parallel to the small drop in consumption of rice per capita, caloric intake per person from rice has been declined from 68.4% (1,451 kcal) per day to 48.3% (1,204 kcal) during the same period; however, it has been supplied from the other crops from 23.7% per day to 34.3% per day in the same period. This decrease in per capita from rice has shown the daily protein intake falling sharply from 63.6% to 34.5%. Looking back in history, Myanmar has been stood as a major rice exporter in the world, but this role has become dull due to multiple reasons in recent years.

Despite the negative situations, rice is the most important crop for Myanmar agriculture that dominates the country’s economy, but it still has great potential to increase rice production by the improvement in the several aspects such as land reclamations, effective mechanization and inputs, and good infrastructure development in both rural and urban areas. Unfortunately, the country is now importing the rice about 0.02 million tonnes annually. As the long-term trend in per capita, rice production has been reduced, the agriculture needs to be reformed and revitalized through the climate resilient and advanced technologies to bring the past glory of the country in the rice exports and increase the protein intake of the country.

Economic Contribution of the Agriculture in Myanmar

Major occupation in Myanmar is agriculture, but it possesses moderate natural resources in several parts of the country; therefore, agricultural production has been dramatically decreased. The agricultural sector contributes around 13.7% of total export earnings, and a shared GDP of 37.8%, by which the country employs 61.2% of the labor force. Owing to the various agro-ecological

conditions and large arable land area in Myanmar, several agricultural products are produced abundantly. Among all agricultural activities, rice is the major crop in terms of both the economy and food security of the country. Therefore, efficient rice production would secure more income and the export revenues for the country because the paddy production alone accounted for about 35% of the total crop area in Myanmar. Therefore, the rice farming in Myanmar potentially makes a crucial step for the reduction of the poverty, improvement in the food security for all farms, fostering a more dynamic rural sector and making the agriculture as a dynamic contributor to the national economy.

Rice Producing Zones in Myanmar

Myanmar has enormous land, good water resources, and a suitable climate for rice farming. A majority of Myanmar’s sown area is planted as the rainfed rice crop during southwest monsoon season (June-August ), whereas summer seasonal rice farming is between November and February in the lower part of the country, and in the central dry zone regions, the farming is from January to March. The rice growing in the country takes about 5-6 months. Few varieties of rice are harvested in November-December including the Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon region in the lower Myanmar. The rice-growing places in Myanmar include rainfed lowland in late-sown and Main area, irrigated lowland, deepwater, and upland. During the monsoon period, rainfed lowland is the area sown bit late in the usual season. Mayin rice can be transplanted only after the monsoon when floodwater recedes. The largest of the ecosystems, the rainfed lowland, and deepwater rice are confined to the delta region and coastal strip of Rakhine State. According to the statistics, nearly 60% of the delta region, including the Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon region of Lower Myanmar, is cultivated the rice under the rain feeding. Based on the rainfall and hydrologic patterns, irrigation is critical in Myanmar’s central dry zone, whereas, in the delta, there is more concern about drainage and flood protection. Most of the country’s upland area is found to be in Mandalay, Sagaing, and Shan states. However, some upland area is found in sloping land of Shan State, which is usually cold in the northern winter.

Rice is grown in several parts of the country and the percentage of the rice growing in the states and divisions of the country are as follows. The major portion of the rice growing is in the Delta of the Ayeyarwady River comprising of 33.59 % of the total harvested area, which is followed by Bango Division 17.72%, Yangon Division 10.07%, Sagaing Division 8.88%, Shan Stage 5.95%, Rakhine State 5.84%, Mon State 4.97%, Mandalay Division 4.89%, Midway Division 3.25%, Kachin State 1.93%, Tanintharyi Division 1.5%, Chin State 0.59%, Kayah State 0.5%, and Kayin State 0.31%.

Varieties of Rice Farming in Myanmar

Myanmar grows varieties of the rice breeds and there are more than 20 varieties of rice farming in Myanmar. The list of the names includes Nga-seindu-me, Byat-ga-lay, Ka-mar-ky, Maung-nyo, Shan-nyein, Nga-kywe, Emataamagyi, Pin-to-sein, Shwe-che-gyin, Hnan-war-mee-kauk, Yar-ma-gy, Let-ywesin, Let-ywe-sin-ma, Ye-baw-sein, Shwe-din-gar, Sein-ta-lay, Hmawbi-1, Hmawbi-2, Hmawbi-3, Hmawbi-4, etc

Climate in Myanmar

Despite Myanmar being the Asian monsoonal region, the climate is significantly modified by the relief and geographic position. The transport of the air masses towards Myanmar by the monsoons influences the climate of the country. Snow to the northern mountains are brought by the cold air masses of Central Asia; therefore, the country is severely affected by the Asian monsoon winds. As we know, the mountain ranges and valleys do control the precipitation patterns in the regional sense. The country has mountains and valleys which creates precipitation patterns. Alignment of south-north ranges and valleys create a harmonic pattern of alternate zones of torrential rains and drought-prone scanty precipitations during both the monsoons- Southwest and Northeast. Although both the monsoons bring the rains in the country, the southwest monsoons result in major precipitation in the country. However, because of low-pressure creation, the west coast is occasionally subjected to tropical cyclones.

