Satellites and SMS help Pakistan’s farmers with smart irrigation

Using knowledge from Nasa, Pakistan’s water analysis agency is sending rain forecasts to 10,000 farmers, serving to them to irrigate more successfully and building up their crop yields. It remains to be beyond farmer Mohammad Ashraf’s comprehension that individuals in Islamabad can are expecting that it is going to rain within the next two days in his village. He may be astonished that, in response to this prediction, they are able to tell him how much he must water his rice and sugarcane plantations.

Currently, we are totally dependent on whatever the sellers of agri-products tell us about using pesticides and seeds. We just accept whatever they say,” he says. “If it comes from the government agency, it would be authentic

“I marvel at this science of being able to predict something that is unknown and in God’s hands,” says the 36-year-old farmer, Every Friday, he reads the simple Urdu messages despatched to his telephone, pronouncing things like: “Dear farmer friend, this is to inform you that between 21 and 28 July 2017 in your area (Bahawalnagar) the crops used this much water (cotton 1.6 inch, sugarcane 1.7 inch). Next week, rain is predicted in some parts of your region. Therefore please water your crops accordingly.”.

The textual content messages (or SMS) are sent via the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), a central authority company that carries out water research. Ashraf can be much more flabbergasted if he knew the scientists get this information from space

“Using satellites and models that take the pulse of the earth, we can identify the amount of water a given crop requires at a specific location and a specific time,” says Faisal Hossain, head of the Sustainability, Satellites, Water, and Environment (SASWE) research group on the University of Washington which developed the programme for, “estimating crop water requirement in a cost effective and sustainable manner for the whole country”.

Dear farmer friend, this is to inform you that between 21 and 28 July 2017 in your area (Bahawalnagar) the crops used this much water (cotton 1.6 inch, sugarcane 1.7 inch). Next week, rain is predicted in some parts of your region. Therefore please water your crops accordingly.

Ashraf, who lives in Hayatpur in Punjab’s Sargodha district, now takes these messages critically. Five years ago, he met water mavens from the PCRWR who were doing a box survey to explore how to enhance groundwater conservation and crop yield. During their surveys, the professionals found that farmers were over-watering their vegetation. They put in a water meter on Ashraf’s 12-acre farm and defined that if the arrow became in opposition to the golf green at the dial, it meant that his land had sufficient water. When the arrow became towards the crimson mark, it was time to water.

Using satellites and models that take the pulse of the earth, we can identify the amount of water a given crop requires at a specific location and a specific time

Faisal Hossain

“Like every farmer in the village, I did not believe them. We have been farming for generations and know what works and what doesn’t,” Ashraf informed But the following yr, he determined to only water his field when the marker pointed towards the pink. That season he produced extra, spent less on diesel to run the tubewell, and made more profit than somebody within the village. “The others watered their sugarcane fields three times more than I did and not only did my plants grow taller, I had less disease in my crop than the rest.”

Ashraf says that an acre of his land yielded 1,000 maunds (1 maund = 37 kilogrammes) of sugarcane. Each maund offered for PKR 180 (USD 1.70). “I sold my crop for PKR 180,000 (USD 1,700) while most villagers could only sell between PKR 80,000 and 100,000 (USD 755-944). Now a convert, he says he plans heed to every word from PCRWR. “I’d say that 99% of the time they are right on the mark about rain,” he says.

    Since remaining year, the PCRWR has sent weekly information to farmers like Ashraf via textual content messages, telling them how a lot water their vegetation want. They also ship them climate forecasts.

    “We started with 700 farmers in April 2016, all across Pakistan, and since January this year the number of farmers receiving the messages has increased to 10,000,” says Ahmed Zeeshan Bhatti, deputy director of PCRWR. The company has submitted a proposal to a couple organisations to beef up it in improving the recommendation and expanding the carrier to 100,000 farmers.

    I think the information they send is quite useful for us as by conserving water, our profit margins will be greater

    37-year old farmer Mohammad Tariq from Faisalabad

    “We carried out a survey to gauge the response of the farmers to our advice and the feedback was encouraging,” he says. Between 25 and 30 farmers would name again immediately for additional knowledge. “Our initial telephone survey revealed that farmers are saving almost 40% of water by rationing irrigation,” he says, adding that the carrier is saving round 250 million cubic metres of irrigation water according to 12 months. In the following phase of the programme, the PCRWR desires to train the farmers, as well as the ones operating in the agriculture division, to use research and the meteorological recommendation properly.

    “I think the information they send is quite useful for us as by conserving water, our profit margins will be greater,” says 37-year old farmer Mohammad Tariq from Faisalabad. He, alternatively, wishes for more sorts of information akin to when to sow, when to spray with insecticides, how time and again and what seed is just right for which crop.

    “Currently, we are totally dependent on whatever the sellers of agri-products tell us about using pesticides and seeds. We just accept whatever they say,” he says. “If it comes from the government agency, it would be authentic.”

    “When the British designed the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) between 1847 to 1947, it was to turn 67% of the basin area into farmland,” said Azeem Shah, regional researcher at Lahore founded International Water Management Institute.

    Even after the British left in 1947, the federal government irrigation engineers were adding new dams, barrages, link and department canals to the previous gadget. Today IBIS has three large dams, 80 5 small dams, nineteen barrages, twelve inter-river link canals, forty-five canal instructions and nil.7 million tube wells. Still, say experts, canal irrigation water efficiency may also be greater from the current 33% up to 90% (within the evolved international locations) by repairing leakages in the system, good metering and growing efficient solutions for decreasing the call for for water and on the similar time expanding agricultural productivity.

    Further, as of late, stated Shah, the cropping intensity has increased through 150% compared to 1947 with farmers not wanting to depart any fallow land. They also cultivate two or 3 vegetation. “Over the last 70 years, the quantity of the water has remained the same but agriculture is competing with other sectors, such as industry, as well as the growing population,” says Shah. Today, says Shah, kind of 50% of irrigation wishes are met via IBIS canals and 50% is extracted from the ground.

    The SMS programme is supported technically and financially by way of the University of Washington’s Global Affairs Department, NASA’s applied sciences programme, the Ivanhoe Foundation and the Pakistan executive. When it began, the PCRWR was providing week-old knowledge, but is now in a position to forecast for the present and the long run. Hossain issues out, however, that even supposing long-term forecasts weren’t presented, temporary weather data would still have value. “Soil moisture has memory and inertia, so knowing how much it has rained and stayed in the soil the previous week is necessary to plan the coming week’s irrigation,” he defined.

    The PCRWR is able to get entry to global climate model forecasts with the assistance of the University of Washington, the use of a Chinese type and collaborating with the Pakistan Meteorological Department. “It is thus able to provide quite accurate information,” says Bhatti.

    With Pakistan among many nations liable to local weather change and excessive weather prerequisites, using clinical the way to help farmers irrigate their land extra efficiently is all the more important. Will this advice help farmers adapt to or fend off excessive climate phenomena in the years to come?

