مچھلیوں کی افزائش دنیا بھر میں کاروبار کا ایک بڑا ذریعہ ہے۔ تالابوں، جھیلوں اور سمندر کے علاوہ بہت سی خواتین و حضرات انہیں گھروں کے اندر پال کر بھی اپنے اور اپنے خاندان کیلئے آمدنی حاصل کر رہے ہیں۔ مچھلیوں کی افزائش سے متعلق کبھی سمجھا جاتا تھا کہ اسے کرنے کیلئے بہت سرمائے اور بڑے رقبے کی ضرورت ہوگی، مگر بدلتے وقت کیساتھ سائنسی تحقیق اور معلومات میں اضافہ کی وجہ سے ایسے طریقے دریافت ہورہے ہیں جنہیں اپنا کر بہت کم سرمائے اور چھوٹی سی جگہ میں اسے شروع کیا جاسکتا ہے۔
چھلی اور سبزیوں کی ایک ساتھ مربوط کاشتکاری کے انتظام کو اکواپونکس کہا جاتا ہے۔ اکواپونکس میں مچھلی کے ٹینک سے غذائی اجزا سے بھرپور پانی پودوں کو زرخیز کرنے کے لئے استعمال کیا جاتا ہے۔ پودوں کی طشتری (ٹرے) یا ٹینک میں پودوں کی جڑیں پانی سے غذائی اجزاء کو نچوڑ کر پودوں کیلئے مہیا کرتی ہیں اور فائدیمند بیکٹیریا نقصاندہ مادوں جیسے امونیا کو کھاد میں تبدیل کر کے پودوں کو خوراک اور مچھلی کو صاف شدہ پانی مہیا کرتے ہیں (اور اسطرح یہ دونوں ملکر ایک بایوفلٹر کا کام کرتے ہیں)
۔ دوسرے لفظوں میں اکواپونکس میں مچھلی کے فضلہ میں موجود غذائی اجزا کو پودے اپنی خوراک کیلئے استعمال کرتے ہیں اور پانی کو صاف کرکے مچھلی کو مہیا کرتے ہیں۔ اسطرح مچھلی اور پودے ایک دوسرے کی مدد کرتے ہیں اور کم جگہ اور کم پانی استعمال کرکے ہمیں گھر بیٹھے صحت بخش، تازہ اور کیمیکل سے پاک (آرگینک) خوراک مہیا کرتے ہیں یعنی مچھلی بھی اور سبزیاں بھی۔ اکواپونکس میں آپ مچھلی کے ساتھ سلاد، ٹماٹر، مرچ، کھیرا، بینگن، بھینڈی، کریلہ، توری، پالک، ساگ، دھنیا کے علاوہ اور بہت سی سبزیاں اگاسکتے ہیں۔ اسکے علاوہ اسٹرابیری اور دوسرے پھل؛ پھول اور جڑی بوٹیاں بھی اگا سکتے ہیں۔
(By Rohoma Tahir, Mujahid Ali, H.M. Bilal, Rabbia Zulfiqar)
(Horticulture, College of Agriculture, UOS)
Recently Pakistan is among most threatening countries regarding water shortage in the world. This alarming situation is very severe as our main livings depend upon agriculture. Without agriculture, man can’t live and without irrigation, man can’t have agriculture. Food is most important for human beings as well for animals for their life. In the beginning, a man pleased his hunger by eating fruits from the forest and drinking water from natural streams. Slowly his need become bigger and he felt the need of different types of food. He started cultivating and retreat crops. Agriculture was his only occupation. He depended mainly on rainwater to water the crops, but nature did not prefer him always. Occasionally droughts were harsh and there was an influence on lack of harvest. There was a need for irrigation and he started to use water from ponds, streams, and rivers for agriculture. Irrigation is defined as the supplementation of precipitation by storage and transportation of water to the fields for the proper growth of agricultural crops.