Myanmar has three distinct climatic seasons- cool, rainy and hot. During the late October to mid-February, the relatively dry northwest monsoons make the climate cold. As said earlier, the southwest monsoons result in most of the rains in the country during the mid-May to late October. The middle of the northwest and southeast monsoonal season (mid-February to mid-May) transport the hot and dry winds towards the country. As is obvious from the southwest monsoon, the coastal regions, the western and southeastern mountain ranges receive at least 5,000 mm of rain annually, while the flat and delta regions receive about half of the coastal regions. Being away from the coasts and leeward side, also known as the rain shadow region, of the mountain ranges, such as the Rakhine, the Central region receives the least amount of precipitation ( only 500 to 1,000 mm per year). Because, if its elevation, the Shan Plateau usually receives the precipitation of range between 1,900 and 2,000 mm per year.

Soil Types and Fertility for Rice Farming in Myanmar

The land-use division at the Myanmar Agricultural Service takes care of the country’s soil surveys and maps the soils. The soil, in terms of texture classification, comprises silt, sand, and clay. The soils in which the major portion is silt is classified as alluvial or fertile soil. They are found in any region of the country, the river plains, deltas, former lakes, and coastal areas, regardless of relief. The reaction from the soils are usually neutral and being the young soils developed from the recent alluvial deposits at the river plains, the soils are rich in plant nutrients. Easily tilled, these are very important soils for agriculture. They are good for rice, vegetables, pulses and beans, chilli, sugarcane, plantation crops, and maize. Along with the alluvial soils, there different subtypes of Meadow soils that are widely occurred in many parts of the country’s river plains, delta, and low coastal plains and valleys. All types of Meadow soils contain mostly clay texture and have thick solum. These soil types are most suitable for the paddy cultivation. The Dry zone Meadow soils in upper Myanmar have the characteristics of light colors. These are Meadow soils with neutral reaction; however, some of the Meadow soils have the alkaline reactions. The alkalinity in those regions is attributed to the occurrence of the carbonates in the soils. Although having a deficiency in plant nutrients, these soils may be used for pulses and vegetables.

The Meadow soils are found in the elevated mountainous region having high rainfall and the Meadow soils of the lower Myanmar. The lower soils are yellow-brown in color with acid to neutral soil reaction as these meadows soils occur near the river plains with occasional tidal floods, which are noncarbonate. However, they usually contain greater amounts of salts and contain more plant nutrients than the Meadow soils of Upper Myanmar. Regardless of the more content of iron, the soils may be utilized for rice and vegetables. Meadow Alluvial soils (aka fluvic Gleysols) can be found in the flood plains of the country. They are the textured with silty clay loam and they can be utilized for groundnut, sesame, sunflower, jute, sugarcane, and vegetables in addition to rice cultivation. They are neutral in the soil reaction and are rich in available plant nutrients. The Meadow Gley soils (Gleysol) and Meadow swampy (Histic Gleysol) occur in the regions of lower depressions where the lands are inundated for more than 6 months in a year. The soil texture in these types are from clayey to clay, and they usually have a very strong acid reaction, and may also contain a large amount of iron. Moreover, these type of soils with long periods of moisture content may contain a large amount of soluble iron, aluminum, sulfur, and manganese by a chemical process; therefore, the soils may be toxic to plants. Because of the humus content is high and usually deficient in phosphorus and potassium, rice and jute can be grown on these soils after the floods recede.

The Dry zone Dark Compact soils occur in the plains of Sagaing, Mandalay and Magway divisions. They usually occur on the lowlands near the rivers and broad depression in the areas of Red Brown Savanna Soils. They are good soils for agriculture in the Dry zone area. The texture is mostly clayey and the soils are deep. Found on the level plains, they are known to be the best soils for irrigated farming. Due to high clay content, it is too difficult to work when the soil is either too dry or too have excessive moisture. In these soils, the humus content is very low and in the dry state, they are deeply cracked. However, after rains, they quickly turn into mud and sticky. Because of low pore-size, the infiltration in these soils is also very poor. Consequently, more care should be taken for saline and alkali problems. The soils are alkaline with the pH ranging from 7 to 9 so they may be strongly calcareous. They are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, but the potassium is high. Also, these soils contain a considerable amount of calcium and magnesium. Contained the required nutrients, the soils can be used for rice farming under sufficient irrigation.

Nutrient Management for Rice Farming in Myanmar

Fertilizer use in Myanmar has been decreasing and notably very low. In 2009, the farmers applied only 5 kg NPK per ha of arable land, which was just 25% of the amount applied in 1995. Therefore, it shows a much lower level for rice production. Despite the lesser use of fertilizer in some areas, the production of rice went up at 3% per year in 2005-10. Although the modern varieties are cultivated extensively, the farmers are not achieving the yield potential of these modern varieties because of lower amounts of inputs (e.g., fertilizer and herbicide) are applied. The statistics show that rice yield surged to 4.1 t/ha in 2010 from about 3 t/ha in 1995 and yield growth rate was 1.9% per year during 2005-10. Also, the yield of rice reached 4 t/ha in 2008 but stagnated since then. It could be attributed to the lower amount of fertilizer applied by rice farmers.