    “That’s the idea,” says Bhatti, including that the advice must assist farmers tackle local weather aberrations like heatwaves, and increased frequency of heavy and intense rainfall.

    Hossain is a extra wary: “The skill of general circulation model projections – say into 2040 – is poor and of little empowering value to farmers. We are more focused on providing tactical information, rather than long-term strategic information for adaptation.”

    Nor is this the only cellphone-based initiative going down in Pakistan. In the province of Punjab, the Punjab Information Technology Board (PITB) at the side of the Agriculture Department of Punjab, is partnering with Telenor, a cellular company offering financial services and products to farmers who do not have financial institution accounts. “Not only are we providing interest free loans to smallholder farmers we are providing them advisories on how to improve their yield by using modern agriculture practices and linking them to agriculture experts, research institutions, agriculture extension workers and input providers,” said Uzair Shahid, senior programme manager on the PITB.

    Step via small step, the farmers of Pakistan would possibly end up seeing telephone generation as an very important a part of a extra productive long term.

    Saffron: History and Cultivation in Pakistan

    SAFFRON is the costliest of the entire spices, has huge healing price and is extensively used in confectioneries for dyeing meals arrangements and sublime perfumes. Medicinally it is carminative and promotes perspiration when taken as infusion. The Greeks and Romans would strew saffron on flooring of public assembly puts to smell the air, and its tea used to be inebriated to invigorate the spirits.

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    Pure saffron has spicy, aromatic, pungent and rather bitter style with penetrating function perfume. A very little amount is required to colour and flavour food arrangements. It comprises riboflavin and the pigment crocin which is very robust. It may also be inebriated warm as a most stimulating tea including just a pinch (4gm) of it to 20 fluid oz of boiling water.

    Saffron has its foundation from the Asia Minor from the place it spread all over to Iran, China, Russia, Turkey, Spain, Holland and England. However, Indian-held Kashmir is widely recognized for its cultivation and high quality of product. Pure saffron is contained in orange pink stigmas of crocus flower.

    The stigmas are picked via hand when flowers don’t seem to be but open, which may be dried in color. It roughly requires 70,000 plants to succeed in half kilo gram avoirdupois of saffron. The value of manufacturing may be very top as a result of low production, labour and cost extensive bulbs.

    Saffron is botanically known as Crocus sativus from the family Iridaceae. It is a perennial plant, has lilac colour flowers, with narrow ribbed leaves grown from bulbs referred to as corm. The stigmas are the true saffron, which might be brilliant orange-red grows in three threads like open end tubes from style of the flower. Of the entire best saffron comes from south japanese Spain.

    Its corm grows easiest in wealthy sandy well-drained sheltered soil. Each acre sowing calls for no less than 80,000 to 90,000 corms which require numerous investment.

    Therefore, the federal government may subsidise to start with and the interested grower may challenge from a modest house of one kanal or so. Soil must neither be sandy or onerous clay nor have high salt contents. In order to strengthen soil fertility, construction, water keeping capability and adorning microbial activities well rotten farm yard manure could also be added in adequate quantities. The land could also be ready so as to be free of weeds.

    Although our soils are incessantly poor in two vitamins; nitrogen and phosphorous (N&P), yet it is going to be beneficial to get the soil analysed for micro and macro nutrients. Usually potash is available in abundance in maximum of our soils. part Of nitrogen and whole dose of phosphorous is also applied at sowing. First irrigation could also be implemented at sowing. Rest of N may be equipped in instalments all the way through the rising duration. First irrigation is also carried out immediately just after sowing of bulbs.

    The planting could also be carried out by way of the tip of September or starting of October. The plant is propagated either by means of department of bulbs or seed. However, the crop raised from seed takes about three years to endure flowers. The stem is brief, measuring six inches or so in height. The bulb is wrapped in brownish thin sheaths. During growing season the primary bulb develops various daughter corms on its facets, the young corms get started bearing plant life as they mature. The corms sprout in autumn and dries after spring.

    The bulbs can be dug out when in dried state or its stays alive within the soil for subsequent crop. A two to 3 years previous bulb begins bearing flower and just right crop may also be acquired for five or six years from the similar plantation. Since the bulbs remain dormant within the soil in off season, subsequently, water will not be allowed to face in the field, which would possibly otherwise decompose them. The yield of dried saffron varies from 4 to 10 kg in step with hectare; which essentially relies on the management practices adopted additionally the climatic prerequisites. The worth of product very a lot depends upon the quality of the produce, which might fetch as high worth as $1,000 consistent with kg. The main saffron exporting countries are Spain, Iran, India and Turkey.

    Half hearted efforts had been made for advent into the country. If a success shall carry prosperity to the farming community, when one hectare of crop might fetch Rs300,000 to Rs500,000, which is certainly very prime return in comparison to any typical or non conventional crop. It is attention-grabbing to notice that an agricultural scientist in Faisalabad, greater than a decade in the past, had effectively grown saffron in his yard. It is firmly believed that it can be presented in some cooler parts of Punjab, NWFP, Balochistan or Kashmir.

    To start fundamental subject matter be offered from more than a few countries of different ecological regions, which be tried in numerous portions of the country to determine aptness below various agro climatic methods. The hybridisation of suitable introductions at the side of software of bio generation as an extra software in all probability will lead to wide variety of variation so that you could make a selection desirable changes of hybrid material absolute best suited to our surroundings for upper manufacturing above and past advanced high quality of product.

    Although it is like finding a needle in hay stack, but, on the other hand, exposure to low irradiation may reason fascinating changes.

    How To Grow Papaya: Growing Papaya From Seeds

    Growing papayas

    The fruit of papayas is high in nutrition C. You too can pick out the fruit when it’s inexperienced and cook dinner it like a marrow.

    Female and male plants do not grow on the similar tree, so you must have male and female bushes in the garden.


    Papayas develop absolute best in hot areas.

    They can tolerate mild frost if they’re protected from cold winds.

    Soil requirements

    They can grow in maximum kinds of soil, nevertheless it must be smartly drained.

    The roots can get sicknesses if the soil stays too rainy.

    Loamy soils are highest.

    Planting date

    Papayas may also be planted at any time of the 12 months, but ideally in past due summer time.


    Plant papayas 1,five metres between crops and

    3 to 4 metres between rows.

    Growing papayas from seeds

    It is simple to grow the peculiar papaya tree from seed.

    Wash the seeds from a ripe papaya.

    Squeeze the seeds from the jelly bag that covers every seed. The seeds will handiest develop in case you take away the bag.

    Dry them in a shady position.

    Store in a tightly closed container and keep them till December.

    Plant the seeds in December. Put five seeds to a hole. Do now not put any compost or manure into the holes.

    Keep the small vegetation wet.