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were the first to use water for agriculture. In North America, Spanish and Americans built canals along the Rio Grande. With the development of agriculture, irrigation became more known in the Indus Valley, presently India and Pakistan. Today 689 million acres of agricultural land is irrigated with water to facilities across the whole world. Out of total 68% of irrigated land is in Asia, 17% in North America, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania.
Water is the basic element that maintains life. Misuse of water has the capacity to cause agricultural, economic, climatic and political issues in the area. Many countries around the world have fallen victim to water-conflicts. Water sharing and the uses of six rivers is the second major issue between Pakistan and India after the Kashmir issue. Five rivers reach to the Pakistan Punjab and all join at Mithinkot – this point is called Panjnad.
David Eli Lilienthal, known for leading the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), visited India and Pakistan to observe the reality of the issue. He noticed, “No army, with bombs and shellfire, could ravage a land as thoroughly as Pakistan could be ruined by the simple advisable of India’s forever shutting off the sources of water that keep the fields and the people of Pakistan alive.”
Pakistan is basically an agricultural country 65% population of Pakistan is related to agricultural unfortunately Pakistan is present near tropic and it received less rain during the year that’s why irrigation system for Pakistan act as the backbone of our economy.
Farming and agriculture are the oldest activities being performed by the human on this earth. Pakistan has one of the most fertile soils in this world and its credit goes to Indus valley in this region. Canal water is just like the blood of agriculture and farming, there was a time when such activities used to be performed near rivers but as the time passed the land near the river was no more available, but the requirement of water was still there. The area where Pakistan is blessed with natural gifts and one of the gift is the irrigation system. 75% of the Pakistan land which is used as an agricultural land that is covered by the irrigation system. Rivers have been the largest source of water; the rainfall has also been the 2nd important source and the 3rd one is groundwater.
The irrigation system is not as new as it sounds. For irrigation system, we find perennial canals and tube wells. The major source of water supply throughout Pakistan is Indus River. And Dams and Barrages have been established on them. Tarbela and Mangla are the larger dams in Pakistan. And they generate hydroelectricity, storing water and irrigating the land. Small dams are used as a water reservoir and they also supply water, three Small dams are Khanpur Dam, Rawal Dam, and Hub Dam.
Difference between dams and Barrages are: Dams are built on mountainous where the Barrages based on flat surfaces. Barrages are used as a supply of irrigation to the agricultural land. In Pakistan, there are four Barrages: Sukkur Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Kotri Barrage, and Chashma Barrage are well known.
A canal is a basic mean that provides water from the river to agriculture field where it is required. Canals are come out of rivers, dams, and barrages. The irrigation system of Pakistan is best in all over the world’s irrigation system. This system is good due to a canal.
Canals take water from the river when the water level is rise due to flood. That’s why the extra water is used in a better way rather than spoil around the area. Perennial canals are those canals which are taken from the Dams and Barrages these canals also supply water to the field. In Pakistan there are No. of large dams 3, No. of small dams 85, No. of Barrages 16, No. of Headworks 2, No. of interlink Canlas 12, No. of canals system 44, No. of watercourse 107,000, Lengths of canals 56,073 Km, Length of water course 1.6 Million km, Irrigated area 36 Million Acres, Average escapade to the sea 39.4 MAF.
For the use of groundwater 0.7 million tube wells have been installed. All the resources are used to fulfill the requirement of water. But with the passage of time, the demand for water is high, and these resources are not enough to meet the need. There is need to make new Dams and other resources to strengthen the irrigation system.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Pakistan and irrigation system is the major resource for agriculture. Fortunately, like gas, oil and coal resources Pakistan is rich in fertile land and its irrigation system is considered as one of the world’s largest irrigation system. ‘Water is one of the rarest and the most precious sources in the world’.
Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is totally depending on irrigation. There are several Irrigation systems of Pakistan, for example rivers, canals, barrages, headworks, dams and tube wells. Total agricultural land of Pakistan measured in 2011 by World Bank was 223850 sq.-km. which is on 4th in the world, but unfortunately this area is shrinking due to several factors, for example roads and highways, mega migration to cities, lack of water for irrigation and housing societies.
