Principles and Practices of Seed Production

Flowering is a prerequisite for seed production. It starts after floral induction which provokes a meristem to start flower bud formation (also referred to as flower initiation) after certain internal or external signals. Plant age or size and more specifically endogenous level of certain hormones are considered as internal cues; while, length of day/night and low temperature are external signals. These external stimuli allow synchronized flowering in a population at optimal time during a year to ensure successful pollination and seed setting before inclement weather conditions. In some conditions, two different developmental signals are required in succession, such as, two different photoperiods or low temperature treatment (vernalization), followed by certain photoperiod. Vegetables and flowering annuals vary in their vernalization and/or photoperiodic requirements to pass from juvenile (vegetative) phase to reproductive phase, which is a transitional process. For some species, vernalization (exposure to low temperature) is obligatory for flower induction and differentiation. These species are biennial and cannot start flowering without completion of their vernalization for examples, crucifers (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, kale, and kohlrabi), carrot (European types), onion, red beet, parsnip, celery and lilium (Lilium logiflorum). In such species, vernalization and day length synergistically promote floral induction. Some obligate species such as celery, globe artichoke, and carrot, require short days during vernalization for floral induction and long days after vernalization (during flower differentiation). While, some other species have facultative vernalization requirement and cold exposure is required just for flower induction and flower differentiation, and bolting is regulated by long days. In facultative vernalization requiring species, long days also compensate for unstable vernalization due to very short exposure to cold temperature. Examples of facultative species are leek, broccoli, radish, spinach, lettuce, and peas.
Usually, a temperature of 0–5°C is required to fulfill vernalization requirements of several crops. Higher vernalization temperature can results in delayed, incomplete and/or poor flowering, even de-vernalization in some species. However, summer cauliflower and broccoli can flower at 20-30°C without vernalization. Onion requires 2-13°C, temperate types vernalize at low temperature, while tropical types can vernalize at 9-13°C. Several vegetables and herbaceous (annual flowers) species respond to vernalizing temperature at certain developmental stage. Most of the crucifers can be vernalized when stem diameter is 10-15 mm. Carrot, onion, cauliflower, cabbage, coreopsis (Coreopsis grandiflora), gaillardia (Gaillardia × grandiflora), rudbeckia (Rudbeckia fulgida) and tobacco must have 8-12, 4-7, 4-12, 4-15, 8, 16, 10, 37 leaves, respectively, to respond to vernalization temperature.
Seeds of some crops, if exposed to low temperature during imbibition, can be vernalized, for example lettuce, turnip, spinach, Chinese cabbage, red beet, and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Exposure of ripening beetroot seeds (on the mother plant) to low temperature can also reduce the vernalization requirements. Moreover, vernalization requirement (duration of exposure to low temperature) of various cultivars of a crop are different. Therefore, sowing time should be adjusted according to the vernalization requirements i.e. cultivars requiring prolonged exposure should be planted earlier than those requiring short exposure time.
Vernalization response is common in winter annuals and biennials. Summer vegetable crops and summer annuals (flowers) usually require long days. Cucurbits are long day plants but, long days and high temperature promote production of staminate flowers and mild temperature and relatively short days promote gynoecy (femaleness). Flowering in short day plants, the native of low latitude on both sides of the equator, starts when day length is less than a particular critical time. Amaranth (African spinach), chrysanthemum, and poinsettia are short day plants.
Some vegetables like eggplant, tomato, cucumber and watermelon do not have specific day length requirement for flower initiation. Although cucumber is day insensitive but, long days promotes maleness and short days favour gynoecy (femaleness). Similarly, Asiatic carrot cultivars under long day conditions behave as annual and do not require vernalization temperature. In some crops, such as radish, cultivars without vernalization and specific day length requirement flower earlier when grown under long day conditions. So, for successful seed production, one must be familiar with photoperiod and low temperature requirements of crop(s). Other components of climate, such as irradiance and precipitation, also have significant role in flowering. Length of juvenile period can be reduced in pelargonium (Pelargonium × hortorum) by increasing the irradiance, through supplemental lighting or by providing growth promoting conditions (Armitage and Tsujita 1979). 

Among other climatic requirements of flowering and seed setting is the prevalence of suitable temperature and absence of rainfall during flowering. Continuous rainfall during flowering can wash out stigmatic fluid and suppress anther dehiscence. High as well as low temperature can result in slow growth of pollen tube and/or embryo abortion. Increase in average daily temperature reduces number of flowers per inflorescence, e.g., in Pelargonium spp. Temperature during seed maturation can also affect germination. Some seeds have higher germinability when matured under higher temperature, while others showed more germination when matured at lower temperature. This effect is due to pre-conditioning effect of high or low temperature on seed development.

Growing strawberries: Planting, growing, and harvesting strawberries

Sweet, juicy strawberries are treats when right off the plant. Supermarket berries tend to be tart with grainy texture; this is because the natural sugar in the berries begins converting to starch as soon as it is plucked from the plant.

It’s definitely worth your while to try growing strawberries, and the good news is that they are relatively easy to grow if you have full sun.

Strawberry plants come in three types:

  • Day-Neutral: Insensitive to day length, these varieties produce buds, fruits and runners continuously if temperature remains between 35 and 85. Production is less than that of Junebearers.
  • Everbearer: These varieties form buds during the long days of summer and the short days of autumn. The summer-formed buds flower and fruit in autumn, and the autumn-formed buds fruit the following spring.
  • Junebearer: Length-of-day sensitive, these varieties produce buds in the autumn, flowers and fruits the following spring, and runners during the long days of summer.

