Are micro leaves the next super vegetable?

Israeli company 2BFresh believes that the mix of a positive nutrient profile, functionality and increased availability mean micro greens are set to be the brand new super meals at the block. Micro greens (or micro leaves) are young sprouts of seeds grown from a lot of fit for human consumption plants harvested 7-20 days after the seedling emerges.

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According to Avner Shohet, CEO and Co-Owner of 2BFresh, part of Teshuva Agricultural Projects, at this point in the vegetation life-cycle micro greens have the very best share of nutrients and minerals to weight. As crops age this ratio decreases, Shohet instructed FoodNavigator during a visit to one of the vital corporate’s greenhouse amenities in Israel, which quilt 1.6 hectares. Small but sturdy 2BFresh cited 2015 research finding micro lettuce to be

“significantly richer in minerals including iron, manganese, zinc, selenium and molybdenum. Further studies confirmed similar results in the mineral content of micro broccoli and spinach.” “

These products are so healthy, they really should be more accessible,” said Shohet.

“Micro greens are a premium product and more importantly they are healthy.”

2BFresh is operating to make bigger availability of microgreens and build awareness of the properties of young crops.

Nutritional Importance of Citrus

Nutritional Importance of Citrus: Citrus is a very valuable plant with a diverse group of species and its fruit is liked all around the world. Pakistan is a big producer of citrus, especially kinnow. Every kind of age peoples are like its fruit variety and use fresh and in processing industry mainly as juice.

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Botanically citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae. Plants in this genus produce citrus fruits including vital types of crops such as lime, lemon, kinnow (mandarins), grapefruit, poemlo, oranges (blood red) etc.


Citrus plants are native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and the Malay Archipelago and they were first domesticated in these areas.


Citrus are basically large, fleshy, juicy, acidic, and good source of vitamin C. Moreover, citrus does not only contain a large amount of vitamin C but also a rich source of antioxidants, vitamin A, and potassium. Citrus has become an important agricultural product in the Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, and South America. Citrus also contains ascorbic acid which is considered good food for health. One of the best characteristics of the citrus that it has been considered best choices for weight loss program. Generally, citrus fruits are incredible fruits that add additional value to a nutritious diet. Citrus fruits are value able fruits, so we can consume it to overcome micronutrient deficiencies because most people are suffering from obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Firstly, the citrus fruits wastage was ponded or flushed into the stream, lakes etc. but now the waste is converted into the useful product such as pectin manufacturing, extraction of oil, dried pulp etc. Hence the citrus has been ranked the 2nd worldwide first in Pakistan W.R.T. to its area and production among fruits. Citrus fruits have been long valued for a nutritious diet. The main energy nutrient in citrus is carbohydrate. Fructose, Glucose etc. Citrus fruits contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which is complex with important health benefits. In the body, this polysaccharide holds water-soluble nutrient in a gel which delays emptying and slow digestion and absorption. Potassium also works to maintain the body`s water and acid balance. Some of the nutritional facts about citrus are such as the weight of orange is about (131g), Energy (62kcal), Fiber content (3.1g), Ascorbic acid (70 mg), Folate (40 mcg), Potassium (237). Citrus food may help to reduce the risk of several diseases and disorder such as heart diseases, stroke, cancer, and anemia. Citrus is a good source of fiber, so women should consume of fiber (25 gram) per day and tangerine (1.6 gram) per day. Citrus fruits are hydrating as they contain high water content. Citrus also contains flavonoid plant compound that may promote health. Citrus fruits are used in fruit industry mainly as a gelling agent, thickening agent, and stabilizer. As medicinal values citrus fruits have great importance i.e. against constipation. Diarrhea, Anti-stress, Gastrointestinal problems. Also, in cosmetics products i.e. food flavoring, fragrances in perfume or in the scent industry. People like its fragrance. Also used as insecticides due to the presence of enantiomer. As it is combustible it considers as biofuel. More ever the great benefit of citrus peel has been used in making candies. Dried citrus peel is used in making black tea and simply our home-made tea. Citrus can also enhance meat dishes by putting them in a cavity of the whole chicken before roasting. Moreover, citrus infused vodka being used for an excellent cocktail. Further peels throw in the kindling for making an especially fragrant fire.