History of the irrigation system of Pakistan in 1947 when the Indian sub-continent was divided in to two independent states, like many issues there is water issue as well. In 1960 both countries signed the “Indus Water Treaty”. According to the treaty In,dia was given the Eastern Rivers named as Sutlej, Bias and Ravi. And under the control of Pakistan, there are three Western rivers Jhelum, Indus and Chenab. Unfortunately, it was signed back in 1960’s that India can water of Pakistani controlled Rivers for irrigation and power generation purposes as Pakistan is at downstream of these rivers. Since Pakistani controlled river is in India, so there is a chance that India effects on irrigation resources of Pakistan, as he did during war time in 1965 and 1971.
Irrigation Sources in Pakistan: Indus river is a major source of water in Pakistan which is subdivided into its branches downstream known as Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej also Kabul River. About 70% of total water consumed for irrigation, Due to high variation in rainfall, mostly observed in monsoon season, it is very difficult to maintain water for flood and irrigation of healthy and unhealthy rivers. One of the sources of refill are the hill fast-moving water, also known as ‘torrent’. There are 14 different ‘hilly-torrents’ in Pakistan.
Some other causes of restocking the Indus River Basin are: 1) Melting of snow 2) Precipitation, although melting process may cause more damage, but precipitation frequency is much higher than other one. At Karakorum Range, which includes a couple of tallest mountains in the world, it usually rains in winter which increases the packed snow at these high mountains. This snow melts in summers and converts in to runoff contributing about 82% of water for ‘KAREEF’ season and 18% for ‘RABEE’ season. RABEE starts from mid of November and ends at May, and KAREEF season starts from April to September.
Condition of Tarbela, Chashma and Mangla Dams reservoirs is reducing water storage capacity which will badly affect the water supply for irrigation in agriculture. KBD water reservoir will have storage capacity for more than 100 years. Reduced water supply in downstream areas in Punjab and Sindh will lead to the salt content of drinkable water cause shortage of drinking water availability for Punjab and Sindh.
Sindh will be the most affected area if Kalabagh is not built. Areas which are under irrigation at now may become barren, converted into a desert. KBD will store and release water flood when needed for agriculture in Sindh, thus saving the damage due to floods and meeting water required for agriculture and saving the salt content of groundwater at a shallow level. It will save land currently under cultivation from turning barren.
“We never know the worth of water till the well is dry”. According to the Wapda chief, almost 60% of the Pakistan population is directly linked in agriculture and livestock and despite being it also included in 15 most water-scarce countries, Pakistan has one of the most water-intensive agriculture with the fourth highest water use rate. Pakistan needs to narrow the huge gap between the growing population and its needs, and the number and capacity of water reservoirs.
Research reports have warned that Pakistan will have water scarcity by the year 2025 if Kalabaag dam is not built. It’s time that we stand up to save Pakistan, save ourselves and our coming generations from the drought and famine. Support Kalabagh Dam as W.H. Auden once said, “Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.”
(M. Noman*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain**)
(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)
Walnut is delicious fruit eaten as dried fruit. It is used throughout world processing industry. Its world production is 3.46 million tons. Its leading producers are China, United States, Iran, Turkey, Mexico. China is producing 46 percent of total world production. California is producing 99 percent of walnut of United States. In Pakistan its production is low, so it is considered as minor fruit. It has a history of Chinese culture, moreover in Pakistan children play with this fruit. Its fruit is called a nut because of its hard-outer shell. It can be added to chicken and fish during cooking in shredded form. It is processed in juices and in yogurt to make a tasty dessert. It is among those fruits which are not perishable.