Rice Production in Myanmar: Constraints and Opportunities

In the country, a provision of credit facilities enables the farmers to buy the agricultural inputs needed to achieve higher yield/production. Also, adequate irrigation facilities are required for a steady and the required supply of water, rather than depending solely on erratic rainfall especially in the central plains or dry areas. In addition to these, better rice mills, storage facilities, and roads for farm-to-market would ensure the high-quality milled rice for exporting. A premium price and the lower transportation costs for farmers’ ensures the economy of the agricultural families and the countries economy of the whole country. In the context of the above, the following set of interventions would improve the country’s agricultural economy: (1) increase access to credit for the farmers, traders, and millers; (2) increase the farm-gate price of paddy in order to encourage farmers to produce more paddy; and (3) provide finance for small-scale village infrastructure projects to increase demand for wage labor for the rural poor. In this regard, the government provides credit programs for low-income farmers in the Mandalay region. In addition to this, to buy rice seeds and other agricultural inputs, the private companies are encouraged by the government to provide microfinance to rice farmers.

 Efficient utilization of machinery, in the entire process of rice farming – land preparation, harvesting, and post-harvesting activities, is needed for the increase in cropping intensity and the productivity. After the country’s independence, agriculture mechanization schemes involving in the distribution of farm machinery to farmers were implemented by the government. Although the required machinery is produced, it is not sufficient. Myanmar is still lag behind in modern agricultural production, especially in the application of farm mechanization, although it has been exploring the use of agricultural machinery for crop cultivation instead of traditional cattle and manpower. The use of advanced agricultural tools such as tillers, and other machinery in rice production is paramount; it would raise rice productivity, the processing time is reduced, and increases the economy of the country. The modern agricultural tools not only increases land and labor productivity but reduce the intervention of human and animal labor. The effort in this regard was entirely successful due to the lack of skilled and experienced manpower. As a result, agricultural production in Myanmar is more or less traditional still. In conclusion, Myanmar is a top ten rice producing country with overall exporting in the past but the present a small quantity of rice is being imported because of explosive growth in the country population. Despite being potential to increase the production further, the fertilizers, and advanced machinery usage and management is a critical factor to lag behind improve the production of the rice in Myanmar. Furthermore, a major part of the rice cultivation is rainfed, but the climate in Myanmar is not consistent; therefore, the climate also affects the production of the rice. However, advanced irrigation techniques may improve production significantly.

Rabi crop to stand 33 percentwater scarcity: IRSA

Rabi crop to stand 33 percentwater scarcity: IRSA

ISLAMABAD – The ongoing Rabi season will have to face 33 according to cent water scarcity as a substitute of 38 consistent with cent previous forecast by the Indus River System Authority.

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Talking to APP right here , IRSA spokesman Khalid Idrees Rana said that previous 38 according to cent water shortage was forecast for the present season. However, frequent rain spells that began in January helped in overcoming the water shortage but even so making improvements to the bottom stage.

The rains have been additionally blessings for all seasonal plants, fruit orchids and vegetables, he added.

He said that recently round 1,000,000 acre of ft of water was available within the reservoirs. However, at the call for of Sindh and Punjab provinces water was best being discharge for ingesting function.

Currently, 1 MAF of water available within the reservoirs

He said that catchment spaces had additionally won extra snow this year and with rise in mercury, it will get started melting which might lend a hand higher water influx in the rivers.

To a query, he stated that technical and advisory committee of IRSA would meet in remaining week of this month to review water state of affairs for upcoming Kharif season.

Meanwhile, IRSA Wednesday released 66,500 cusecs water from more than a few rim stations with influx of 82,600 cusecs.

According to the data released via IRSA, water level in the Indus River at Tarbela Dam used to be 1,393.98 toes, which was once 7.98 toes upper than its lifeless degree of 1,386 feet. Water influx in the dam was once recorded as 21,200 cusecs and outflow as 20,000 cusecs.

The water degree in the Jhelum River at Mangla Dam used to be 1,125.65 toes, which was once 85.65 toes higher than its dead degree of one,040 toes while the influx and outflow of water used to be recorded as 32,900 cusecs and 18,000 cusecs respectively.
The unencumber of water at Kalabagh, Taunsa and Sukkur was once recorded as 34,000 cusecs, 33,700 cusecs and five,100 cusecs respectively.

Similarly from the Kabul River, 13,200 cusecs of water was once released at Nowshera and 4,000 cusecs from the Chenab River at Marala.

The general water storage capacity stood at zero.959 million acre toes.

Chilli, tomato now not wholesome options for consumers’ pocket

Chilli, tomato now not wholesome options for consumers’ pocket
LAHORE: Prices of tomato and chilli have long gone up manifold within the city within the final couple of months.

Tomatoes were available on a mean rate of Rs24 in step with kg in the corresponding duration in the remaining 12 months but the vegetable fruit is being offered from Rs100 to Rs200 according to kg now.

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Similarly, the costs of green chilli hardly crossed Rs100 within the year 2018. Now, its prices have gone up within the closing one month to Rs400 in step with kg in the native marketplace.

The two greens, in particular green chilies, are seldom noticed on distributors’ carts.