    You can simplest inform which trees are feminine and that are male when the bushes begin to flower. Therefore, you will have to all the time have more than one tree in step with hole, as a result of then you’ll be able to make a choice the feminine bushes.

    Female plant life bigger closer to the department than the male flowers

    Male plant life very small there are lots of flowers which grow on lengthy branches of the stem.

    Only female timber give fruit however they need male plants to pollinate them. Leave 1 male tree for 10 feminine timber.


    Dig a hole about two times the size of the bag in which the young tree is rising.

    Remove the soil from the hole and add some compost and manure. Mix this with one of the most soil that has been dug out.Take the plant out of the container. If it is a plastic container you simply cut it open on the aspect.

    Do now not disturb the roots.

    Place the tree in the centre of the outlet. When you refill the hole hold the tree so that its base is degree with the surrounding ground.

    Raise the soil across the tree to block the water (rain or irrigation).

    Do no longer plant the tree deeper than it was in the container.

    Do not duvet the stem with soil as a result of it will rot.


    Papayas want little water.

    They will, alternatively, give extra and larger fruit if they are watered every 2 weeks in the dry season. The plant life will drop if they don’t get enough water.

    If they are planted in clay soils, be sure that the soil does now not stay too wet.

    To keep away from waterlogging in clay soil, make a ridge and plant the papayas at the ridge.


    Compost or manure

    Give the tree:

    1 bucketful in September,

    1 bucketful in November

    any other bucketful in January.

    Sprinkle a few handfuls of manure evenly around the tree each month from September to the tip of March.

    NB: Do not apply chicken manure on timber younger than 2 years as it will possibly burn the young papaya timber.

    Artificial fertiliser

    Give the bushes 4 tablespoonfuls (115 g) of 2:3:2 in September, November and January.

    Sprinkle flippantly around the tree, now not in opposition to the stem.

    Keep the timber mulched always (use grass, leaves, and many others).

    Do no longer grow other plants subsequent to the trunk as a result of it is quite cushy. If the trunk is broken the papaya tree can get illnesses.

    If the fruit presentations humps the tree may be in need of boron. Sprinkle 2 tablespoonfuls of borax across the tree.

    Pruning and thinning

    You can lower the tree (take away most sensible) so that it does not grow too tall. This encourages branching. Cut into wintry weather wooden, the place leaf scars are shut together. Paint the cut with a sealant.


    You can pick out the fruit when the outside begins to turn out to be yellow.

    The fruit will ripen after you have picked it.

    Handle it moderately because it gets bruised simply.


    Papaya bushes simply get black leafspot. Your nearest extension officer or cooperative will be capable to inform you find out how to treat this illness.

    Rice Production in Myanmar/Paddy Cultivation in Myanmar

    Rice Production in Myanmar/Paddy Cultivation in Myanmar


    Rice remains the main food in Myanmar. In terms of the production of rice, Myanmar is placed in the sixth position in the world’s rice production. Grown on ver 8 million ha, meaning that more than half of the country’s arable land, rice is the country’s most important crop not only in terms of countries GDP but also in providing the food security for the country and the rest of the world. The country has seen significant growth from 18 million tonnes to 22 million tonnes of rice production from 1995 to 2010. The growth is accounted for the expansion of the area and yield increase with advanced techniques.

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    Despite having explosive growth in production, Myanmar has seen a dramatic drop in the in the rice exports during the period. It was attributed to the drastic growth of the country’s population that needed more food. Although the country’s annual per capita rice consumption has been declined slightly from 170 kg to 141 kg during 1990 and 2009; however, the total rice consumption has been increased by more than 60% in the same period on the account of the surge in population size. In parallel to the small drop in consumption of rice per capita, caloric intake per person from rice has been declined from 68.4% (1,451 kcal) per day to 48.3% (1,204 kcal) during the same period; however, it has been supplied from the other crops from 23.7% per day to 34.3% per day in the same period. This decrease in per capita from rice has shown the daily protein intake falling sharply from 63.6% to 34.5%. Looking back in history, Myanmar has been stood as a major rice exporter in the world, but this role has become dull due to multiple reasons in recent years.

    Despite the negative situations, rice is the most important crop for Myanmar agriculture that dominates the country’s economy, but it still has great potential to increase rice production by the improvement in the several aspects such as land reclamations, effective mechanization and inputs, and good infrastructure development in both rural and urban areas. Unfortunately, the country is now importing the rice about 0.02 million tonnes annually. As the long-term trend in per capita, rice production has been reduced, the agriculture needs to be reformed and revitalized through the climate resilient and advanced technologies to bring the past glory of the country in the rice exports and increase the protein intake of the country.

    Economic Contribution of the Agriculture in Myanmar

    Major occupation in Myanmar is agriculture, but it possesses moderate natural resources in several parts of the country; therefore, agricultural production has been dramatically decreased. The agricultural sector contributes around 13.7% of total export earnings, and a shared GDP of 37.8%, by which the country employs 61.2% of the labor force. Owing to the various agro-ecological

    conditions and large arable land area in Myanmar, several agricultural products are produced abundantly. Among all agricultural activities, rice is the major crop in terms of both the economy and food security of the country. Therefore, efficient rice production would secure more income and the export revenues for the country because the paddy production alone accounted for about 35% of the total crop area in Myanmar. Therefore, the rice farming in Myanmar potentially makes a crucial step for the reduction of the poverty, improvement in the food security for all farms, fostering a more dynamic rural sector and making the agriculture as a dynamic contributor to the national economy.

    Rice Producing Zones in Myanmar

    Myanmar has enormous land, good water resources, and a suitable climate for rice farming. A majority of Myanmar’s sown area is planted as the rainfed rice crop during southwest monsoon season (June-August ), whereas summer seasonal rice farming is between November and February in the lower part of the country, and in the central dry zone regions, the farming is from January to March. The rice growing in the country takes about 5-6 months. Few varieties of rice are harvested in November-December including the Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon region in the lower Myanmar. The rice-growing places in Myanmar include rainfed lowland in late-sown and Main area, irrigated lowland, deepwater, and upland. During the monsoon period, rainfed lowland is the area sown bit late in the usual season. Mayin rice can be transplanted only after the monsoon when floodwater recedes. The largest of the ecosystems, the rainfed lowland, and deepwater rice are confined to the delta region and coastal strip of Rakhine State. According to the statistics, nearly 60% of the delta region, including the Ayeyarwady, Bago, and Yangon region of Lower Myanmar, is cultivated the rice under the rain feeding. Based on the rainfall and hydrologic patterns, irrigation is critical in Myanmar’s central dry zone, whereas, in the delta, there is more concern about drainage and flood protection. Most of the country’s upland area is found to be in Mandalay, Sagaing, and Shan states. However, some upland area is found in sloping land of Shan State, which is usually cold in the northern winter.