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Proceeds from the production or by-products may spell the difference between profit and loss in the citrus canning industry. The three primary by-products of citrus are dried citrus pulp, molasses, and citrus peel oil. The most important utilization of citrus wastes is as stock feed, which consumes large quantities of dried pulp and citrus molasses. Citrus seed oil, alcohol, pectin, bland syrup, and feed yeast have been produced to a lesser extent.


The term citrus by-product includes numerous by-product feedstuffs which vary according to the originating crop and method of production, that are an important component of ruminant feeding systems in many areas of the world. Citrus fruits are mainly eaten fresh fruit and in processed form as juice. After the juice is extracted from the fruit, there remains a residue comprised of peel (flavedo and albedo), pulp (juice sac residue), rag (membranes and cores) and seeds. These components, either individually or in various combinations, are the source materials from which citrus by-product feedstuffs (BPF) are produced. In India total availability of grape and orange waste is about 2.20 million tonnes.

The fresh citrus pulp waste is palatable to cattle when they are accustomed to the feed and a mature cow can consume about 10 kg per day. Dried citrus pulp has been used as the main energy source for beef cattle and heifers, and up to 45 percent has been used in rations. However, the pulp should not be used at high levels for milking cows as milk production tends to decrease. Digestibility trials with sheep show that its digestibility decreases when the citrus pulp is included at levels more than 30 percent of the ration. It is more advantageous to mix the fresh pulp with partially dried grass or with legumes which cannot be successfully ensiled on their own. To produce seedless or less seeded kinnow and other citrus fruits is a great challenge. Many seeds in kinnow and related types is the main hindrance for Pakistan export.

Medicinal Importance of Mango

(By Haris Latif*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain**)

(*Food Science, UOS: **Horticulture, UOS)

Health is wealth. Health is a great blessing of Allah. The people who enjoy good health, only those people can enjoy a good life. Good health depends on a balanced diet including all fruits, vegetables, meat, cereals etc. in appropriate quantities. Mango is one of the healthful and nourishing fruits for us. Mango is considered as the most appetizing and delicious fruit in all over the world. Mango is called the king of all fruits. It is considered the heart and soul of summer season’s cuisine. There are around 400 varieties of mangoes in the world today. There were 216 varieties of mango in the Multan Mango Festival. Mango is a vital component of our lunch and dinner in the summer season. Mostly, after eating mango, we drink milk because mango has heating effect internally. If we will not drink milk after eating mangoes, then it becomes our eyes yellowish and thus affects our eyes adversely.

In mango 250 kJ (60 kcal) is the energy per 100 g (3.5 oz.) and is slightly higher than Apple (330 kJ (79 kcal) per 100 g). Fresh mango holds a range of nutrients, but only Vitamin C and folate are in major quantities of the daily value as 44% and 11% respectively. Mangoes are helpful for proper digestion because of the existence of fiber that stops constipation. Mangoes have several digestive enzymes that break down proteins and support digestion. Mangoes contain abundant amounts of iron and vitamins A, C, and B6 – these all are advantageous for pregnant females. Mangoes consist of fiber, which plays role in a great contribution towards weight reduction. Mangoes are the tremendous source of vitamin C which has valuable impacts on Asthma cases. The vitamin A and beta-carotene in mangoes enable lift to eye wellbeing. The human eye has two significant carotenoids which are lutein and zeaxanthin. Mangoes are a reliable source of zeaxanthin and consistently help in the recovery of eye health. Mango, being a major source of iron and vitamin B6, is an ideal food for retaining an upright brain health. Iron assists the regular working of your brain and vitamin B6 provisions its intellectual growth. Mangoes are rich in potassium, a vital mineral that helps lower blood pressure and inhibits hypertension. Mangoes contain a large amount of beta-carotene and vitamin A which is proved to be beneficial to enrich skin health. Mangoes are rich sources of vitamin C, and hence stimulate the formation of collagen for making hair healthy and strong. Furthermore, mangoes are known to be responsible for the provision of nourishment to hair and treat dandruff. This credit goes to the manifestation of beta-carotene.

