Fertilizers available in the market of Pakistan

Fertilizers available in the market of Pakistan

Following table shows all available fertilizers in the market of Pakistan with brief detail of nutrients percentage, micro-nutrients and manufacture/marketing company (s)

S/N Fertilizer N P K Micronutrients Company
1 7 Star DAP 18 46 United Agro Chemicals
2 Accelerate 6% Zn 4 Brothers Agri. Serv. Pak
3 Adjust 6% Zn (Ch) DJC
4 Agral Super Tonic 10 10 7.5 Agral Enterprises
5 Agral Zorawer 12 Zn Agral Enterprises
6 Agri Zoo 10% Zn Agri Farm Service
7 Award (H.Acid) 50% H. Acid DJC
8 Base 50% H. Acid DJC
9 Bio-Phos TM 50% H. Acid Sayban International
10 Boll Feed 5% Boron 4N Fertilizers
11 Boost up Plus 1% NFP 4 Brothers Agri. Serv. Pak
12 Bounce 8 6 6 Welcon
13 Bouncer 5% Boron Sun Crop Pesticide
14 Bumper Cotton 8 8 6 FMC
15 Chandi Danidar 8 Star Agro Chemical
16 Cheetah Zinc 2.% Zinc (Ch) Welcon Agro Chemicals
17 Classic Zn 6%, B 4% DJC
18 Cotton Plus 8 6 6 Auriga Chemical Enterprises
19 DAP 18 46 FFC
20 DAP 18 46 Engro Fert. Ltd
21 DAP 18 46 Fauji Fert. Co.
22 DAP 18 46 United Agro Chem.
23 Diamond Zn 10% Zn Agri Aid. Ent.
24 EdZn 33% Zn Edgro Pvt.) Ltd.
25 Inergizer Humic Acid 50% H. Acid Warble
26 Fashion NPK 8 8 6 DJC
27 Foundation Plus 8% H. Acid 4B Fertilizers
28 Golden Cotton 8 8 6 DJC
29 Golden Harvest 5 18 2 Al-Sher Agro Services
30 Grow Up 10 4 7 Sayban Int.
31 Help SSP 18 Grow Green
32 CAN 26 Fatima Fertilizer Co.
33 CAN 26 Pak Arab Fertilizer
34 Helper 40g Zn Sayban Int.
35 High Power 3.3% Zn Al-Rehman Bilal Int. Pri.
36 Hit Zn 10% Zn Welcon Ch
37 Humic Acid 50% H. Acid Ali Akbar Int. Pri
38 Isabian 12.7 Syngenta Pak. Ltd.
39 Janat Granular OM) 25% OM National Agro Crop (Pvt.) Ltd.
40 Kissan Plus SSP (G) 14 Hazra Phosphate Fert. Ltd.
41 KSS Supreme Tonic 2% Zn Kissan Supplies Serv. Ltd
42 Left Up Zinc 10% Zn DJC
43 Lilly Boron 5% B Al-Sher Agro Services
44 Magnet 50% H. Acid Ali Akber Ent.
45 Medal 8 8 6 Al-Sher Agro Services
46 National Zn 10% Zn National Agro Crop
47 Naya Zinc 5% Zn Syngenta Pak Ltd.
48 Nova Bio (G) 5 4 Nova Bio Tech Aust. Pvt.) Ltd.
49 NP 22 20
50 NP (22:20) 22 20 Engro Fert. Ltd.
51 NP (22:20) 22 20 Pak Agro
52 Plantatol 20 20 20 Valagro
53 Power Zinc Sulphate 21% Zn Agrowin (Pvt.) Ltd.
54 Pure (H. Acid) 50% H. Acid Agri Aid Ent.
55 Qaim Zn Ch 2.5% 2.5% Zn (Ch) Pasban Agro Services
56 Royal Power Zn 5% 5% Zn Pak Pensy Int. Pri.
57 Rustam Tonic 4% Zn Jullundur Pvt. Ltd.
58 Sever Plus 8% H. Acid 4B Fertilizers
59 Sher Zinc 21% Zn Eragon Pesticide Crop
60 Shining Zinc 10% Zn Warble Pvt. Ltd.
61 Sohni Dharti 2.3 Welcon Agro Chemicals
62 Soluber 20% B Syngenta Pak Ltd.
63 Sona DAP 18 46 FFBL
64 Sona DAP 18 46 FFC
65 Sona Isalhkar 50% H. Acid Sona Agro Chemicals
66 Sona Urea 46 FFBL
67 Sona Urea 46 FFC
68 Sona Urea (G) 46 FFBL
69 Sona Urea (G) 46 FFC
70 SOP 50 FFC
71 Star NPK Danidar 18 18 18 Star Agro Chemical
72 Strock 6% Zn, 4% B Target Ali Akbar
73 Target Zn 10% Zn Ali Akbar
74 Tarzan DAP 18 46 4 Brothers Fertilizer
75 Trade Crop 2.48% Zn Swat Agro Chemicals
76 Trican NPK (8:8:6) 8 8 8 Sun Crop Pesticide
77 Urea 46 Engro Fert. Ltd.
78 Urea 46 TCP
79 Urea 46 Fatima Fert Compnay
80 Urea 46 FFC
81 Urea (G) 46 TCP
82 Urea Khad 46 Trade Crop Pak
83 Utha Zn 5% Zn (Ch) UDL
84 Yes 19 19 19 FMC
85 Zarcon 10% Zn Auriga Chemicals
86 Zarkhaiz 8 23 18 Engro Fert. Ltd.
87 Zarkhaiz Green Engro
88 Zegron 2.5% Zn (Ch) AMIS Int. Marketing Serv.
89 Zeneca 10% Zn Sayban International
90 Zinco Ma 2.5 Zn (Ch) Dot Ma Agri. Divi
91 Zingran 2% Zn (Ch) Grow Green Int.
92 Zingro 33% Zn Engro
93 Zinkron 33% Zn Sun Crop
94 Zinkron Plus 10% Zn Sun Crop Pesticide
95 Zintox Plus 33% Zn (G) FMC
96 Zorawer 11 52 Engro