The administration fined many distributors in Sunday Bazaars for now not bringing green chilies on the market at their stalls.

Yasin, who runs a vegetable store in a posh locality, passes the buck for skyrocketing prices of greens, together with tomato and green chilies, on to the auction machine in mandis (wholesale markets).

He said that in the absence of a price ceiling in the markets, arhtis or commission brokers and middlemen were free to promote the commodities at the rates of their very own selection without any let or hindrance, while deficient shops were forced by way of various government departments to promote the merchandize at fixed charges, even underneath than their acquire costs.

“How can we sell a thing bought at Rs100 per kg at Rs80 or even at the purchase price as we have to pay transportation charges, shop rent, electricity charges, etc? Don’t we have families to feed by earning some profit from our day long labour?” he questions.

An official of the agriculture department, which is answerable for ensuring supplies to Sunday bazaars, says that since Punjab does now not produce tomato and inexperienced chili plants presently of the 12 months, those are supplied from Sindh and Balochistan provinces and thus are sold at relatively prime rates right here.
Rain in the remaining four weeks damaged crops and cut off supply routes which led to an atypical building up within the costs, he added.

He said that the prices would no longer go unusually higher prior to now as a result of there was once the choice of uploading them from India via Wagah border. Since the imposition of non-tariff obstacles by either side, and tensions prevailing in the wake of India’s Balakot aggression, provides from India have change into a matter of the previous and the end-sufferer is the patron.

Data turns into money crop for large agriculture

“The future is simply data analytics and tech,” therefore for giant agriculture knowledge turns into cash crop consistent with Riensche. He explained how it is via explaining the info of his on a regular basis lifestyles.”

For six generations, Ben Riensche’s family has tended corn and soybeans outside Jesup, a the city of two,500 on the windswept plains of jap Iowa. But today he’s harvesting a treasured new crop from his 12,000 acres: knowledge.

Riensche, who nonetheless has his grandfather’s handwritten notebooks containing the entirety from the bushels of corn he brought in to the number of eggs the chickens laid.

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Information accumulated by way of farmers, yields, fertilizer use, crop rotation, rainfall, and dozens of different knowledge points. The companies feed it into software that predicts mixtures of seeds, fertilizers, and sprays to maximise yields. That can boost gross sales of their products whilst additionally padding the bottom line from subscription fees farmers pay for tips on what to sow and when to spray.

The virtual transformation of farming isn’t new. In the 1980s, soil data was once recorded on six-inch floppy disks to help calculate fertilizer wishes, and for the reason that advent of the web, firms have created ever-larger databases to improve suggestions.

Today, the fashion is accelerating as growers get feeds without delay to tablet computer systems in their tractors and faucet applied sciences similar to crop-spraying drones to maximise yield on every square foot.

By the mid 20’s, the virtual agriculture marketplace is predicted to be worth billions of dollars a yr. But as the companies bring together their databases, subscription charges $1 and up in line with acre don’t but quilt the cost of operating the techniques.
Riensche expects that by the time his kids take over the farm, the knowledge revolution may have remodeled the trade. With shoppers demanding transparency in the meals chain, data on how a crop was grown and its environmental affect might be greatly valuable.

And if millers or brewers want corn or barley that’s a little bit extra sun-kissed or has a higher starch content, they might order it from a farmer firstly of the season and track its development as it grows. “I’ve got buyers for my crop if I can provide them with this information,” Riensche says. With the proper generation, “I can provide the whole story of how that crop was raised.”

Development in agriculture sector can't be materialized with out resolving farmer’s issues

Development in agriculture sector can’t be materialized with out resolving farmer’s issues

ISLAMABAD: Speaker National Assembly Asad Qaiser Wednesday stated understanding the dream of Pakistan Agriculture building would no longer be conceivable with out resolving the problems confronted via farmers and protecting their passion.

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The speaker expressed these views during his assembly with delegation of individuals of parliament led by Rao Ajmal Khan, Chairman Standing Committee on National Food Security and Research who referred to as on him here within the parliament House, stated a press release.

He said Pakistan being a agriculture based economy, wanted agriculture enlargement and self-sufficient in Agriculture manufacturing and the legislation used to be the one strategy to resolve the issues faced via Farmers.

He said that time table of agricultural building was once nationwide schedule and we all had to work for development of this sector beyond political affiliations.

He resolved his determination to make all out efforts for Pakistan development and it was his challenge to improve agriculture growth ignoring all other customs which may well be obstacle on this means.

“There is a need of legislation purely for protecting the farmers’ interests and so that they can live their lives in prosperity as their income will increase because prosperous farmers will mean prosperous Pakistan”, he stressed.

He stated that mass welfare campaigns can be organized to unfold consciousness and to seek the skilled critiques of farmers, agriculture mavens and other organizations related with Agriculture sector so that the dream of agriculture building can be materialized.
Rao Ajmal Khan, Chairman Standing Committee on National Food Security and Research expressed deep gratitude to the Speaker for formulating a Special Committee on Agriculture merchandise and he mentioned this step was the real representative of farmer’s desires.

While appreciating the Speaker’s concerns for farmers, Khan resolved to cooperate in all matters wholeheartedly as contributors of all political events were given representation in this committee.