    Rice is grown in several parts of the country and the percentage of the rice growing in the states and divisions of the country are as follows. The major portion of the rice growing is in the Delta of the Ayeyarwady River comprising of 33.59 % of the total harvested area, which is followed by Bango Division 17.72%, Yangon Division 10.07%, Sagaing Division 8.88%, Shan Stage 5.95%, Rakhine State 5.84%, Mon State 4.97%, Mandalay Division 4.89%, Midway Division 3.25%, Kachin State 1.93%, Tanintharyi Division 1.5%, Chin State 0.59%, Kayah State 0.5%, and Kayin State 0.31%.

    Varieties of Rice Farming in Myanmar

    Myanmar grows varieties of the rice breeds and there are more than 20 varieties of rice farming in Myanmar. The list of the names includes Nga-seindu-me, Byat-ga-lay, Ka-mar-ky, Maung-nyo, Shan-nyein, Nga-kywe, Emataamagyi, Pin-to-sein, Shwe-che-gyin, Hnan-war-mee-kauk, Yar-ma-gy, Let-ywesin, Let-ywe-sin-ma, Ye-baw-sein, Shwe-din-gar, Sein-ta-lay, Hmawbi-1, Hmawbi-2, Hmawbi-3, Hmawbi-4, etc

    Climate in Myanmar

    Despite Myanmar being the Asian monsoonal region, the climate is significantly modified by the relief and geographic position. The transport of the air masses towards Myanmar by the monsoons influences the climate of the country. Snow to the northern mountains are brought by the cold air masses of Central Asia; therefore, the country is severely affected by the Asian monsoon winds. As we know, the mountain ranges and valleys do control the precipitation patterns in the regional sense. The country has mountains and valleys which creates precipitation patterns. Alignment of south-north ranges and valleys create a harmonic pattern of alternate zones of torrential rains and drought-prone scanty precipitations during both the monsoons- Southwest and Northeast. Although both the monsoons bring the rains in the country, the southwest monsoons result in major precipitation in the country. However, because of low-pressure creation, the west coast is occasionally subjected to tropical cyclones.

    Myanmar has three distinct climatic seasons- cool, rainy and hot. During the late October to mid-February, the relatively dry northwest monsoons make the climate cold. As said earlier, the southwest monsoons result in most of the rains in the country during the mid-May to late October. The middle of the northwest and southeast monsoonal season (mid-February to mid-May) transport the hot and dry winds towards the country. As is obvious from the southwest monsoon, the coastal regions, the western and southeastern mountain ranges receive at least 5,000 mm of rain annually, while the flat and delta regions receive about half of the coastal regions. Being away from the coasts and leeward side, also known as the rain shadow region, of the mountain ranges, such as the Rakhine, the Central region receives the least amount of precipitation ( only 500 to 1,000 mm per year). Because, if its elevation, the Shan Plateau usually receives the precipitation of range between 1,900 and 2,000 mm per year.

    Soil Types and Fertility for Rice Farming in Myanmar

    The land-use division at the Myanmar Agricultural Service takes care of the country’s soil surveys and maps the soils. The soil, in terms of texture classification, comprises silt, sand, and clay. The soils in which the major portion is silt is classified as alluvial or fertile soil. They are found in any region of the country, the river plains, deltas, former lakes, and coastal areas, regardless of relief. The reaction from the soils are usually neutral and being the young soils developed from the recent alluvial deposits at the river plains, the soils are rich in plant nutrients. Easily tilled, these are very important soils for agriculture. They are good for rice, vegetables, pulses and beans, chilli, sugarcane, plantation crops, and maize. Along with the alluvial soils, there different subtypes of Meadow soils that are widely occurred in many parts of the country’s river plains, delta, and low coastal plains and valleys. All types of Meadow soils contain mostly clay texture and have thick solum. These soil types are most suitable for the paddy cultivation. The Dry zone Meadow soils in upper Myanmar have the characteristics of light colors. These are Meadow soils with neutral reaction; however, some of the Meadow soils have the alkaline reactions. The alkalinity in those regions is attributed to the occurrence of the carbonates in the soils. Although having a deficiency in plant nutrients, these soils may be used for pulses and vegetables.

    The Meadow soils are found in the elevated mountainous region having high rainfall and the Meadow soils of the lower Myanmar. The lower soils are yellow-brown in color with acid to neutral soil reaction as these meadows soils occur near the river plains with occasional tidal floods, which are noncarbonate. However, they usually contain greater amounts of salts and contain more plant nutrients than the Meadow soils of Upper Myanmar. Regardless of the more content of iron, the soils may be utilized for rice and vegetables. Meadow Alluvial soils (aka fluvic Gleysols) can be found in the flood plains of the country. They are the textured with silty clay loam and they can be utilized for groundnut, sesame, sunflower, jute, sugarcane, and vegetables in addition to rice cultivation. They are neutral in the soil reaction and are rich in available plant nutrients. The Meadow Gley soils (Gleysol) and Meadow swampy (Histic Gleysol) occur in the regions of lower depressions where the lands are inundated for more than 6 months in a year. The soil texture in these types are from clayey to clay, and they usually have a very strong acid reaction, and may also contain a large amount of iron. Moreover, these type of soils with long periods of moisture content may contain a large amount of soluble iron, aluminum, sulfur, and manganese by a chemical process; therefore, the soils may be toxic to plants. Because of the humus content is high and usually deficient in phosphorus and potassium, rice and jute can be grown on these soils after the floods recede.

    The Dry zone Dark Compact soils occur in the plains of Sagaing, Mandalay and Magway divisions. They usually occur on the lowlands near the rivers and broad depression in the areas of Red Brown Savanna Soils. They are good soils for agriculture in the Dry zone area. The texture is mostly clayey and the soils are deep. Found on the level plains, they are known to be the best soils for irrigated farming. Due to high clay content, it is too difficult to work when the soil is either too dry or too have excessive moisture. In these soils, the humus content is very low and in the dry state, they are deeply cracked. However, after rains, they quickly turn into mud and sticky. Because of low pore-size, the infiltration in these soils is also very poor. Consequently, more care should be taken for saline and alkali problems. The soils are alkaline with the pH ranging from 7 to 9 so they may be strongly calcareous. They are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus, but the potassium is high. Also, these soils contain a considerable amount of calcium and magnesium. Contained the required nutrients, the soils can be used for rice farming under sufficient irrigation.

    Nutrient Management for Rice Farming in Myanmar

    Fertilizer use in Myanmar has been decreasing and notably very low. In 2009, the farmers applied only 5 kg NPK per ha of arable land, which was just 25% of the amount applied in 1995. Therefore, it shows a much lower level for rice production. Despite the lesser use of fertilizer in some areas, the production of rice went up at 3% per year in 2005-10. Although the modern varieties are cultivated extensively, the farmers are not achieving the yield potential of these modern varieties because of lower amounts of inputs (e.g., fertilizer and herbicide) are applied. The statistics show that rice yield surged to 4.1 t/ha in 2010 from about 3 t/ha in 1995 and yield growth rate was 1.9% per year during 2005-10. Also, the yield of rice reached 4 t/ha in 2008 but stagnated since then. It could be attributed to the lower amount of fertilizer applied by rice farmers.