For the home garden, we recommend Junebearers. Although you will have to wait a year for fruit harvesting, it will be well worth it.

 

PLANTING

  • Buy disease-resistant plants from a reputable nursery, of a variety recommended in your area.
  • Plan to plant as soon as the ground can be worked in the Spring
  • Strawberries are sprawling plants. Seedlings will send out runners, or ‘daughter’ plants, which in turn will send out their own runners.
  • Make planting holes deep and wide enough to accommodate the entire root system without bending it. However, don’t plant too deep: The roots should be covered, but the crown should be right at the soil surface.
  • Provide adequate space for sprawling. Set plants out 20 inches apart, and leave 4 feet between rows.
  • Roots shouldn’t be longer than 8 inches when plants are set out. Trim them if necessary.
  • pH should be between 5.5 and 7. If necessary, amend your soil in advance.
  • Strawberry plants require 6-10 hours a day of direct sunlight, so choose your planting site accordingly.
  • Tolerant of different soil types, although prefer loam. Begin working in aged manure or compost a couple months before planting.
  • Planting site must be well-drained. Raised beds are a particularly good option for strawberry plants.
  • Practice crop rotation for the most success. Do not plant in a site that recently had strawberries, tomatoes, peppers, or eggplant.
  • Establish new plants each year to keep berry quality high each season.
  • It is also possible to grow strawberries from last year’s runners.

CARE

  • In the first year, pick off blossoms to discourage strawberry plants from fruiting. If not allowed to bear fruit, they will spend their food reserves on developing healthy roots. The yields will be much greater in the second year.
  • Eliminate daughter plants as needed. First and second generations produce higher yields. Try to space each plant about 10 inches apart.
  • Moisture is incredibly important due to shallow roots. Water adequately, about one inch per week. Strawberry plants need a lot of water when the runners and flowers are developing and again in the fall when the plants are mature.
  • Keep the beds mulched to reduce water needs and weed invasion.
  • Be diligent about weeding. Weed by hand, especially in the first months after planting.
  • When the growing season is over, mow or cut foliage down to one inch and mulch plants about 4 inches deep with straw, pine needles or other organic material. This can be done after the first couple of frosts, or when air temps reach 20° F.
  • Remove mulch in early spring, after danger of frost has passed.
  • Row covers are a good option for protecting blossoms and fruit from birds.

PEST-BEATING TIPS

  • Keeping beds weed-free and using a gritty mulch can deter slugs and bugs. Spread sand over the strawberry bed to deter slugs. (This also works well for lettuce.) Pine needles also foil slug and pill-bug damage.
  • For bigger bugs such as Japanese beetles, spray your plants with puréed garlic and neem seed oil. 
  • When birds threaten your strawberries, position balloons with scare-eyes above the beds and use reflective Mylar bird tape to deter them. 

HARVEST/STORAGE

 

Safe Use of Agricultural chemicals (Pesticides) and Proper Precautions While Operation.

We should not spray the field if the speed of air is 15 kilometres per hours, or branches of tress are moving due to air.

One should not use chemicals frequently in the fields, and before pesticide application we should do pest scouting regarding weeds, diseases, and harmful insect pest, so that beneficial insect may conserve. Farmers should spray their field by using following guidelines.

 Use of Chemicals:

  • We should use only effective and registered chemical against harmful insect pest. Chemical should only be used if weeds, insect pest and other diseases are not controlled through non-chemical means. Take in consideration regarding effectiveness, handling, and use of chemical before application.

Proper Time for Spray:

  • We should not spray the fields before 9 AM and after 4 PM.
  • If wind is blowing, then don’t spray.
  • Spray the field only when insects have crossed Economic Threshold Level (ETL).
  • Use of chemical for operation:
  • Spray machine must be in good condition.
  • Proper monitoring of machine should be done regarding leakage, nozzle etc.
  • Spray should be distributed over field equally.
  • Use that quantity of chemical as mentioned on label.
  • Firstly, fill the half of tank with water, then add chemical in it, then fill rest of tank with water.
  • The height of boom should be 1-1.5 feet above the field.
  • Different nozzles are used for different crops.
  • Must have precautionary or safety attire like mask, gloves, glasses, and rubber shoes.
  • After spray, wash well the machine with water and previous nozzle must be replaced by a new one.

Precautions:Precautions:

  • Don’t spray in wind or during harsh weather means either harsh summers or cold.
  • Spray the field equally.
  • Wash your eyes immediately with cold weather if chemical or their fumes affect them.
  • Consult the Doctor If the problem is not solved.
  • After the recovery, patient should keep away from chemicals.
  • Make a dig in soil and put the empty bottles or cartons of chemicals.
  • Do not use improper and out of order machine.
  • Keep away children, animals, women, and old men from filed during spray.

[ads-quote-center cite=’Authors’]Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Dr. Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Aisha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib. Ayub Agriculture Research institute, (AARI) Faisalabad. Institute of Agriculture Sciences, (IAGS) University of The Punjab, Lahore. [/ads-quote-center]

Misuse of drugs and development of their resistance

Chemotherapy is essential in intensive poultry production all over the world. It has played a significant role in helping to meet the ever growing demands for animal protein.