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6 steps to improve your fertiliser use efficiency

An reasonable of 40% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied to vegetation isn’t utilised and could be misplaced. However, through making small adjustments to fertiliser use, farmers can cut back these losses and spice up margins. In an ordinary season, maximum farmers will reach a nitrogen use potency of somewhere round 60%, says Frontier nationwide crop technical manager Edward Downing.

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However, analysis has shown that 80% is achievable and he believes this is what farmers must be aiming for.

So what does 60% potency appear to be? Take a wheat crop yielding 8t/ha with a grain protein of 10.eight%. This crop could have most often received 200kg/ha of N fertiliser.

“This crop has taken up 190kg/ha to support this level of output and if you assume about 70kg/ha is supplied from soil, that leaves 120kg/ha coming from fertiliser,” he says. This equates to 60% of the full applied.

Looking at the benefits of making improvements to potency, in a situation the place nitrogen is limiting yield, it is going to lead to increased output.

“If a farmer can increase uptake to get up to 9t/ha, the efficiency rises to 72% and it brings £160/ha extra margin.”

If nitrogen isn’t proscribing, bettering potency to 70% approach the farmer can save on fertiliser and follow simplest 171kg/ha for the same yield and protein.

Here are six spaces where farmers can support their fertiliser use efficiency.

1. Other vitamins and soil pH

A deficiency in some other nutrient can lead to a decrease nitrogen use potency.

One example is sulphur, which has a very powerful position in protein synthesis. A scarcity in this macronutrient is related with poorer nitrogen uptake, Mr Downing says.

Phosphate may be important for rooting, and having a excellent, in depth root community is essential for maximising nutrient uptake.

“Don’t forget soil pH, as this also affects root development too,” he says.

Mr Downing points to lime use in the UK, which has been declining over the past 14 years, and if this trend continues there will be 0 use by way of 2040.

2. Reduce losses as ammonia

Another factor hitting fertiliser efficiency is losses from soil. There are two key processes at work here: ammonia volatilisation from applied urea and nitrate leaching.