    Rice Production in Myanmar: Constraints and Opportunities

    In the country, a provision of credit facilities enables the farmers to buy the agricultural inputs needed to achieve higher yield/production. Also, adequate irrigation facilities are required for a steady and the required supply of water, rather than depending solely on erratic rainfall especially in the central plains or dry areas. In addition to these, better rice mills, storage facilities, and roads for farm-to-market would ensure the high-quality milled rice for exporting. A premium price and the lower transportation costs for farmers’ ensures the economy of the agricultural families and the countries economy of the whole country. In the context of the above, the following set of interventions would improve the country’s agricultural economy: (1) increase access to credit for the farmers, traders, and millers; (2) increase the farm-gate price of paddy in order to encourage farmers to produce more paddy; and (3) provide finance for small-scale village infrastructure projects to increase demand for wage labor for the rural poor. In this regard, the government provides credit programs for low-income farmers in the Mandalay region. In addition to this, to buy rice seeds and other agricultural inputs, the private companies are encouraged by the government to provide microfinance to rice farmers.

     Efficient utilization of machinery, in the entire process of rice farming – land preparation, harvesting, and post-harvesting activities, is needed for the increase in cropping intensity and the productivity. After the country’s independence, agriculture mechanization schemes involving in the distribution of farm machinery to farmers were implemented by the government. Although the required machinery is produced, it is not sufficient. Myanmar is still lag behind in modern agricultural production, especially in the application of farm mechanization, although it has been exploring the use of agricultural machinery for crop cultivation instead of traditional cattle and manpower. The use of advanced agricultural tools such as tillers, and other machinery in rice production is paramount; it would raise rice productivity, the processing time is reduced, and increases the economy of the country. The modern agricultural tools not only increases land and labor productivity but reduce the intervention of human and animal labor. The effort in this regard was entirely successful due to the lack of skilled and experienced manpower. As a result, agricultural production in Myanmar is more or less traditional still. In conclusion, Myanmar is a top ten rice producing country with overall exporting in the past but the present a small quantity of rice is being imported because of explosive growth in the country population. Despite being potential to increase the production further, the fertilizers, and advanced machinery usage and management is a critical factor to lag behind improve the production of the rice in Myanmar. Furthermore, a major part of the rice cultivation is rainfed, but the climate in Myanmar is not consistent; therefore, the climate also affects the production of the rice. However, advanced irrigation techniques may improve production significantly.

    Importance of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) plant due to its several uses benefits to agriculture and industry

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is very important plant due to its several uses benefits to agriculture and industry. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is occasionally called “Mother Best Friend” and called Miracle tree. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is found to be native to the sub-Himalayan regions of the north-west India and Pakistan. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is a fast growing drought resistant tree and belong to family Moringaceae, with 13 known species. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) is easy to grow from seed or cuttings. Its maximum height is 10-12m, while its trunk can reach a diameter of 45 cm. The flower is approximately 1.0-1.5 cm long and 2.0cm wide. Flowering starts with in the first six month of planting.

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    It can grow in most soils Such as sandy soils and climatic condition or marginal areas. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) tree is easy to propagate, and is fast to grow. It is found to be the most nutrients rich plant discovered till now. It is a rich source of nutrients amino acids, antioxidants and also has antiaging and anti-inflammatory. Zeatin is present in excess amount in moringa leaves. Growth enhancing compounds like ascorbates, cytokinin, phenolic and minerals like K, Fe and ca make it a tremendous crop growth enhancer. The best use of moringa leaf extract is that it acts as a plant growth enhance , Lab experiments showed that moringa spray had a wide range of beneficial effects on crop like plant resistant to disease  and pest , longer life- span , heavier roots, stem and leaves, produced more fruit, larger fruit, increase in yield 20-30%. It is a deciduous tree.

    Erum Rashid, Zahoor Hussain, Shahla Rashid

    College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha.

    Various sources of plant extract are used but moringa is gaining much attention these days. Moringa leaves roots fruit and flower used as vegetable. Morimga leaves are a source of vitamin A and C, iron, calcium, riboflavin, β- carotene and phenolic acid like growth substances. Moringa leaf extract can be used as biostimulants, hence its leaf extract in water contains growth enhancing substances

    These days’ farmers are well about the application of organic fertilizer to improve their production as well as farming land. In order to fill the demand of organic fertilizer, one of such option use of moringa leaf extracts as fertilizer. The nutritional quality of food raised by organic farming in comparison to traditional farming is a current issue that continues to attract interest and generate discussion consumer regard organic food not only as better, but also a safe more hygienic and free of chemical residues and artificial ingredients.

    Foliar appliance of moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract helpful for the vigorous growth, deeper root development, seed germination,  and delay of fruit senescence . Moringa leaf extract also improve yield quality /quantity capacity of crop to resist adverse environmental conditions. Moreover, plants treated with moringa leaf extract exhibited more disease and pest resistance. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) control soil borne fungal diseases, might prove to be effective than fungicides. Not only are bio-agents environmentally friendly compared to chemical methods, but they have also been revealed (in several in-vitro studies) to effectively reduce pathogen growth.  Hence different investigation evaluates that foliar application of moringa leaf extract in enhancing fruit set, quality and yield of plants. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract is an organic technology which increases, growth of most vegetable and field crops. This phenomenon is similar to artificial hormonal effect because the extract holds the most common form of naturally occurring cytokinin in plants such as zeatin. The vegetables crops include rape, cabbage and tomato, while field crops include common beans and maize.

    Moring (Moringa oleifera L.) leaf extract is a technology which is cheap and environmentally safe to use. It achieves best when used in combination with artificial fertilizers. Hence it is a very important synergistic component and alternative to synthetic fertilizers for rural poor. Moringa grown at household level it is always accessible and available to the grower. According to different studies Moring (Moringa oleifera L.) have various valuable medicinal effects to humans which include AIDS/HIV related diseases. Moringa has demonstrated to be a potential source for investigation as researcher have motivated their emphasis to “Miracle tree”.

    Due to its medicinal properties and health benefits Moringa has been used for centuries. It also has antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant properties. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) may lead to modest reduction in blood sugar and cholesterol. It may also have antioxidant and antiflammatory effects and protect against arsenic toxicity. Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) leaves are also highly nutritious and should be useful for people who are lacking of essential nutrients.

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) has a great possible in improving nutrition and support immune function of poultry and animal. Seed eaten green or dry. Moringa leaves can be used as a feed supplement, to improve feed efficiency of livestock performance. Different studies have shown that the use of moringa seed extract has led to a decrease in heavy metal contamination of groundwater.