Ahmed Din Anjum
Professor, Department of Veterinary Pathology,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
38040, Pakistan

INTRODUCTION

Chemotherapy is essential in intensive poultry production all over the world. It has played a significant role in helping to meet the ever growing demands for animal protein.

Antibiotics have been used for therapy, prophylaxis and for growth promotion in poultry. However, choosing between the available drugs and using them to the best advantage is not always straightforward and the rational use of drugs is particularly complex for poultry veterinarian.

A vet should come up with an effective flock health programme which combines management, hygiene, quarantine and chemotherapy in the most rational and profitable way.

A chemotherapeutic programme should be efficacious, safe, practical and legal and ethical. Most importantly, the vet must not panic or allow himself to be rushed into poorly planned, ineffective, unwarranted or unethical medication programmes.

In our poultry industry, in spite of heavy reliance on medication, poultry health is deteriorating; there are new diseases, high drug dependency and susceptibility to epidemics.

Medicate or not – a critical decision ?

Medication is justified in bacterial outbreaks. However, it is essential that a diagnosis, even if only tentative, is made before embarking on medication. Important questions such as whether a treatment is required and with what drug, hinge on the diagnosis.

Without a reasonably accurate diagnosis, chemotherapy becomes a trial and error or hit and miss affair.

Medication is not justified when it will be ineffective such as uncomplicated viral infections, uncomplicated management induced problems, disease caused by environmental factors, nutritional diseases and toxic diseases. Ineffective medication will reduce the credibility of the veterinarian or the drug.

Furthermore, medication my create a false sense of security, or detract from the real cause of the problem and how it should be corrected.

Medication is unwarranted if the only reason for using it is to provide non-specific cover over a stress period, be seen to be doing something, bring piece of mind (in the absence of any real disease risk), satisfy the argument that “it won’t do any harm but it just might do some good”, use up drug stocks. Sometimes a drug is used as the scapegoat for poor flock performance.

Medication can sometimes be counterproductive. Examples are:

1. It may delay desirable exposure and immunity to coccidiosis.
2. Medication of mycoplasmosis during rearing may simply delay the inevitable exposure until a less desirable time, such as point of lay.
3. Prolonged use of antibacterial can upset the normal flora of the digestive tract and lead to secondary fungal infections.
4. Medication may hinder or delay the detection of infection with Myco. gallisepticum or salmonella.
5. Medication may encourage the development of microbial resistance to the drug, especially if sub therapeutic levels are administered repeatedly or for a prolonged period.
6. Many antibiotics including chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and tylosin are immunosuppressive and their use will prolong uncomplicated viral diseases.
Medication is not justified if it is illegal or unethical.

SELECTION OF A DRUG

The selection of the most effective drug should be based on a combination of theoretical knowledge, laboratory sensitivity testing, historical records, and practical experience. There is no point in using a drug it won’t work, no matter what its other advantages may be. Even in case of a broad spectrum of activity, the principal activity of most drugs is directed against a fairly narrow range of infectious organisms. Some diseases have a drug of first choice and a guide must be considered.

In theory, bactericidal is preferable to bacteriostatic activity, particularly in severely ill and immunosuppressed patients. In practice, it makes little difference, as a functional immune system is essential to the resolution of all infections irregardless of the mode of action of the drug used to treat it.

Multiple drug therapy is a very poor substitute for accurate diagnosis and selection of the most efficacious treatment. Complicated infections may require the use of two drugs at the same time. Some drug combinations are synergistic, increasing both the efficacy and spectrum of activity.

Given the large number of birds in intensive systems, when a small proportion of the birds become ill, mass medication with therapeutic antibiotics is practiced because treating only the infected birds is considered impractical.

DOSE RATE AND FREQUENCY OF MEDICATION

Ideally, the dose rate of each drug should be based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which is required, attained and maintained in infected tissues. Unfortunately little work is done on drug absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs in the chicken. Also, the dose rates should be adjusted to allow for spillage or wastage.

Dose rates should be calculated based on body weight rather than on concentration in water or feed as this gives accurate and consistent dosage. Flock dosage based on water and feed consumption will fluctuate from day to day and from flock to flock, potentially resulting in under- or over-dosage and a variable and unpredictable clinical response. For greatest efficacy, treatment of disease outbreaks should always commence at maximum dose rates. Remember that doses used in excess of those recommended will not be any more effective and may be toxic. Chickens have been accidentally paralyzed by overdosing ionophores. For long term prevention, use the minimum effective dose rate. Remember that doses below the recommended will be ineffective. When controlled challenge and immunity are desired, such as with coccidiosis, a suboptimal dose rate may be employed.

In theory, the MIC of a drug should be maintained or exceeded in tissues throughout the course of treatment. In practice, it is not critical. Continuous medication is more desirable with bacteriostatic drugs. On the other hand, bactericidal drugs are probably as or more effective when given in two divided doses daily.

ONSET AND DURATION OF MEDICATION

Normally treatment of a disease outbreak should commence within 24 hours. The sooner medication is commenced the more effective it will be. Sometimes, treatment is best delayed in order to allow the whole flock to become exposed and immune e.g., early treatment of mild coccidiosis or coryza in replacement breeders or pullets may result in uneven flock immunity and subsequent relapses. Prophylactic medication should commence just before the anticipated disease challenge.
With acute disease outbreaks, medication should continue until mortality stops and clinical signs are no longer present in the flock. Usually this takes at least 3 days. Usually, an acute disease outbreak is under control within 5-7 days. However, if a response is not apparent within 3-5 days, then the diagnosis and treatment regime should be carefully reassessed.