Aside from the environmental benefits of lowering ammonia, Mr Downing believes tackling these losses can probably save tens of kilograms of fertiliser, which could be a really extensive saving.

Switching from urea to ammonium nitrate fertiliser is one technique to get rid of ammonia loses, because it does now not volatilise.

“Another option is to incorporate urea in soil, but I can’t see this being practical,” he says.

Timing is essential and farmers will have to steer clear of warm, dry stipulations when making use of urea, as this favours volatilisation.

However, urease inhibitors can just about get rid of this downside, through controlling the conversion of urea to ammonium.

“Perhaps farmers should consider using an additive when applying urea in more challenging conditions.”

He highlights Adas knowledge showing a 75% reduction in ammonia losses when the use of an enhanced urea product instead of heterosexual urea.

In one Frontier trial, there used to be a nitrogen use efficiency of 62% with liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN). Two different urease inhibitors had been being tested and both greater potency to 70%.

3. Reduce nitrate leaching Although nitrate is a very cellular type of nitrogen, if there’s a growing crop present, it’ll take in the nutrient.

Mr Downing says the leaching problem arises when there may be more nitrate than the crop can take up throughout periods of heavy rain. It is a selected drawback for bare stubbles in iciness when rainfall is upper and there is not any crop taking over any nitrogen.

That is why quilt crops are precious, as they may be able to capture this nitrogen.

Nitrification inhibitors also are helpful, as they prolong the conversion of ammonium to nitrate through about 6-10 weeks.

Frontier has even looked at tackling losses from soil through taking soil out of the equation with a foliar manner.

Last year, Mr Downing checked out supplying the primary 70kg/ha as solid fertiliser and the remainder 110kg/ha in two foliar splits.

“We didn’t end up killing the crop and it yielded similar to the control,” he says. “The results look promising and we will be repeating the trials this year.”

4. Apply the correct fee

In season, farmers should be prepared to revise fertiliser rates up or down and not simply stick with the unique plan.

Crop imagery and biomass measurements from drones and satellites, at the side of N sensors and tissue checking out, are useful tools for seeing how crops are taking on N and getting a greater estimate in their necessities.

5. Apply at the proper time

Applying smaller amounts throughout more splits in most cases improves fertiliser use potency.

“One limitation is with nitrogen+sulphur products, as this ties you into specific rates and timings,” he says.

However, there are other ways to apply sulphur, such as liquid fertiliser, low-sulphur products and explicit sulphur merchandise akin to Polysulphate, giving farmers extra flexibility over N fertiliser timings.

“Go by conditions, not calendar date,” Mr Downing says, mentioning that the primary and last applications are those at greatest risk of losses.

The first dressing is essential to get the crop off and operating in the spring and keep tillers, however it is usually essentially the most vulnerable to leaching.

“So you need to ensure there is sufficient crop growth to ensure uptake, and monitoring soil temperature will help with this.”

Conversely, with the final dose, dry soils with prime temperatures is usually a problem, expanding ammonia volatilisation and lowering nitrogen uptake.

“Be prepared to pull the timing earlier if it is looking to be warm and dry like last year,” he says.

6. Apply as it should be

Finally, get your fertiliser spreader tray examined and make sure it is as accurate as conceivable. Poor accuracy can be a real problem with wider bouts.

Technology helps, with auto shut-off serving to avoid overlaps with abnormal box shapes. and Mr Downing says there may be even an Amazone spreader that adjusts spread development in keeping with wind course and pace.

Fertilizers available in Pakistan for field crops

Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea. Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea.

Fertilizers restore soil fertility by supplying nutrients to the soil. These nutrients are utilized by crops for their growth and development. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yield would be significantly reduced as our soils are deficient in major nutrients, like, N, P & K. Mineral fertilizers are used to increase the nutrient concentration of the soil and these minerals can be quickly absorbed and used by the crops.

Crops require sixteen (16) different types of mineral nutrients during their growth and these nutrients are supplied by the soil and mineral fertilizers. Plant nutrients are classified into three categories.