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera L.) tree is one of the large amount nutrient-rich plants in the world. Moringa has several uses for plant and soil such as a natural growth stimulants and green manure. Exogenous appliance of moringa leaf extract, whether it is an aqueous or ethanol extract, improve the production in various crops, because moringa leaf extract possesses great antioxidant activity and rich in plant secondary metabolites such as ascorbic acid and total phenols, making it a potential natural growth tonic. For harsh environmental conditions, such as salinity and drought moringa leaf ethanol extract is a natural plant growth enhancer, low cost and enhances the tolerance of plants in these unfavorable conditions.

    Pakistan goes ahead with olive plantation drive

    The government has advanced a Rs 382 million plan to encourage olive production around the country by way of allocating regional belts especially in the 3 provinces together with Punjab, Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Fata with a purpose to minimise the yearly import invoice burden of olive oil on the national kitty.

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    “Under the project, gardens spreading over 800 acres of land suitable for olive cultivation would be cultivated in the country,” disclosed an respectable of the Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC) this while speaking to this scribe.

    He said that underneath the undertaking, the olive gardens over 300 hectares in Balochistan; 100 hectares in Khyber Pakhtwankhwa; 300 hectares in Fata and 100 hectares in Potohar area (Punjab) would be cultivated.

    The PARC will coordinate and supervise the olive cultivation mission at a countrywide degree, in association with the researchers from BARI.

    Olive Fruit

    Several agricultural scientists and financial analysts have emphasised the significance of olive cultivation for the rural economic system of Pakistan. The state government of Punjab has already declared the Potohar house “Olive Valley.”
    According to officers at PARC, this initiative will help generate higher income for farmers in the nation. Olive is a high-value agricultural product, which is able to also convey within the much-needed foreign currency, if exported to different markets. Better economic realization from olive farming is prone to give a boost to the socioeconomic prerequisites of the farmers in Pakistan and help cut back poverty within the rural regions.

    At provide, the full home consumption of suitable for eating oil is round 1.9 million tons, out of which 1.3 million lots oil is being imported from abroad annually spending an enormous quantity of Rs 28 billion.

    The breakup of the olive oils reveals that the entire production of banola oil is round 450,000 lots, sunflower 77,000 lots, canola 32,000 heaps and different seeds is 700 tons in step with 12 months in the country. Hence, 70 in step with cent oil is being imported against the local production of 30 per cent.

    In this admire, the government is paying particular attention to fortify the cultivation of canola, olive and palm oil within the country to save valuable foreign currencies, he added.
    Agriculture experts are of the view that since Pakistan lies in between the North and South belts, it is possible to grow olive in the country. The wild species of olive are found abundantly in numerous portions of the country specifically within the provinces of NWFP and Balochinstan which indicate that progressed varieties may also be grown effectively.

    It is to be mentioned right here that as a way to push the crop on business strains, advanced varieties of olive imported from Italy have already been planted in Swat, Dir, Malakand, Loralai and at NARC Islamabad. In addition to the Italian cultivars, 4 Turkish olive cultivars also are offered and planted at NARC for analysis studies throughout 1986. Some of these cultivars have shown just right performance and giving just right yield in Baluchistan and at NARC Islamabad for last four-five years.

    “Yes, we have the expansion of olive tree plantation in the country with a special reference to olive nurseries set up under the said university and project of grafting of wild olives available in various parts of the country especially upper parts,” mentioned Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ashraf of the Arid University of Agriculture Rawalpindi.
    According to him, if the venture displays a big progress, it would significantly contribute surely minimise the olive oil import bill which, at the moment, is increasing yearly.

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): An Emerging Nutritious Crop in Pakistan

    Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms; Eudicots Order: Caryophyllales

    Family: Amaranthaceae


    Quinoa (C.quinoa) is an rising and innovatory crop in Pakistan. It can turn out to be crucial agricultural crop which give selection of nutrients and different meals merchandise for the intake of human being. First time quinoa used to be introduced in our local prerequisites by the USDA in 2008.


    Quinoa (C.quinoa) is basically local to Andean region of Northwestern and South America. This crop is domesticated and grow 3000-4000 years ago in the basin of Lak Titicaca, Peru and the Bolivia.

    Plant Botany

    Quinoa (C.quinoa) does not belong to the circle of relatives of cereals and grasses it regarded as as a pseudo cereals. It regarded as as a poaceae circle of relatives because of the high content material of starch in this crop however in the sense of its botany it is not as such. Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant can grow as much as the 3m and display proof against the drought and frost situation.

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    Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant have principally very fibrous root device. When root device fully evolved then its structured as taproot which is branching as secondary roots. It can cross deep into the soil as much as 1.8m relying on the weather stipulations.


    Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant have tough with scaly stem which is radish in color. Stem of quinoa is in truth cylindrical in form. Color and thickness is dependent upon the range. Diameter of the stem can also be 1-eight inches. Color of the stem can exchange from greenish to purple, it can be trade sometimes in crimson tones.


    The leaves of quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are stalked and compound which is inexperienced in color and trade to the stem. At maturity it tuned in yellow to red in color which is relies on the variety kind. Here in quinoa two sorts of go away are provide: rhomboid leaves are present at the best and lanceolate leaves which is provide around the inflorescence of plant. The edges of the leaves are serrated and smooth both type is provide.

    Flower and Inflorescence:

    The stem of each and every quinoa (C.quinoa) plant leads to an inflorescence. Which is known as panicle or raceme. Each panicle has a more evolved central axis and a few secondary and tertiary branches. The period of the inflorescence levels from 30-80 cm and the diameter five-30 cm respectively. A single panicle can undergo 100-3000 achenes. Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant bears hermaphrodite vegetation which is 3mm in size. Quinoa plant flower are incomplete which is sessile and have no petals.


    Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant bears numbers of dry fruit achenes which is cylindrical lenticular in form. Quinoa (C.quinoa) fruit are other in colour: white, brown, red and red.

    Nutritional Value

    Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are very nutritious. Its dietary profile coocked quinoa contains about water 71% and 13% 21.3% carbohydrates. High amount of protein also presents which is about four.4%, which is upper in high quality and quantity than any other more or less cereal. Fat content material about 1.92% additionally provide in the quinoa plant. It contains important quantity of soluble fiber which act as detoxifying agent and is helping to gets rid of the wastes from the frame. It additionally has choice of amino acid like lysine and Sulphur and it even have omega (3,6 and nine) in proper optimal quantity. In addition, fruit of quinoa plant additionally contain Ca, Mg, P, okay, Mn and vitamin A and E in compatible quantity to the requirement of human being. Below desk accommodates the all information relating to vitamins present in the quinoa.