After an initial period of treatment at maximum dose rates, and once the outbreak has subsided, it may be necessary with some diseases to continue medication at lower levels for a few weeks to allow controlled exposure and immunity to develop throughout the flock. However, remember prolonged exposure to low levels of drug is more likely to encourage acquired resistance.

Chronic flock infections such as Mycoplasma or Haemophilus, often respond poorly to medication, so an initial period of treatment may be followed up with intermittent medication at treatment dose rates, or more prolonged medication at control dose rates.

ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

In general, the most effective route depends on the site of infection. Parenteral medication is the most effective route of treating systemic diseases. IM injection is recommended for long-acting drugs. Oral medication is the most effective route for alimentary infections. Remember some drugs are not absorbed from the digestive tract and will be ineffective against systemic infections if given by this route. DW medication is usually more effective in disease treatment than in feed medication. Remember sick birds continue drinking longer than eating. Enteric absorption of many drugs is delayed in the presence of food. Topical medication is the most effective way of treating external parasites.

DRUG SENSITIVITY AND RESITANCE

All infectious organisms have an inherent pattern of sensitivity and resistance to specific drugs. Resistance to certain drugs may also be acquired. This can occur through mutation and selection and cross resistance. Multiple drug resistance may be to a number of unrelated antibiotics. R-plasmids (transferable drug resistance) may be transferred between individual bacteria within a strain, between strains or species, and between genera, e.g., E.coli and salmonella.

Antibiotics are selecting an ever widening range of resistant bacteria and this is being potentiated by gene transfer. We must expect the incidence and types of resistant bacteria to continue to increase if the overall rate of antibiotic usage continues.

Antibiotic resistant E. coli are particularly prevalent in the gut flora of poultry. Antibiotic resistant E. coli persist long after the antibiotic has been withdrawn since many of these strains are good colonisers of the gut. There is no evidence that E. coli of animal origin cause disease episodes in man. Their importance lies in the fact that they constitute a highly versatile pool of R plasmids which may be transferred ultimately to important pathogens.

SAFETY

Safety is an important prerequisite for any flock health programme. There is no point in using a drug if it will cause more problems than it solves. Safety referes to both poultry and people.

Drug toxicity to poultry may occur due to inherent features of the drug, overdosage, prolonged usage and interaction with other drugs or chemicals. Lack of safety in poultry may manifest as:

1. Clinical signs or mortality caused directly by the drug.
2. Reduced growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, egg production, fertility or hatchability.
3. Reduced feed or water consumption.
4. Secondary or super-infections.
Drug toxicity to people may occur due to consumption of drug residues in poultry meat and eggs. This may result in an immediate clinical reaction (allergy to penicillins and sulophonamides), gradual development of a fatal aplastic anaemia (in people sensitive to chloramphenicol), acquisition of an allergy or sensitivity to the drug or acquired resistance by human bacteria. Furazolidone, and chloramphenicol are potentially carcinogenic.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food pose a substantially greater risk to human health than antibiotic residues. Consumption of drug resistant bacteria on poultry meat can cause food poisoning in humans. Poultry enteric bacteria may transfer their resistance plasmids to human pathogens. Multiple-drug resistance is increasing at an alarming rate.

The possible adverse effects on people can be avoided by:

1. Using antibiotics correctly and only when necessary.
2. Avoiding prolonged use of subtherapeutic doses which encourage bacterial resistance.
3. Adhering to withdrawal/product withholding periods before poultry are processed or eggs are sold.
4. Not using chloramphenicol.
5. Avoid contact with drugs when they are handled.
6. Minimising salmonella infection in poultry flocks and salmonella contamination of poultry carcasses and products.
7. Cooking poultry thoroughly and handling it hygienically.

COST :
Cost has a large bearing on the practicality of chemotherapy. Medication cost has 3 main components: drug cost, administration cost and cost of adverse effects. Sometimes it may be cheaper to live with a minor or refractory disease than to attempt to control it through medication. Cost may be expressed as an amount per kg, per egg or as a proportion of the total flock value.

There is a high expenditure on veterinary drugs in modern poultry production in Pakistan.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The establishment by government of a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance.
2. The use of antibiotics for growth promotion should be banned immediately.
3. Fluroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins, should no longer be permitted for mass medication. This is to prevent the further development of resistant food poisoning strains.
4. Poor prescribing by vets should lead to retraining and excessive prescribing should result in legal action.
5. The Government should help establish a School of Preventative Veterinary Medicine. It should research, collate and disseminate reliable information to farmers, vets and others.
6. Veterinary and agricultural colleges should place greater emphasis on the teaching of drug-free preventative medicine.
7. Practical and technical help should be given free of charge to producers to encourage them to alter production methods in order to reduce dependency on antibiotics.
8. The Concept of Positive Health: we need to shift away from pathogen-targeted fire-fighting towards proactive, health-targeted policies and practices. Organic farming is a holistic system for achieving positive animal health with proven positive effects.
a. Short-term biosecurity or treatment measures.
b. The long-term goal of positive animal health.