He additionally mentioned that each one members would continue to work for cover of farmer’s interest and to support the expansion of Agricultural building.

Beside Rao Ajmal Khan MNAs, Zahoor Hussain Qureshi and Gohar Khan were also provide within the assembly.

Guava it’s Diseases and their Management

Guava it’s Diseases and their Management

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important fruit of subtropical countries. It is hardy crop and is cultivated successfully even in neglected soils. It is a small or shrub like evergreen tree. It has slander like trunk with smooth red green bark. Oval shape fruit green to yellow in color. Its   height is about 33ft and life span is approximately 40years. Pakistan is second largest guava producing country. According to (PCRSC) survey of Pakistan (2015-16) 70026 hectare area under guava cultivation and its production is 414649 tons annually. Some major and impressive guava benefits on human health are; it manage blood pressure, help in digestion, weight loss, improve immunity system, healthy eyes, prevent from cancer. There are number of pathogens, mainly fungi, which affect the guava crop besides few bacterial, algal and some physiological disorder.  About 177 pathogens of which 167 are fungal 3 bacterial, 3 Algal, 3 Nematode and 1 apiphyte. These pathogen causes different type of diseases in guava plant at different stages from growing stage to maturity and fruiting time. Postharvest and fruit diseases are also important which cause serious losses. Fruit disease have also two types i.e.; field disease and postharvest, which develop during storage and transit. In the present communication some major diseases are describe with their symptom and disease management practices.

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Diseases Symptoms, survival and spread, Favourable condition and their management:

Guava Wilt:

Diseases Symptoms:

Muhammad Abdul Rehman

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha

  • In this diseases pathogen mostly attack young as well as old fruit bearing trees
  • Symptoms mostly start with the on fall of monsoon appearance of light foliage with the loss of epinesty & turgity
  • Roots of the plant also show rooting at the basel region
  • Bark of the plant can be easily detachable from the cortex
  • Light browned blotch can also be observed in vascular tissue

 Favourable Conditions:

  • Highly rainfall during Aug-Sep
  • For long duration stagnation of water in guava field
  • RH 76% are conducive with min to max temperature range (23-32°c)

Spread & Survival:

  • Mostly spread by water in short distance
  • Wild disease can also be predisposes through root injury


  • We can manage the disease through proper sanitation.
  • Through solarization of the soil.
  • Burnt wilted plants and uprooted.
  • Treat guava plant with 0.1% water soluble 8 quinolinol sulphate .it may provide protection to the plant for at least 1 year against wilt.
  • Harsh pruning followed by a drench with 0.2% Bavistine or Benlate 4time in a year.

Fruit Rot:

Disease Symptoms:

  • In this disease mostly start of calyx disease of fruit during raining season
  •  The fruit near soil level coverall with dense foliage are mostly effected under high relative humidity
  • With cotton like growth covered the inffected area which develops very fast as fruit matures. Pathogen can be able to cover the entire surface during the humid weather within a period of 3-4 days
  • Fruit skin below the whitish cottony growth become a little soft, turn light brown to dark.

Favourable condition:

  • Poorly drained soil and injured, high humidity, temperature from (28-32°c) favourable for the iniation of disease
  • High soil moisture, cool, wet enviormental condition favourable  to disease development

Spread and Survival:

  • Greet no of sporangia and spores can be produce on the surface of diseased tissues principally by pathogen when temperature  near to 25°c
  • Spores can also be spread through infected plant material or soil by rain splashes


  • Kothari (1968) recommended weekly spray of Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride.
  • Management of dry rot through the use of fungicides like Ziride 0.3%.
  • Seed treatment with Bavistin 3g/kg seed controls the disease effectly.

Fruit canker:

Disease symptoms:

  • The symptoms of this disease occur generally on green fruit and rarely on leave
  • Effected fruit remain under develop, become hard, mummified malformed and drop. Sometime, small rusty brown angular spots appear on the leaves
  • Crater like appearance is more observed on fruit then leaves
  • Margin of lesion is elevated and a depressed area is observed in inside
  • On start minute, circular, unbroken brown necrotic area appear in fruit advance  stage of infection, Tears open the epidermis in a criminate manner

Favourable conditions:

  • Spores germination will be maximize at 30°c and can’t germinate below 15°c or above 40 with RH above 96%

Spread and survival:

  • The pathogen is primary a wound parasite and avoid injury to fruits


  • Spread disease can be controlled by 3 or 4 spray of 1%of Bordeaux mixture or lime sulphate at 15days interval.
  • Naisk and cultives Sind show good resistance against this disease.
  • Safeda and apple color verities are highly resistant against this disease.
  • The homoeopathic drugs, potassium iodide and arsenic oxide completely inhibited spore can also inhibit the growth of pathogen.