Walnuts are a rich source of energy and hold many health-benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants, and vitamins that are essential for wellbeing. They are a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (approximately 72%) like oleic acid and an excellent source of all-important omega-3 essential fatty acids such as linoleum acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and arachidonic acids. Regular consumption of walnuts in the diet, therefore, may help in lowering total as well as LDL or “bad cholesterol” and increases HDL or “good cholesterol” levels in the blood. Research studies suggest that the Mediterranean diet which is rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids may help cut-down chances of coronary artery disease, and strokes by favoring healthy blood lipid profile. It is helpful in the prevention of cancer (skin cancer) having lot of antioxidants. It improves heart function, male fertility, weight management, brain health, metabolism and reduces inflammation. It has a positive effect on hair growth. In pregnant women these help in fetal growth.
Eating as just as a handful (25 g) of walnuts every day can provide about 90% of RDI (recommended daily intake) of omega-3 fatty acids. Research studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids by their anti-inflammatory actions may help lower blood pressure, cut down coronary artery disease and stroke risk, and offer protection from breast, colon and prostate cancers.
Additionally, they are a rich source of many photochemical substances that may contribute to their overall antioxidant activity, including melatonin, ellagic acid, vitamin-E, carotenoids, and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are known to have potential health effects against cancer, aging, inflammation, and neurological diseases.
Scientists at the University of Scranton, Pennsylvania, had recently found that walnuts possess the highest levels of polyphenolic antioxidants of all the edible seeds and nuts. 100 g of the nuts carry 13,541 µmol TE (Trolox equivalents) of oxidant radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Eating as many as six to seven walnuts a day could help stave off most of the disease-causing free radicals from the human body.
Further, they are an excellent source of vitamin-E, especially rich in γ -tocopherol; carry about 21 g per 100 g (about 140% of daily required levels). Vitamin-E is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant essential for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucosa and skin by protecting it from harmful oxygen-induced free radicals.
They are also packed with several important B-complex groups of vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, and folates.
They also very are a rich source of minerals such as manganese, copper, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium. Copper is a cofactor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome C-oxidize and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Zinc is a co-factor in growth and development, gonad development, digestion, and nucleic acid synthesis.
But eating too much walnut is harmful as it causes allergic reactions, lip cancer, tongue swelling, sometimes body produces rashes and swelling, diarrhea, nausea, lip cancer, asthma, acne, and ulcer etc.
Aquaculture, which is the cultivating of fish, shellfish and amphibian plants, can be a compensating attempt for somebody who will contribute the time expected to completely take in his item. Working a fish cultivate requires a decent arrangement of physical work to build and keep up a perfect natural surroundings and information of the species’ sustaining propensities and reproducing designs. Before you make a plunge, you’ll require a definite marketable strategy.
Research different types of fish, on the off chance that you don’t as of now have a specific fish as a main priority that you might want to cultivate, to figure out which species would charge best in your general vicinity. Notwithstanding ubiquity and accessibility, you’ll have to guarantee that you can recreate those conditions expected to raise your fish. Furthermore, consider foreseen costs, what you can hope to offer the fish for, customers and expected benefits.
• Learn everything there is to think about the species you expect to cultivate. Read writing on rearing examples, sustaining necessities, perfect conditions for reproducing, perfect conditions for grown-up fish and development time and in addition ailments and savagery issues.
• Find a reasonable territory for your fish that has the proper water temperature and water stream conditions and acquire zoning endorsement. Actualize a framework for lodging your fish and a wastewater treatment strategy. Cultivating frameworks incorporate confines and pens, lakes or course through frameworks, tanks and raceways and recycling frameworks.
• Contact the Sustenance and Medication Organization, Branch of Wellbeing and Human Administration, the Division of Agribusiness and the Natural Security Office to acquire the fundamental licenses. You’ll have to show learning of water quality, wastewater, malady control, pesticides, sustain, angle shipment and nourishment security.
• Hire an authorized temporary worker experienced in planning fish homesteads to enable you to outline your ranch and generation framework.
• Stock your homestead with eggs and grown-up angle, contingent upon your financial plan and the measure of time you will sit tight for your fish to achieve adulthood.
• Market your fish to nearby eateries, supermarkets and the individuals who appreciate recreational angling, in the event that you will enable local people to angle on your property.