Well of Death

Well of Death: There are much more blessing of Allah on us and water is one of those. Water covers two third of theearth’s surface. Human body comprises 75% of water. Only the brain comprises 85% of water and approximately 90% of the blood flowsthrough our veins also contains water. It is also significant to several functions in living organism and plays a vital role in digestion, metabolizing body fats. More importantly it maintains the body temperature. Doctors recommend 8 to 9 cups of water in a day, about 20% of this fluid comes from food intake so additional 8 cups beverages will replace 6 cups lost from urine and 4 cups lost elsewhere. Pure water has no color; test and smell.There are three forms of water such as liquid, solid and gas. Evidently water is one of the important elements responsible for life on the earth. Drinking and using neat and clean water is a sign of hale and hearty health and genial environment. Water contains Hydrogen+ Oxygen, which is very essential for living organisms. Water is not only necessary for human beings but also required by plants on different stages for their growth to become healthy and to survive for long time so it can provide quality fruits which will be rich in nutrients after consuming.

                                         Waste water impacts all kind of living creatures. Wastewater is simply water that has various pollutants depending on what it was used for.Municipal wastewater (also called Sewerage)comes through residential source including toilet, bathing, laundry, sink and others (contain body waste, containing intestinal disease organisms).some wastewater is discharged by commercial enterprises and manufacturing processes. Process wastewater contains rinse including residual acids, toxic chemicals and planting metals; discharging of such kind of wastewater in oceans or rivers, which spreads many kinds of disease. Killing fishes and destruction of other form of aquatic life as well as can negatively affect the water for drinking purposes and household needs.

                                         Sewerage drains directly or indirectly into major drainage basin with minimal or no management. That has serious impacts on the quality of environment and health of people. Pathogens are susceptible to human health. Some chemicals pose risks even at very low level, and can remain a threat for long periods because of bioaccumulation in animal or human tissue.

                                         Agriculture and Farming is the reason for survival of human’s lives in the world. It is essential for survival; without which there would be famines. For thousands of years, agricultural was a natural process which did not influence the land. In fact, farmers could pass their land for many generations and it would still be fertile as ever. However, modern agricultural practices and some unskillful farmers have started the process of agricultural pollution. This process causes the degradation of the eco-system, land and environment.

                                         Since early in history, people have dumped Sewerageinto waterways; use of sewerage water for irrigation of crops is an old practice in many big cities of Pakistan.Sewerage water is used as potential source of irrigation for raising vegetables and fodder crops which are directly or indirectly consumed by human beings.

                                         Sewerage water contains large amount of nitrogen + phosphorus and other elements. Nitrogen require by plant for their vegetative growth such as plant height, leaf size etc. plant absorb nitrogen in the form of nitrate. Some limited number of elements are required by plants, but excessive amount of that elements which sewerage water contains causes injuries for plants, humans, livestock and other living organisms and environment.when field is treated by wastewater of sewerage and factories some amount will be absorbed by plants and other will remain on the surface of the soil and that will increase the PH level and toxicity of soil and that water will leach down to underground water system through soil and will pollute underground water which we are using for drinking and other needs of life. plants which are treated by sewerage water and factories waste water reaches to bear fruit. Such fruits will be harmful for us and livestock.

                                         Many viral, bacterial, fungal, and pathogenicdiseases which are directly or indirectly caused by wastewater likeskin diseases,malaria, cough, fever, diarrhea, kidney stone, heartattack, degradation of digestive, respiratory, nervous systemand human allergies etc. Specifically, bioaerosols emitted by wastewater treatment plants can impact the air quality in negative ways. In past, microbial concentrations in the surrounding air from the aeration tanks of wastewater treatment plants at different heights and different distances.More analytical epidemiological investigations are needed to determine the cause as well as the burden of the diseases to inhabitants living surrounding the wastewater.

                                         Our planet has the significant ability to heal itself, but there is a limit to what it can do and we must make it our goal to always stay within safe boundaries. That limit is not always clear to scientists, so we must always take the safe approach to avoid it.Some unskilled farmers are not familiar with the health hazard products which they are producing through wastewater. We should aware our farmers to the disadvantages of caused by these agricultural products, which are produced through wastewater to keep living creature safe from health risk. Our government should organize seminars on small level, guidance programs on radio, awareness programs on television should be telecast and articles in newspapers should be published specifically about the negative impact factors of usage of wastewater in cultivation of different corps to make them aware about ups and downs.Any kind of washable agricultural product should be washed before use.

Authors:
Muhammad Bilal Khan, Erum Rashid, Shahla Rashid
(University College of Agriculture University of Sargodha)

Management Practices and Nutritional Aspects of Apple

(By Usama Ahmad, Mujahid Ali, Dr. Rashid M. Balal)

(Horticulture, College of Agriculture, UOS)

A great proverb is “An apple a day keeps the doctor away”. Apples are the most open concerning and delicious natural product of the world. Apple is a temperate region fruit. But its cultivation was initially started in the tropical region of South Asia but now it is widely cultivated on the large area all over the world. In Pakistan apple is produced mainly in Baluchistan which extends up to KPK which is ranked 2nd largest producing province. Apple is also cultivated on hilly tracks in Punjab in Murree. Azad Kashmir also contributes in apple production and has the best taste. 

In production around the globe, China holds the 1st ranking in apple production with a yield of 3,96,82,618 tons annually. United States, Turkey, Poland, Italy, India, France, Chile, Iran, and Russian Federation are top apple producing countries. Apple is native to the Caucasus Mountains of West Asia; it has been under cultivation since prehistoric times. According to ancient tradition, the forbidden fruit of the garden of Eden was the apple. In religious painting, the apple represents the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, as do occasionally the pear and the quince.