Algal Leaf & fruits spots:

Diseases Symptoms:

  • In this disease immature guava leaves infect during early spring fall
  • On the leaves minute, shallow brown lesion appear especially on the tip of leaf, areas or margins adjacent the mid vein and as the disease advance, lesion in large in diameter from 2-3mm
  • The spot on the leave may vary from specks to big patches which may be scattered or crowded
  • The lesion on immature fruit are nearly black, lesion get sunken & cracked frequently as fruit enlarge
  • Lesion are smaller than leaf spot. They convert their color from darkish green to black

Favourable conditions:

  • By splashing water zoospore spread
  • Disease can also spread through humid wet condition

Spread and survival:

  • Air borne diseases mostly spread through air or rain splashes
  • On the infected plant debris pathogen survive


  • High sanitation required because algae can survive on fallen leaves during winter.
  • Discard of infected debris carefully to prevent spread of disease.
  • Prune plants to improve air circulation and excess of sunlight.
  • Avoid wetting of leaves as much give water at the base of the plant.
  • Apply Bordeaux mixture or copper based fungicides if plant seriously infected.

Stem canker & Dry fruit rot:

Diseases Symptoms:

  • In this disease pathogen mostly attack on main branches & stem on which it causes cracking of lesions
  • In perfect stage diplodia netalensis dry fruit rot, Physalopara psidii causes stem canker
  • On the infected stem through fungal perithesia small brown to black structure may develop
  • Symptoms appear on the fruits as light brown spots generally at the stalk or calyx end
  • The entire fruit becomes dark brown to black & mummified with 4 days
  • Twing bearing infected fruits show dieback

Favourable Conditions:

  • For disease development rainy season is favourable
  • Humidity & wet condition required

Spread & Survival:

  • Pathogen spread through air from plant to plant
  • Patgogen survives beneath the bark of the plant & become active when condition are Favourable


  • High sanitation required.
  • Management of dry rot through the use of fungicides like Ziride
  • Mostly recommended spray of Bordeaux mixture and copper oxychloride

Dieback and Anthracnose (Fruit rot)

Disease symptoms:

  • Fruit and leaf infection phase: During rainy season infection can be seen on unripe fruits pinhead spot are first seen which gradually enlarge.
  • In dark brown color spots sunken, circular and have minute black stromata in the center of lesion, in moist weather produce creamy sporemasses.
  • To form bigger lesion several spots coalesie.
  • Infected area of unripe fruits become corky and in case of severe infection often develops cracks.
  • Bud and flowers which are unopened are also effected and cause their shedding.
  • The fungus cause necrotic lesion usually ashy gray and bear fruiting bodies at the tip or on the margin of the leaves.
  • Die back phase: From the top of a branch; plant being to die backwards touxy shoots, leaves and fruits are readily attached. The greenish color of young growing tip change into dark brown and later to black necrotic areas extending backwards.

Favourable conditions:

  • Rain splashes, wind encourage the spore production and its dispersal around the canopy.
  • Without canopy management closer planting
  • Temperature between (10-35°c) with best of (24-28°c).

Spread and survival:

  • Through infected foliage moment of plant material.
  • By wind borne spores develop on dead leaves, twigs and mummified in the orchard infection spreads.
  • Transportation of fruits through high disease prone area.


  • Apply streptosporangium pseudovulgare before appearing symptoms.
  • Spray copper oxychloride 50%WP @ 4gm/lit.

To conclude the above mentioned are some major diseases of guava. Guava is an important fruit crop of Pakistan and grown on large scale. It is an economic fruit that provides good income to the growers. It is a nutrient-dense super food and provides much health benefits to humans. But due to attack of diseases on this nutritious fruit crop as well as due to lack of knowledge among farmers about disease management annual losses are quiet high. So, we should have to give proper care to guava crop regarding disease management if we want to take benefits from this in future.

Edible Landscaping and its Benefits

Edible landscaping means dressing of land or environment with ornamental plants (creepers, climbers, shrubs, bushes, flowering plants, and annuals) in such a way that it gives not only beauty but also something to eat. The concept is gaining popularity to sustain food availability. The concept is mostly related with horticulture as it is growing of garden crops. In gardens we can make pergola, shading place for sitting etc. with grapes vines. For example, lettuces, blueberries, vegetables and natural product trees for a portion of the generally useless plant material. By adopting edibles in landscape configuration can improve a garden by giving a special fancy part with extra wellbeing, tasteful and financial advantages. Eatable landscaping is a blend of magnificence and efficacy. Be that as it may, edible landscaping doesn’t need to be all palatable. Filling the yard with edibles would frequently deliver excessively sustenance for most families, also time and work. Rather, vigilant arranging and the wise utilization of natural products, herbs and vegetables brings about a yard that is delightful, viable, outwardly satisfying. As a reward, it’s an extraordinary subject for discussion.

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Mujahid Ali1, Asad ur Rehman1, Abdul Khaliq2

(1Horticulture UAF; 2Sugar cane research Institute AARI)

In Pakistan mostly in Punjab enhanced population has put pressure to adopt it to provide need of house. Homeowners in various environment having small and large lawn areas can gain profit by a trellis of cherry tomatoes falling over the door, a fragrant outskirt of brilliant and delightful basils or a productive semi-overshadow apple tree or two. There are top notch and ornamental palatable plants for pretty much any garden setting in any atmosphere. Just the shadiest territories and wet soils are not appropriate. The sunniest spots and the zones with the choicest soil are best held for most organic product trees and yearly vegetables. Then again, there are culinary herbs appropriate for rough or poor soils and a couple of lasting edibles for wet areas. Hypothetically, any consumable plant can be utilized as a part of an ornamental landscape; yet for all intents and purposes and stylishly, some are more qualified than others.