    Nutrition information of 100g of Quinoa cooked plant

    Carbohydrates are provide 21% which is comparable with different main cereals like barley and rice. Out of this total content material of carbohydrates 83% carbohydrates are found in starch shape. And rest percentage consist on fiber and small portion of sugar comparable to ribose, galactose and maltose. Cooked quinoa plant is very good source of fiber 2.eight%, beating the each rice and maize that have fiber content 1.eight and 2.4 percent respectively. 10% fiber is provide on dry weight bases in cooked quinoa and large amount 80-90% of this fiber is present in insoluble fibers shape. Cooked quinoa comprise 2% protein which is basically composed of linoleic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid.

    Climatic, soil and others Requirement

    Quinoa plant extensively adopted to the climatic conditions. It can also be grown at the coastal area to over 4000 m altitude or near the equator in Andes spaces. Depending at the variety, cool weather stipulations are optimum for growing of quinoa plant. Maximum and minimum temperature through which quinoa plant can with stand is 35°C and -four°C respectively. The optimum temperature vary for its cultivation is 12-20°C. Some new cultivar can resist in low temperature with none roughly damage. Quinoa plant can withstand to the drought and frost condition. Rainfall requirement of Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant are variable between 300-1000 mm among different sorts of crop.

    Quinoa crop most importantly can grow on saline soil and here in Pakistan everyone knows that our 1/third cultivated soils are salt effected. Quinoa (C.quinoa) crop plant can also be cultivated on the upper hilly areas like Hunza valley and lower plains like Bahawalpur. Luckily Quinoa (C.quinoa) plant acclimatize to the Pakistan conditions and its rising season in Pakistan is October-March. Its manufacturing is steadily expanding since its introduction in our native stipulations. Quinoa can tolerate soil pH levels from 6-8.five. It can grow successively at 44-88% relative humidity. This crop has very low fertilizer requirement for a hit crop production and irrigation requirement of quinoa crop is most effective three-four irrigations.


    From one hectare of quinoa box we will be able to get 2.five lots of seed. Furthermore, eight heaps of bio-mass which can be utilized as fodder, vegetable or as a biofuel in the house. We can get 200g quinoa seed from a unmarried panicle. Now a days one kg of quinoa seed is 600 PK rupees. Now a days Pakistan exporting quinoa seed and generate revenue.

    Health Benefits

    Because quinoa plant is terribly wealthy in minerals other plant compounds, it makes the quinoa a very powerful plant for human vitamin. By addition of quinoa in diet we will triumph over the issue of low blood sugar, ldl cholesterol and triglycerides level. It also is helping to reduce the body weight because quinoa has high protein and fiber content material and has rather low value of glycemic index.


    Quinoa (C.quinoa) crop plant seed has miscellaneous well being advantages. Its grains are grounded and used as a flour. Its grain also used to make biscuits, sauces, pasta, bread, juices and muffins. In the western countries it is also as popped identical to popcorn. Quinoa plant have saponins which is used for making insecticides, detergents, shampoo, toothpaste and beer. It could also be used as a salad. It may be used for change wheat and rice in local candy dishes like halwa and kheer.


    In current scenario of water and climatic stipulations I suggest this crop must be given a place in our cropping scheme to get most go back. Government and scientist should pay more attention to this crop so that we will be able to overcome the issue of food security. The Government of Pakistan will have to give some kind of incentives to small land keeping farmers to adopt this crop and will have to start awareness campaign to educate the farmers . This crop must be particularly grown on that soils which is effected by the salts.

    Common weeds in Wheat fields of Pakistan

    The dominant weeds prevailing in wheat crops were Avena fatua, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium murale, Convolvulus arvensis, Cynodon dactylon, Malva parviflora, Melilotus indica, Medicago denticulata, Phalaris minor and Rumex dentatus. Following is the list of coomon weeds in Wheat fields of Pakistan:

    Common Name
    Dumbi Sitti
    Technical Name
    Phalaris minor

    Common Name
    Jangli Jai
    Technical Name
    Avena fatua
    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Chenopodium album
    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Chenopodium murale
    Common Name
    Jangli Palak
    Technical Name
    Rumex dentatus
    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Lathyrus aphaca

    Common Name
    Billi booti
    Technical Name
    Anagallis arvensis
    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Medicago polymorpha
    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Cirsium arvense

    Common Name
    Technical Name
    Vicia sativa

    Wheat Production Technology in Punjab

    A-       IRRIGATED
    Cotton zone, Central/ mixed zone & Rice zone

    B-       RAIN FED
    Rain-fed Zone

    Total wheat area: 6.719 million acres
    i) Districts
    Sahiwal, Khanewal, Vehari, Lodhran, Muzaffargarh, Rajanpur, Layyah, D.G. khan, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnager and Rahimyar khan
    ii)           Cropping pattern
    Cotton-wheat, Mung-wheat, Sugarcane-wheat, Kharif fodder/maize-wheat
    iii)          Commercial wheat varieties 

    Name of VarietiesTime of plantingRemarks
    Inqilab-91Nov.10 –Dec.15High yielding disease resistant, lodging resistant and general purpose variety suitable for rich soils under normal and late planting
    Punjab.96Nov.1 –Nov.30High yielding variety having durable resistance against rust diseases and suitable for early to normal planting with good performance under sandy soils
    M.H.97Oct.25– Nov.30High yielding variety with better adaptability, and good tillering capacity, suitable for early to normal planting
    Pasban.90Nov.1 – Nov.30High yielding slow rusting variety suitable for saline areas
    Bwp.97Nov.15– Dec.15Recommended for irrigated areas of south Punjab for late planting
    Augab.2000Nov.01- Dec.15Recommended for early and late planting in irrigated areas of Punjab
    Iqbal.2000Nov.15-Dec.15Recommended for late planting in irrigated areas of the Punjab.
    Chenab-2000Oct.25-Nov.30Recommended for early and normal planting in the irrigated areas.

    Note: Maximum planting should be completed by 30th November and in no case should be extended
    beyond mid December.

    iv) Seed treatment and seed rate. Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used
    @ 50-60 Kg/ac. Seed should be treated with appropriate systemic fungicide.

    iv)          Planting method

    Rabi drill or ‘Kera’ should be practiced to ensure better yields.

    Type of soil(KG)Bags

    Note:- All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing

    in case of late planting in December (NP ratio 1.5:1 or 1:1).

    Common weeds: Phalaris minor (Dumbi sitti), Avena fatua (Wild oats),

                              Chenopodium (Bathu) & Convolvulus (Lehli).

                vi)                   Weed control

              Cultural: Double bar harrow should be practiced.

              Chemical: i) Selective weedicides for broad and narrow  leaved weeds should be used.

    1. ii) Wide spectrum weedicides can be used when both types of weeds are problem.

    Note:–          i) Weedicides should be applied after Ist irrigation in good moisture condition

                       when weeds are at 2-3 & wheat crop at 3-4 leaf stages.