  • The three primary macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).
  • The three secondary macronutrients: calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg).
  • The micronutrients or trace minerals: boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium

Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea and has a monopoly in the production of CAN and NP.

Sarsabz Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
In farming, the efficient supply of nutrients to the plants, with a low level of losses, is of great importance. This applies primarily to nitrogen, which has a direct influence on crop growth and development. Due to its special properties, the supplies of nutrients are quick and for a longer time.

Product
26% N (Dual Nitrogen) – 13% Nitrate and 13% Ammonical other than Nitrogen, it supplies additional 5 elements required for plant growth:

Product

26% N (Dual Nitrogen) – 13% Nitrate and 13% Ammonical other than Nitrogen, it supplies additional 5 elements required for plant growth:

  • Potassium – 0.9%
  • Calcium – 10%
  • Magnesium – 0.05%
  • Sulfur – 0.4%
  • Copper – 0.001%

Effects

The composition of readily available nitrate nitrogen and reserved N (nitrate available after its conversion from ammonium nitrogen) is optimal for providing all crops with targeted nutrition. The nitrate nitrogen that is available immediately after the application and absorbed in water is taken up directly by the plant and nutrient losses are almost eliminated. Sarsabz CAN is a hygroscopic product and needs very low moisture to be absorbed by the plants. It is equally effective in water stressed areas where soil has low moisture. Furthermore Calcium and Sulfur available in Sarsabz CAN is also helpful in soil reclamation.

  • Properties
  • Sarsabz Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a granulated nitrogenous fertilizer that supplies nitrogen to plants in a balanced and secure manner. The combination of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen makes Sarsabz CAN a special product with neutral chemistry (pH). The excellent granulation and specific surface coating has very good spreading properties.
Sarsabz Urea

Urea is widely used in the agriculture sector both as a fertilizer and animal feed additive, which makes the production of Sarsabz Urea considerably high in comparison to other fertilizers in the country

Product
  • Sarsabz Urea – 46% Nitrogen
Properties

Sarsabz Urea releases nitrogen into soil which is thereafter taken up in by the plants. Once applied to the soil, Sarsabz Urea undergoes vital transformations and breaks up into ammonium form and this total process is dependent on soil moisture. As soon as Sarsabz Urea dissolves in the soil, it forms around it a zoning layer of high pH and ammonia concentration turning the soil to be acidic and toxic at the same level. Sarsabz Urea is available as prills that are crystalline white and highly resistant to moisture and thus facilitate long time storage as well.

Effects

Sarsabz Urea has the highest nitrogen content, equal to 46 percent. This percentage is much higher than other nitrogenous fertilizers available in the market. The nutrient composition rendered by urea enhances the productivity of the soil and enriches its nutrient constituency. Providing each plant with relevant element needed, urea sustains plant life.

Application

Sarsabz Urea can be applied in various forms, it can be spread in bulk alone or can also be mixed with other fertilizers before application. When urea is applied on acidic soils of lower pH i.e below 7.0, it should be incorporated into the soil as soon as possible. Sarsabz Urea is high moisture absorbent therefore it should be stored in sealed and well enclosed bags.

Sarsabz Nitrophos

For farmers, choosing the right fertilizer for their soil is very important. In Pakistan, the soils are calcareous, have high pH and are alkaline in nature. Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) being highly acidic is the most suitable fertilizer for these soil types.

Product
  • Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP)
  • 22% Nitrogen – 20% Phosphorus (P2O5)
  • Also contains 9~10% Calcium
Properties

Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) is a granulated fertilizer in which each grain has equal amounts of Phosphorus (P) 20% & Nitrogen (N) 22%. In addition to this, NP being a highly acidic product with a pH of 3.5, is the most suitable fertilizer for soils that have a high pH and are alkaline in nature.

Effects

The balanced combination of Nitrogen & Phosphorus is ideal for plant growth and development. It contains dual Nitrogen (Nitrate: readily available to the plants and Ammonical: available after its conversion to nitrate through the process of nitrification). Consistent and longer use of Sarsabz NP also improves soil health.