Apple (Malus domestica), the fruit of the domesticated tree Malus domestica (family Rosaceae), one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The apple is a pome (fleshy) fruit, in which the ripened ovary and surrounding tissue both become fleshy and edible. The apple blossom of most assortments requires cross-fertilization for preparation. Whenever reaped, apples are generally roundish, 5-10 cm (2-4 inches) in measurement, and some shade of red, green, or yellow in shading; they change in size, shape, and causticity relying upon the assortment. Apple natural product highlights oval or pear shape. Its external peel shows up in various tones and hues relying on the cultivar write. Inside, it’s firm, the succulent mash is grayish to cream in shading, and has a blend of somewhat sweet and tart flavor. Its seeds are intense in taste, and along these lines, unappetizing.

Apple can be developed at height of 1500m-2700 m above ocean level. The temperature amid the apple developing season ought to associate with 21-24 C. For best development and fruiting apple trees need 100cm-125cm of yearly precipitation. A lot of precipitation and mist close to the organic product development period will bring about poor natural product quality with uncalled for shading advancement. Apple development isn’t reasonable where high speed of winds is normal. Apple development is reasonable in loamy soils with rich in natural issue and pH ranges from 5.5-6.5. Soils with great seepage are most reasonable for apple development. Apple trees are sprouted on crab apple, on different East Mailing composes, and on seedlings of some business apple assortments. In the Murree Hills, crab apple is the main prevalently utilized rootstock. Other than crab apple, some different rootstocks are utilized as a part of Sariab, Quetta and Tarnab, Peshawar, including, M-I, M-7, and M-9.

Business apple engendering is finished by growing and tongue joining strategies. The planting materials should just be acquired from enrolled nurseries. Apple planting ought to be done in January to February. The mix of scion and rootstock assortment decides the apple plant dispersing and plant thickness. Hexagonal or square arrangement of ranch is followed in valleys though shape framework is taken after on the inclines. Over the most recent 20 years as good as ever small-scale engendering procedures have been produced for some, rootstocks including the apple clones M. 9, M.26, M.27, and MM.lll. Apple ranch of pollinator’s species in the middle of the primary species is required for appropriate natural product setting. For foundation of regal heavenly assortment ranch of brilliant flavorful and red delightful are prescribed as pollinators. Burrow pit of size 1m×1m×1m are set up for planting in October to November month. In each pit 30kg of Farm Yard Manure, 500g of Single superphosphate and 50g of Malathion clean are included. Territory is flooded promptly after estate. FYM at 10kg every year time of tree is connected alongside different manures. The proportion of NPK connected is 70:35:70 grams for each year. For inadequacy of boron, zinc, manganese and calcium utilize suitable measure of manures. Utilization of glyphosate@ 800ml/ha as post rise herbicide will kill the weed development for 4-5 months.

The watering ought to be done following 15-20 days. In summer watering ought to be done after the interim of 6-10 days while in winters following 3 a month interim. Very nearly 8 water systems are required from April to August for legitimate organic product set. Convenient preparing and pruning are required for development and advancement for good nature of apples. The apples are prepared according to development propensity and force of rootstock. The trees are adjusted by focus pioneer framework. Axle shrub framework is the best reason for high thickness apple planting under mid slope conditions. Green manuring crops like bean and sunflower can be developed in early years of apple planting with a specific end goal to build soil supplements. Utilizing Oak leaves or dry grass to be viable in saving soil dampness, the primary vermin in apple estate are wooly apple aphid, San Jose scale, white scale and blossom thrips. Planting of safe rootstock and showering with fenitrothion, chloropyriphos, carbaryl has been observed to be more powerful in controlling bug nuisance and ailments.

The primary illnesses of apple development are neckline decay, crown irritates, apple scab, kick the bucket back and infection maladies. The influenced plant parts ought to be decimated. The illness safe plant ought to be developed. Apply mancozeb, carbendazim and different fungicides for controlling maladies. Post-reap administration exercises incorporate pre-cooling of apples in which apples are puts in cool spots to evacuate field warm. Evaluating of apples relies upon natural product size and quality. Apples have a long capacity life as it can be put away for 4-8 months after collect. Apples are pressed into wooden boxes for transportation.

Apples are low in calories; 100 g of new natural product cuts give only 50 calories. They, be that as it may contain no soaked fats or cholesterol. In any case, the natural product is rich in dietary fiber, which averts assimilation of dietary-LDL or terrible cholesterol in the gut. The fiber additionally spares the colon mucous film from the introduction of poisonous substances by authoritative to disease-causing chemicals inside the colon. Apples are rich in cancer prevention agent phytonutrients flavonoids and polyphenolics. The aggregate estimated cancer prevention agent quality (ORAC esteem) of 100 g apple organic product is 5900 TE. A portion of the vital flavonoids in apples is quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2. Furthermore, they are additionally great in tartaric corrosive that gives tart flavor to them. Inside and out, these mixes enable the body to shield from hurtful impacts of free radicals.

Apple natural product contains great amounts of vitamin-C and β-carotene. Vitamin C is a capable regular cell reinforcement. Utilization of nourishments rich in vitamin-C enables the body to create protection against irresistible operators and rummage destructive, professional incendiary free radicals from the body. Further, apple organic product is a perfect wellspring of B-complex vitamins, for example, riboflavin, thiamin, and pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Together, these vitamins help as co-factors for proteins in digestion and in different engineered works inside the human body.