    1. ii) Herbicides belonging to the same group or family should not be repeated in the same field,
      the following year.
    iii) Irrigations: Three irrigations are necessary at the critical stages
    after ‘rauni’ as given below.
    1. Ist irrigation 20-25 days after sowing.
    2. 2nd     ”                   At boot stage.
    3. 3rd     ”                   At milk stage of grain development.


    Total wheat area          3.639 million acres

    1. i)            Districts:

    Jhang, Faisalabad, Okara, T.T. Singh, Sargodha, Khushab and parts of Mianwali and Bhakkar.

    1. ii)             Cropping pattern

    Sugarcane – Wheat, Cotton – Wheat, Kharif fodder/maize – Wheat, Rice – Wheat, Wheat – Fallow – Wheat & Guar – Wheat

                iii)             Varieties

    Inqlab-91, Pasban-90, MH-97, Punjab 96, Auqab-2000 and Iqbal 2000

                iV)             Planting time

    Nov.Ist to Nov.25 for obtaining optimum yields and for late planting by Dec.15.

    1. V)             Seed treatment and seed rate

    Seed treated with recommended fungicides be used at the                        following rate

                        Normal sowing 50 kg/ac

                        Late sowing           60 kg/ac

              Vi)             Planting method

    Line sowing with Rabi drill or ‘Kera’ method should be practiced.

    Vii)             Fertilizer application (Kg/ac)                               

    Type of soil(KG)Bags

    Note:- All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing in case of late planting in December
    (NP ratio 1.5:1 or1:1).

    Viii)     Weed control

    Cultural         ‘Daab’ and double bar harrow.

                        Chemical       Same as mentioned earlier  for Cotton zone.

    ix)       Irrigations

    Four to five at critical stages of wheat plant growth.

    Crown root initiation20-25
    Jointing stage50-58
    Boot stage90-105
    Pollination stage110-120
    Dough stage125-135

    III).     RICE ZONE

    Total wheat area          3.132 million acres

    1. i)        Districts

    Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Lahore and Kasur

    1. ii)       Cropping pattern

    Rice – wheat (Major), Potato – Wheat,      Sugarcane – wheat, Kharif Fodder/Maize – Wheat, Mash –
    Wheat, Sunflower – Kharif fodder – Wheat

    iii)      Varieties

    Inqilab-91, Pasban-90, Punjab 96, Auqab 2000,Iqbal 2000 and Durum 97 and Chenab 2000.

    1. iv)      Planting time

    November 10 to 25 for optimum yields; late planting should be completed by December 15.

    1. v)        Seed treatment and seed rate

    Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used @ 50-60 Kg/ac. Seed
    should be treated with recommended systemic fungicides.

    1. vi)      Planting method

    Planting with automatic Rabi drill or zero tillage drill is recommended.

    vii)     Fertilizer application

    Depending upon the type of soil and fertility level as given in case of cotton zone.

    viii)     Weed control

    As mentioned in case of cotton zone.

    1. ix)       Irrigations

    Three irrigations at the following crop stages are enough depending upon rainfall.

    1st irrigation 35-45 days after Sowing.

    2nd irrigation          at boot stage.

    3rd irrigation          at dough stage of grain formation.

    Note:  Rainwater should not be allowed to stand in wheat field but be drained out to

    low lying areas.


    Total wheat area          1.770 million acres

    1. i)         Districts

    Rawalpindi, Attock, Jehlum, Chakwal, Narowal and Parts of Sialkot, Gujrat,Layyah,
    D.G.Khan, Muzaffargarh, Bhakkar, Mianwali and Khushab.

    1. ii)             Cropping Pattern

    Wheat – Fallow – Wheat,     Wheat – Groundnut – Wheat, Wheat – Kharif fodder – Wheat

    iii)               Commercial varieties  

    Chakwal-86Oct.20 – Nov.15For all Barani areas
    Rawal-87Oct.20 – Nov.15For all Barani areas
    Kohistan-97Oct.20 – Nov.15For all Barani areas
    Chakwal-97Oct.20 – Nov.15For all Barani areas
    Inqilab-91NOV.01 – DEC.10For high rainfall & partially irrigated barani areas
    1.  iv)             Seed treatment and seed rate

    Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used

    @ 40-50 Kg/ac. Seed should be treated with recommended systemic fungicide.

    Note:  In case of low moisture soils, seed should be soaked in water for 8-10 hours before sowing.

    1. v)             Planting methods

    Planting with Rabi drill, Pore or Kera should be practiced.

    1. vi) Fertilizer application (Kg/Ac)
    LOW RAINFALL 350 mm2323251.00.751.0
    MEDIUM RAINFALL 350-500 mm3423251.01.251.0
    HIGH RAINFALL ABOVE 500mm4634251.51.501.0

    Note: All the fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing

    vii) Weeds:          

    Chenopodium(Bathu), Medicago spp. (Maina) Lathyrus spp. (Matri), Asphodelus tenuifolius
    (Piazi), Carthamus oxycantha (Pohli)
     etc. All weeds be removed through mechanical
    means/manual labour and can be used as fodder for live-stock. The Pre-emergence
    weedicides can be used in barani area in  good moisture condition.


    1. Proper seed bed preparation for crop growth and development. Moisture preservation through
      deep ploughing followed by Monsoon rains in Barani areas.
    2. Use of pure and healthy seed of recommended varieties with seed rate of 50 kg/acre for normal
      planting and 60 kg/acre for late planting.
    3. Seed treatment with proper fungicides before planting increases yield by 5-6%.
    4. Planting must be completed by the end of November and for late planting upto 15th of December.
    5. In Barani areas planting should be done with pore or automatic Rabi drill whereas for irrigated areas
      automatic Rabi drill should be preferred.
    6. Use of phosphatic fertilizers along with nitrogen is very essential both under irrigated and rain fed
      conditions. The N:P ratio of 1:1 or 1.5:1 be maintained.
    7. Application of Potash to the wheat crop on tubewell irrigated soils or sandy type soils or crop sown
      after rice, sugarcane etc is essential.
    8. Late planting should be completed by 15 December and all fertilizers be applied at planting time.
    9. Irrigations to wheat at critical stages of crop growth be ensured viz; 12-18 days after germination,
      at booting, milk and dough stages. In rice zone the first irrigation should be applied 30-40 days after
    10. Weed eradication through Daab, double bar harrow or spray of weedicides is very important.
      It should be practiced on vast areas in collaboration with extension services & private herbicide companies.
    11. In sick soils and in Barani areas planting of barley and Wadanak wheat should be preferred. In partially
      affected saline soils wheat variety Pasban-90 can be successfully grown.
    12. Extension service and electronic media should be consulted for improved wheat production.
    13. Supply of inputs must be ensured before planting season at reasonable prices and without adulteration.
    14. Wheat varieties, Pasban 90, MH 97 and Uqab 2000 should not be sown in northern parts of the
      Punjab due to their moderately susceptible reaction against stripe rust.


    Dr. Muhammad Aqil Khan