Application

Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) can be applied universally on all types of soils, but is more effective where the soils have high pH and are alkaline in nature. In many crops it could be effectively applied at planting and at early growth stages of the crops. Each grain has equal amounts of N & P, hence the nutrients are equally distributed throughout the field.

Sarsabz Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP)

Sarsabz DAP fertilizer contains available Phosphorus 46% P2O5 and Ammonical Nitrogen 18% N. DAP is considered a basal fertilizer for its high contents of phosphorus and low concentrations of nitrogen. Sarsabz DAP can be applied to all field crops, vegetables and orchards as per recommendations. For further details please call at Sarsabz Pakistan 0800-91919.


Product

Sarsabz DAP fertilizer contains available Phosphorus 46% P2O5 and Ammonical Nitrogen 18% N. DAP is considered a basal fertilizer for its high contents of phosphorus and low concentrations of nitrogen. Sarsabz DAP can be applied to all field crops, vegetables and orchards as per recommendations. For further details please call at Sarsabz Pakistan 0800-91919.

  • Phosphorous (P2O5) – 46%
  • Nitrogen (Ammonical) – 18%
Properties

Equal sized granules, soluble in water. Sarsabz DAP contains high nutrient content and excellent physical properties that make it suitable for drill and broadcast. Sarsabz DAP is extensively used phosphatic fertilizer. It is produced by reacting phosphoric acid and ammonia. DAP itself is an alkaline fertilizer with a pH, more than 7.5.

Effects

Sarsabz DAP increases root structure of the plant, important for plant health which contributes in higher yield and timely maturity of crops.

Application

Sarsabz DAP is applied to all field crops at the time of sowing.

Fertilizers available in Pakistan

The sources of fertilizer supply in Pakistan are domestic production and imports.

Those manufactured locally include urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and ammonium sulphate (AS) as straight nitrogen fertilizers.

Single superphosphate is the only straight phosphate fertilizer and nitrophos is NP, a complex fertilizer.

All other fertilizers are imported. Recently the production of SSP and AS has been stopped due to high cost of production.

These were very good fertilizers and in future, farmers of Pakistan will have no access to them. The grades of fertilizers available in Pakistan are listed in Table-2

Urea
This is the most concentrated solid straight nitrogen fertilizer. Its prills or granules are white in colour and free flowing. Urea is readily soluble in water.

It contains 46 per cen N in amide (NH2) form which is changed to ammonium (NH4+) in the soil.

Because of its high water solubility, it is well suited for use in solution fertilizers or foliar sprays. Urea though alkaline in initial reaction leaves behind a slightly acidic effect in the soil after nitrification.

Common name Grade or Analysis (%)
N P2O5 K2O Sulphur
Nitrogenous fertilizers
Urea 46 0 0 0
Ammonium sulphate 21 0 0 24
Calcium ammoniumNitrate (CAN) 26 0 0 0
Phosphatic fertilizers
Single Superphosphate (SSP) 0 18 0 12
Triple superphosphate (TSP) 0 46 0 1.5
Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 18 46 0 0
MonoammoniumPhosphate (MAP) 11 52 0 2
Potassic fertilizers
Sulphate of potash (SOP) 0 0 50 18
Muriate of potash (MOP) 0 0 60 0
Complex fertilizers
Nitrophosphate(Nitrophos) 23 23 0 0
Complete NPKs 15 15 15 5
  10 20 20 6.8
  13 13 21 6.0
Micronutrients
Zinc sulphate (Zn 36.0 %)     0 17.8

 

It also contains a small amount of free acid and sulphur. Its production has been stopped in the country due to high cost. Single superphosphate (SSP) Ammonium sulphate (AS) 
Ammonium sulphate was one of the most important N-fertilizers but because of its low nutrient content and relatively high manufacturing cost its production and Daud Khel has been stopped. It contains 21% of N and 24% of sulphur.

Ammonium sulphate is a white crystalline salt but sometimes, it might have a grey, brown, red or yellow tint, which has no effect on its nutrient value. It is soluble in water and nitrogen in this fertilizer is readily available to crops. This fertilizer has an acidifying effect, therefore, its continuous use may be advantageous on alkaline soils.

Calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN)
This fertilizer contains 26% N, half of it is in ammoniacal form and half in nitrate form. Its granules and prills are grey or light brown in colour and free flowing. The whole fertilizer is not soluble in water because of calcium but the nitrogen part is readily soluble. By virtue of the calcium in this fertilizer, it is approximately neutral in its reaction when applied to soil.

SSP fertilizer was available in powder as well as in granular form. Its colour could be grey or brown and it contains 16 to 20% P2O5. The phosphors in this fertilizer is readily soluble.

This is a concentrated phosphorus fertilizer which contain 46% P2O5 and almost all of this phosphorus is in water soluble form.

TSP could be in powder as well as in granular form but the light grey granulated product has better storage and handling properties and is free flowing.

Sulphate of potash(SOP) 
SOP is available as a white crystalline salt or in granular form and contains 48 to 52% K2O and 18% of sulphur. It is solule in water. In Pakistan this is the only potassium fertilizer which is recommended for all crops but on a world scale its use is limited to certain crops which are sensitive to chloride i.e. tobacco, potato, fruits and vegetables.

It is also preferred in soils where chloride accumulation can be problem.

Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 
This fertilizer contains 18% N and 46% P2O5 , It is a readily water soluble fertilizer and both nutrients in this source are in plant available form. The material is light brown, granular and free flowing.

It leaves acidic effect in soil after nitrification of ammonium (NH4+). No deleterious impact on soil and crop has been reported due to its use. However, its direct contact with seed and germinating seedlings should be avoided as ammonia may cause injury.

These fertilizers are also called ammonium nitrate phosphates. In Pakistan, it is called nitrophos and contains 23% and 23% P2O5 . Half the N is in ammoniacal form and the other half is in nitrate form.

The water solubility of phosphorus in 23-23-0 grade is normally more than 70 per cent.

By Mohammad Hussain Khan

Egg shells as Natural Fertilizer

Manazza Ayub

(Institute of food science and Nutrition, UOS)

Natural fertilizers are the valuable gift of Almighty. These are derived from animal or plant source with zero or least side effects. It is a best way to reduce the use of pesticides and ultimately their harmful effect on human life. Natural fertilizers like egg shells can be use more easily in home gardening rather than in fields. Memon et al. (2016) reported that Pakistan has been producing 10,000 million eggs per annum. An average Pakistani consumes about 65-70 eggs per year so why not utilize these eggs waste as a beneficial product rather than throwing them away in trash.

Egg which is considered the most nutritious diet can also be used as a fertilizer in whole form. But it can spread rotten odor if you don’t dig the soil deep down and bury them. It is difficult to decompose in soil which makes it less effective. Also it is not economical to use whole egg as fertilizer. It attracts rodents which dig the soil and destroy the roots of plants so ultimately makes the condition worst. Not only eggs but egg shells also have their nutritional benefit that’s the reason we can use egg shells as natural fertilizer. Study shows that Powder of eggshells increases the size of red clover plant of 10mm than usual (planting Science.org, 2011).  As chicken eggs are common in Pakistan so we are mainly concern here with chicken egg shells. Egg shell comprises 10.2% of egg along with shell membrane. Chicken egg shells made up of approximately 96% calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate has porous structure which makes shells semi permeable for air and moisture and let life breath inside the egg shells. Egg shells also protective by a coating called bloom (cuticle). It plays an important role as a barrier and prevents the penetration of microbes and dust inside the shell. Egg shell also contains sulphur, potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium. Residues of protein adhere with egg shells act as nitrogen source.

Uses of Eggshells in Agriculture

1: Eggshells act as pest repellent especially for pests belong to the phylum mollusca such as slugs and snails. Sharp pieces of shells cause abrasion to the fragile feet of snails thus act as a pest deterrent.

2: Egg shells as a whole can also use as seed germination pot. Fill the egg cups with moist soil and seeds and let them grow enough that they are able to transplant in your desired place i.e. garden or yard.