Along with dwarf verities of fruits trees like lemon (especially Chinese lemon), falsa etc. can be planted in geometric eating flowers can be planted in garden. Karonda is beautiful shrub of which its fruit is used in various sweets and are used in sweet rice. It is good option for landscaping. Blue barriers could be grown in containers. Coriander can be grown as ground covers. Somehow planting them in the vegetable garden makes it seem more allowable to snip them for a salad. It is much appealing to grow beans with colorful and attractive verities, bell pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic and chives etc. Lettuces and spinach possibly be inter-planted with dwarf nasturtiums. Such kind of combinations can give aesthetic sense, truly nurtures all the senses along with eatables.

Edible landscaping has also some demerits too, for example vegetables attract insects, weeds and are source for different diseases. Diverse cultural practices (picking fruits and vegetables, mulching, watering, weeding, feeding, spraying and pruning) of fruit trees and vegetables damage the beauty of landscape. Anyhow its by carefully adopting, it will be useful similar to kitchen gardening. It should be noted that those plants which need much cultural practices should not be planted in the lawn.

Vegetable Seed Industry Scenario: Global and Pakistan

Vegetable Seed Industry Scenario

Agricultural production is an very important issue for the life of human race and seed is a vital input for agriculture. Vegetable seeds are the fastest growing category within the total seeds marketplace. Vegetables play a key position in offering an affordable balanced nutrition. Globally, vegetable seeds marketplace has grown reliably over the last five years as a result of emerging international inhabitants, increasing heart elegance, and transferring consuming conduct with growing intake of green greens within the diet.

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Governments of different countries are specializing in vegetable seed business via investing in biotechnology and related researches. Seed companies are investing increasingly more in software of biotechnological tools in crop growth. Conventional procedures are being replaced by fashionable breeding techniques like anther tradition, markers assisted selection and molecular breeding.

Seed is the in the beginning vital provider for a success vegetable cultivation. Vegetable seed business goes vastly annually. Several private seed corporations with multinational base are actively involving in vegetable seed manufacturing making the general public sector much lagging in the back of. Expanding areas underneath vegetable cultivation, varied agro-climatic conditions, availability of enormous and cheap human useful resource are creating titanic scope for building of vegetable seed business. Vegetable seed industry has positive affect on nationwide economy with regards to income and employment generation and earning foreign currencies in global marketplace. There are few constraints like excessive value of seed manufacturing, technical problems and stringent laws set spoil to the vegetable seed trade

Seed business is the start point of agriculture, being a fundamental and strategic trade which involves agricultural manufacturing capacity, build up farmer’s income, and assurance of food safety, national economy and people’s livelihood. Since the founding of the first seed company, the arena seed trade has evolved for 270 years. Globally talking, seed industry has grown from the past labor-intensive, management-extensive and capital-decentralized form into a modern business.

Overview of global seed marketplace:

According to ISF and trade guide record, the global seed market worth increased from the $12 billion in 1975 to the $53.eight billion in 2014, which is three.5 times expansion during the last 40 years. In the 5 years ahead, the worldwide seed market is predicted to maintain speedy enlargement.

With the ongoing development of biological era, global genetically modified (GM) crop planting continues to grow. Genetically changed plants have prime yield, extensive adaptability, less reliance on chemical pesticide and better diet price, commercial genetically changed seed market has grown often since 1996. The genetically modified seed marketplace value went up from the $7.8 billion in 2007 up to the $14.8 billion in 2014 with enlargement charge 90%. The genetically modified seed marketplace proportion also increased hastily, from 25% upto33%.
Global statistics suggests that seed marketplace of North America ranked No.1 with marketplace worth of $17.6 billion and market percentage of 32%; Asia Pacific ranked No.2 with market value of $16.five billion and market percentage of 31% which could be very as regards to North America, adopted via Europe ($9.7 billion and 18%) and Latin America ($four.7 billion and nine%).

If we acknowledge in regards to the best 10 seed firms worldwide, which might be Monsanto (U.S), Dupont (U.S), Syngenta (Switzerland), Groupe, Limagrain (France), Land o Lake (U.S), KWS AG (Germany), Bayer Crop Science (Germany), Dow Agro Sciences (U.S), Sakata (Japan), DLF-Trifolium (Denmark) from all above Monsanto (U.S) is most sensible ranked which covers over the 16% global market share and ranked at most sensible with the sale of seed 10.76 billion US$. Total industry of those best 10 firms has roughly 38 billion(US$), which is a exceptional proportion of the global financial system in addition to describing national state of affairs of the complex nations in focusing the new techniques of the seed production and their new pattern in advertising and marketing as neatly. Besides these best 10 firms there are different seed companies which have proportion of 43% with the production of 231.three billion (US$).

Country Statistics suggests that the highest 10 ranked countries are US, China, France, Brazil, Canada, India, Japan, Germany, Argentina and Italy. The general marketplace worth of the highest 10 quantities to $41.9 billion accounting for 78% of the world overall, which shows a high level of centralization of planting space. The conventional North American marketplace and the rising Asia Pacific marketplace are developing in parallel.