Apples likewise convey little amounts of minerals like potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. Potassium is an imperative segment of cell and body liquids enables the controlling heart to rate and circulatory strain; in this manner, counters the awful impacts of sodium. The part of apples in malignancy aversion has been a subject of concentrate for quite a while. While they have indicated the direct change in treating different sorts of the tumor, especially colon malignancy, the hugest revelations have been with respect to lung disease. Apples demonstrate an unmistakable and obvious ability to decrease lung disease and moderate its spread on the off chance that it develops. Speculations generally talk about the high phytonutrient content, including kaempferol and quercetin, yet the correct instrument for apples’ effect on tumor is still to be known.

Apples are accepted to make the eyes more grounded and enhance visual perception. They additionally help in treating night visual impairment. Quite a bit of this is because of the way that apples are rich in flavonoid mixes and cell reinforcement phytonutrients, which can decrease the effect of free radicals on the eyes while forestalling conditions like macular degeneration, waterfalls, and glaucoma. Apples can be eaten crude appropriate off the tree or in an assortment of dishes, for example, organic product plates of mixed greens and custards. Squeezed apple is additionally a typical drink all through the world and it is likewise incorporated into numerous sweets. These organic products can be prepared, minced, squashed, solidified, or even dried into chips as a sound, sweet bite. Apple seeds contain cyanide, a capable toxic substance. Eating an excessive number of apple seeds can possibly be deadly. Apple seeds ought not to be devoured. Apples are genuinely acidic, they could be up to four times more harming to teeth than carbon

How to Grow Stevia

Daylight: full sun to partial shade
adulthood: forty-60 days from transplant, 90-100 days from seed
height: 12 to 36 inches
Spacing: 18 to 24 inches apart, 2 to 3 feet among rows

Used extensively in South the us and the Orient, home gardeners started out planting stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) whilst the safety of synthetic sweeteners came into query. Stevia leaves are 10-15 instances sweeter than subtle sugar. pleasant of all, stevia is extremely low in calories and comes from nature, no longer a lab.

Perennial vegetation grow 1-three ft tall and are occasionally grown as an annual.

fun truth: Stevia is a member of the Asteraceae own family which makes it closely associated with daisies and marigolds.
Quick manual
1. Leaves are used as a sweetener throughout the world
2. Tropical plant grown as an annual in less warm climates
3. Begin seeds 6-eight weeks before last frost
4. Transplant into compost-amended soil in a sheltered vicinity with complete solar
5. Harvest leaves in late summer season or fall earlier than weather turns bloodless
6. now not troubled by using pests or sicknesses

Land Preparation:
Stevia grows fine in properly-tired, wealthy soil and afternoon shade, mainly in warm climates. pick a domain that is protected from cool winds and harsh climate. this is a sub-tropical plant that ought to be blanketed, in particular while midnight temperatures fall below 50˚F.

prior to planting, dig in a balanced natural fertilizer or composted bird manure. Stevia grows properly in boxes and may be cultivated year round if given proper care.

how to Plant
Sow seeds interior underneath plant lighting 6-8-weeks earlier than last frost. whilst flowers are large enough to deal with, transplant into 3 inch pots and maintain indoors until nighttime temperatures are continuously above 50˚F. Stevia can then be planted 18-24 inches apart in garden rows.

Mulching with natural compost will help hold roots cool, deter weeds and save you moisture loss. Do not overwater; offer liquid natural fertilizers which might be wealthy in phosphoric acid or potash content. keep away from excessive nitrogen fertilizers, as they produce big leaves with little taste.
short manual
Leaves are used as a sweetener all through the world
Tropical plant grown as an annual in less warm climates
begin seeds 6-8 weeks earlier than ultimate frost
Transplant into compost-amended soil in a sheltered vicinity with complete solar
Harvest leaves in overdue summer or fall before climate turns cold
not by pests or sicknesses
website online guidance
Stevia grows fine in well-drained, wealthy soil and afternoon color, specifically in hot climates. select a website this is covered from cool winds and harsh climate. this is a sub-tropical plant that need to be included, in particular when nighttime temperatures fall under 50˚F.

prior to planting, dig in a balanced natural fertilizer or composted chicken manure. Stevia grows properly in bins and may be cultivated 12 months spherical if given right care.

A way to Plant
Sow seeds interior below plant lighting fixtures 6-eight-weeks earlier than remaining frost. whilst vegetation are large enough to handle, transplant into three inch pots and hold interior till nighttime temperatures are constantly above 50˚F. Stevia can then be planted 18-24 inches apart in garden rows.

Mulching with organic compost will assist hold roots cool, deter weeds and save you moisture loss. Do now not overwater; provide liquid natural fertilizers that are wealthy in phosphoric acid or potash content. avoid high nitrogen fertilizers, as they produce big leaves with little flavor.
insects and disorder
Stevia is not by many insect pest or diseases. In fact, vegetation were found to have insect-repelling features.

11 Impressive Benefits Of Mint

What Is Mint

Mint, the popular herb has several benefits which include proper digestion and weight loss, relief from nausea, depression, fatigue and headache, treatment of asthma, memory loss, and skin care problems. Mint, the well-known mouth and breath freshener that is scientifically known as Mentha, has more than two dozen species and hundreds of varieties. It is an herb that has been used for hundreds of years for its remarkable medicinal properties.