3: Eggs shells are also going to be use as bird feed. Shells powder is mixed with bird food to regulate their digestive system.

4: Being a source of calcium it increases the calcium level of soil. Calcium in turn enhances the uptake of minerals and nutrients by roots and also decreases the level of soil acidity.

 

Preparation of egg shells as a fertilizer:

1: Wash the shells with water to remove egg white portion and dried them. Shells can be dried by dryer or simply spreading them under sun light.

2: Ground the egg shells in to fine ground powder.

3: store the powder in closed jar.

Mitchell (2005) performed a test to find out the effect of shells on pH of soil. He found that coarse pieces of shells do not help to decrease pH neither act as lime source. So to make it effective we need to ground it in to fine particles. He also observed that egg shells bring change in the pH of soil having pH near 4.8 (acidic) But it does not bring any change in soil having pH near 6.8 as it stop decomposing at this point. It happens because calcium carbonate is insoluble in water and alkaline medium. It is just soluble in acidic medium; even it shows less solubility in less acidic medium that’s the reason egg shells work best as a fertilizer for acidic soil.

Reference:

Oliveira, D. A., Benelli, P., & Amante, E. R. (2013). A literature review on adding value to solid residues: egg shells. Journal of cleaner production46, 42-47.

https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/EGG-SHELL-AND-BIO-WASTE-MANURE.pdf

Affects of Chemical Fertilizers that are use for enhance the nutrients availability

By: Muhammad Usman

Department of Soil Science University College of Agriculture Sargodha

Chemical fertilizers are manmade soil enhancers used to raise the level of nutrients found in soil. The natural nutrients found in the soil essential to plant growth, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, are manufactured synthetically from inorganic material and applied to soil in the form of chemical fertilizers. Although chemical fertilizers improve the growth of plants and increase the yields of fruits and vegetables in a relatively short period of time, there are certain disadvantages of using chemical fertilizers as opposed to organic fertilizers derived from natural sources.

Effects of Chemical Fertilizer :

Ground Water Pollution

The persistent use of chemical fertilizers causes the pollution of ground water sources, or leaching. Chemical fertilizers that are highly soluble get absorbed by the ground more rapidly than they are absorbed by the intended plants. Plants have the capacity to absorb only a given level of nutrition at a time leaving the rest of the fertilizer to leach. Leaching is not only hazardous to groundwater sources but also to the health of subsoil where these chemicals react with clay to create hard layers of soil known as hardpan. As a result of chemical fertilizer use the health of soil and water is jeopardized, not to mention the waste of money and nutrient deficient plants.

Soil Friability Effect

The presence of a number of acids in the soil, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, creates a damaging effect on soil referred to as soil friability. The different acids in the soil dissolve the soil crumbs which help to hold together the rock particles. Soil crumbs result from the combination of humus, or decomposed natural material such as dead leaves, with clay. These mineral rich soil crumbs are essential to soil drainage and greatly improve air circulation in the soil. As the chemicals in the chemical fertilizers destroy soil crumbs, the result is a highly compacted soil with reduced drainage and air circulation.

Destruction of Micro-Organisms

The synthetic chemicals in the chemical fertilizers adversely affect the health of naturally found soil micro-organisms by affecting the soil pH. These altered levels of acidity in the soil eliminate the micro-organisms beneficial to plant and soil health as they help to increase the plants’ natural defenses against pests and diseases. These helpful micro-organisms consist of antibiotic-producing bacteria and mycorrhizal and other fungi which are found in healthy soil. The use of chemical fertilizers also jeopardizes the health of bacteria that fix the nitrogen balance in the soil. These nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for converting the atmospheric oxygen into a form of nitrogen that can be used readily by plants.

Feeding Your Plants for Free – How to Make Fertilizer for Your Vegetable Garden

How and what you feed them with is important, especially if you garden organically. Many of us will prefer to avoid using commercial non-organic fertilizers, and opt for organic ones, and fortunately there is a way of making your own organic fertilizers for virtually no cost. We’ll take you through the key steps.