Multinational’s building technique:

Since the founding of the first seed corporate Vilmorin in 1743 (now affiliated to Limagrain), world well-known seed corporations were based one after any other over the last 100 years. In the 1990’s of remaining century, the issue of intellectual assets rights endured to increase to crossbreeding sector. Large-scale groups have participated in mergers of seed business players, resulting in lots of union and achievement actions, resulting in formation of a number of highly-developed multinational seed enterprises, who are mostly situated in developed nations where seed trade started earlier with higher economic level like the United States, Netherland, Germany, France, Japan, UK, Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden. Later Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta and Dow Agro Sciences, based upon traditional crossbreeding, have additional applied biological generation to reproduce GM single trait and multiple trait varieties to consolidate their monopoly place in the business, having step by step pulled forward from other seed firms.
The 2014 top 10 world seed firms display that companies who’ve invested in GM trait field captures better market percentage and takes an advance alternative of seed building at some point, that are represented by Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta, Dow Agro Sciences and Bayer Crop Science.

Future seed business building:

Seed call for continues to grow, Genetic sources to be various. In the longer term, the sector will enjoy world warming, lower of cultivated land, build up of inhabitants, scarcity of food, building up of biofuel capability, reduction of farmers retained seed, higher volume of commercialized seed and the various call for for crop high quality and variety. These situations will result in the next call for for seed world-wide. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) predicts that the sector food demand will probably be 1.2 billion tons in 2023, which can be 130 million heaps upper than 2011-13. While the cultivated land for coarse food grain will not build up.

Compared with cereal crop, fruit and vegetable are indispensable because of their unique vitamin. The distinction between tropic zone and temperate zone allows farmers to grow broadly other crops, fruit and vegetable.

By reviewing the advance of seed industry, it reminds that the leap forward in hybridization technology and GM era has greatly promoted the improvement of seed trade. Multinationals like Monsanto, Bayer Crop Science and Syngenta have all evolved crop types which are adaptive, top yielding, immune to insect pest, immune to adversity and herbicide, as supported by their sturdy research capability and awesome genetic resources. The overall percentage and marketplace possible of emerging marketplace are necessary driving force for the improvement of long run seed business.

Seed business in Pakistan:

The new rising, seed business is developing very speedy. More than 376 seed Companies have been registered. Due to liberal perspective in granting permission to do seed industry and free products and services of seed high quality keep watch over by way of the federal government, now 376 seed firms together with 4 public sector seed companies and five multinationals have commenced their industry in the country. Present day seed industry is a combination of private and non-private seed sector. This is called as formal seed gadget. Farmers in Pakistan additionally save their own seed and change seed with every different or purchase seed from the local traders and marketplace under the informal seed system. With the induction of private seed sector, the supply of high quality seed has increased up to 18 in keeping with cent.

The processing capability has increased from 12.24 to 35.43 according to cent. Total employment era in seed industry in step with the knowledge available up to now is 24716. The garage capacity has been increased up to 18.17% against the whole estimated seed requirement (1340719 million tonns) for all crops. It is anticipated that seed business will transform one of the vital main employment generating sector for our economy.

There are general 737 seed firms from which 137 are registered in 2014. From which more than 650 are private national based firms, 13 are multinational corporations which can be serving far and wide the world with the seed of all type having the potential of high yield. The multinational corporations that are in Pakistan are named as Monsanto, Pioneer, ICI, Syngenta and Four Brothers.

The impact of the multinational seed corporations is far resilient in Pakistan because Pakistan is an agricultural based nation and there’s a massive room for the promoting of seed of all kind due to having the multi-climate range far and wide the country all through the yr. The maximum main corporate in the world market has the similar affect in Pakistan market as well by capturing the 26% share of the whole nationwide market and from different companies Syngenta is at 2d with the share of nine.2%.

Pakistan based totally corporations which are producing the seeds of open pollinated (OP) in addition to Hybrid types. The seed of those national based totally firms having low cost and top output as compare to local seed. The seeds of the national primarily based companies fulfill the 60% want of the country because those seeds are in fewer prices as compare to the seed available of the multinational corporations. There is the list of some national based companies working in Pakistan within the competition against the multinational.

  • Haji sons
  • Sky Vegetable and Flowers Seed Company
  • More inexperienced
  • Agrico Pak
  • Ali Baba
  • Noble seeds
  • Shareef sons seeds world (Regd.)
  • Hico seeds

And a much more working in festival and fighting with the new advances. Still numerous paintings is being in improved in the vegetable seed industry, with the brand new development and lengthening the pressure of inhabitants there may be a large number of contradiction in meals and consumption need so this industry is prospering day by day with new advancements. Being a excellent market and having the best climate we are much lagged the social wish to fulfill the farmer group and we import a large number of cotton, maize in addition to the vegetable seed of tomato, potato, cucumber, chilies and onion as neatly. With the advancement of the new rising tactics similar to green house, tunnel forming and drip irrigation the farmers go for the hybrid seed on the placement of the native seed. So, with the rise in demand there may be need of the increasing the nationwide seed generating with low value and high vigor in addition to most output.