The market is full of products like toothpaste, chewing gum, breath fresheners, candy and inhalers which have mint as their base element.

Health Benefits Of Mint Leaves

Most of us are familiar with the refreshing application of mint, but it has far more to offer than that. The health benefits of mint include the following:

  • Digestion

Mint is a great appetizer or palate cleanser, and it promotes digestion. It also soothes the stomach in case of indigestion or inflammation. When your stomach feels sick, drinking a cup of mint tea can give you relief. Also, if you are someone who travels long distances via plane or boat, the menthol oil derived from mint can be very soothing for nausea and related motion sickness.

The aroma of the herb activates the salivary glands in our mouth as well as glands which secrete digestive enzymes, thereby facilitating digestion. These attributes are why mint is extensively used in the culinary arts. Much of the western world includes mint as a part of appetizers or as an element of palate cleansers, to be eaten before the main course to digest the food comfortably.

  • Nausea & Headache

Mint leaves, especially freshly crushed leaves help you deal with nausea and headache. The strong and refreshing aroma of mint is a quick and effective remedy for nausea. Use mint oil or any other product having a mint flavor and your stomach issues will be alleviated. In fact, many people keep menthol oil or mint-flavored products with them at all times to avoid nausea. Balms with a mint base or basic mint oil, when rubbed on the forehead and nose, gives quick relief in case of a headache. The herb is a naturally soothing substance, so it can alleviate the inflammation and temperature rise that is often associated with headaches and migraines.

  • Respiratory Disorders and Coughs

The strong aroma of the herb is very effective in clearing up congestion of the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs, which gives relief from respiratory disorders that often result from asthma and the common cold. As mint cools and soothes the throat, nose and other respiratory channels, it relieves the irritation which causes chronic coughing. This is the main reason why so many balms are based on mint. Unlike the inhalers that are based on aerosols, those with mint as the fundamental component tend to be more effective and eco-friendly as well.

  • Asthma

Regular use of mint is very beneficial for asthma patients, as it is a good relaxant and relieves congestion. That being said, using too much mint in this way can also irritate the nose and throat.

  • Breast Feeding

For many women, breastfeeding is a beautiful part of raising a child, but it can damage your breasts and nipples. Studies have shown that mint oil can reduce the nipple cracks and nipple pain that so often accompany breastfeeding.

  • Depression and Fatigue

Mint is a natural stimulant, and the smell alone can be enough to charge your batteries and get your brain functioning at a high level again. If you are feeling sluggish, anxious, depressed, or simply exhausted, mint and its essential oils can help. It can be ingested, applied topically in a salve form, or inhaled as a vapor, and all of those techniques can give you a much-needed boost. A popular way to get good results in an easy manner is to put a few drops of mint essential oil or menthol oil on your pillow at night and let it work on your body and mind while you sleep.

  • Skin Care and Pimples

While mint oil is a good antiseptic and antipruritic material, the mint juice is an excellent skin cleanser. It soothes the skin and helps to cure infections and itchiness. In addition to being a good way to reduce pimples, it can even relieve some of the symptoms of acne. Its anti-pruritic properties can be used for treating insect bites like those of mosquitoes, honeybees, hornets, wasps, and gnats. The cooling sensation will relieve you from irritation and the constant urge to scratch, and the anti-inflammatory nature of mint will bring down swelling. In that same vein, mint oil is often a basic component of bug repellent products like citronella candles, because the strong aroma is unappealing to most insects.

  • Memory Loss

A recent study explored the effects that mint has on alertness, retention and cognitive function. It found that people who frequently use chewing gum, in which the major active ingredient is mint, had higher levels of memory retention and mental alertness than those who did not. The stimulant qualities of mint, once again, have shown yet another reason to pop that stick of gum in your mouth or chew some leaves when you’re feeling less than brilliant.

  • Weight Loss

Apart from all the other health benefits of mint, it also can help in your efforts to lose weight in a healthy way. Mint is a stimulant, as we’ve already mentioned, but it also stimulates the digestive enzymes that absorb nutrients from food and to consume fat and turns it into usable energy. Therefore, by adding mint to your diet, you are increasing the amount of fat that is being consumed and put to use, rather than being stored and contributing to weight gain.

  • Female Sterility

There are mixed opinions regarding the role of mint in treating this condition. Some argue that prolonged use of menthol may cause sterility, reducing a woman’s ability to conceive by interfering with the production of ova and killing these gametes. This is due to the germicidal and insecticidal properties of the herb, which are beneficial for so many other health concerns. Other research has claimed that men who smoke menthol cigarettes are more likely to suffer from impotency than those who smoke normal cigarettes. It is not certain whether this is due to the tobacco alone or if the mentholated aspect has anything do with it. Another group or researchers suggest that mint may actually be used to treat sterility in females. Suffice to say, a great deal of research must be done on the effects of mint in both male impotency and female sterility.

  • Oral Care

Improving the health of a person’s mouth is a well-known benefit of mint. Since it has germicidal qualities and quickly freshens breath, it adds to oral health by inhibiting harmful bacterial growth inside the mouth and by cleaning the tongue and teeth. This is why mint used to be rubbed directly on the teeth and gums to refresh the mouth and eliminate dangerous forms of growth. In modern times, for the same reason, mint is one of the most common elements in toothpaste, mouthwashes, and other dental hygiene products. Of course, the easiest way to get these results is to simply chew on the leaves.