Because of plenty of vitamin C in this fruit, mangoes play a remarkable role in fortifying one’s immunity. Aside from vitamin C, mangoes are a reliable source of zinc as well, which is essential for sustaining the overall health of the immune system. Mangoes are rich in vitamin B6 and potassium which are useful for the treatment of kidney stones. Mangoes are proved to be great aphrodisiacs. The fruit is rich in vitamin E, which is well-known to boost sex initiative. Mangoes could help decrease body fat and control blood sugar. Beta-carotene is a vital component present in mango, which is an antioxidant that helps fight heart disease-causing free radicals. The pulp of the mango fruit contains carotenoids, ascorbic acid, terpenoids, and polyphenols – all of these are liable for the cancer-preventing properties of this fruit. Mangiferin is also a great contributor to the anticancer properties of mango. This compound is predominately found in mangoes. It has also been found that mangiferin hinders the growth of colon, liver cancer cells and other tumor cells too. Mangoes help in reduction of body fat and control blood sugar. Mangoes contain pectin that losses the serum cholesterol levels. The extract of a mango peel has antidiabetic characteristics. Fully developed mangoes are considered energizing. The juice of the mango may be used as a recuperative tonic to combat heat stroke. Raw mangoes have also been found to be energizing, permitting us to cool off the heat. Mangoes also retain the body in good health, this is the best reason that these are favorite in hot summers. Since mangoes are a rich source of potassium, they help to maintain the intensity of sodium in the body. This adjusts the fluid level in the body and avoids heat stroke. The leaves of mangoes are a rich source of tannins and can be desiccated and used up for handling diarrhea. Mangoes exhibit anti-ulcer activity, given the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. The peel of mango is helpful to cure hangovers. Mangoes can recover liver health as well. Mango also keeps appropriate functioning of your thyroid gland.

During harvesting as the temperatures of mangoes are high, so that it is compulsory for the mangoes to keep them cold at their optimum storage temperature. The storage temperature for mangoes ranges from 8 to 13°C, varying with their varieties and ripeness. Ripening of mangoes is suppressed by Controlled Atmosphere storage of them. CA storage declines the respiration rate as well as ethylene production in them. The optimum CA storage for mango ranges from 3 to 7% O2 and 5 to 8% CO2. Mangoes can be stored for 3-6 weeks in Cold Atmosphere (CA) Storage at 13°C. This duration and temperature vary with variety and stage of ripeness of mango. Mangoes must be packed in a single layer in fruit crates and cardboard boxes. As mangoes are so sensitive to pressure, these are sometimes wrapped in paper or padded with wood wool, straw or hay. The shelf life of mango can be enhanced by storing it at 15 to 18°C temperature and 85 to 90% relative humidity for 35 days. Pakistani mango is famous all over the world. But our storage conditions are poor. We should focus to improve its storage conditions and quality aspects.

Role of Walnut in Health Improvement

(M. Noman*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Walnut is delicious fruit eaten as dried fruit. It is used throughout world processing industry. Its world production is 3.46 million tons. Its leading producers are China, United States, Iran, Turkey, Mexico. China is producing 46 percent of total world production. California is producing 99 percent of walnut of United States. In Pakistan its production is low, so it is considered as minor fruit. It has a history of Chinese culture, moreover in Pakistan children play with this fruit. Its fruit is called a nut because of its hard-outer shell. It can be added to chicken and fish during cooking in shredded form. It is processed in juices and in yogurt to make a tasty dessert. It is among those fruits which are not perishable.

Walnuts are a rich source of energy and hold many health-benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants, and vitamins that are essential for wellbeing. They are a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids (approximately 72%) like oleic acid and an excellent source of all-important omega-3 essential fatty acids such as linoleum acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and arachidonic acids. Regular consumption of walnuts in the diet, therefore, may help in lowering total as well as LDL or “bad cholesterol” and increases HDL or “good cholesterol” levels in the blood. Research studies suggest that the Mediterranean diet which is rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids may help cut-down chances of coronary artery disease, and strokes by favoring healthy blood lipid profile. It is helpful in the prevention of cancer (skin cancer) having lot of antioxidants. It improves heart function, male fertility, weight management, brain health, metabolism and reduces inflammation. It has a positive effect on hair growth. In pregnant women these help in fetal growth.

Eating as just as a handful (25 g) of walnuts every day can provide about 90% of RDI (recommended daily intake) of omega-3 fatty acids. Research studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids by their anti-inflammatory actions may help lower blood pressure, cut down coronary artery disease and stroke risk, and offer protection from breast, colon and prostate cancers.

Additionally, they are a rich source of many photochemical substances that may contribute to their overall antioxidant activity, including melatonin, ellagic acid, vitamin-E, carotenoids, and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are known to have potential health effects against cancer, aging, inflammation, and neurological diseases.

Scientists at the University of Scranton, Pennsylvania, had recently found that walnuts possess the highest levels of polyphenolic antioxidants of all the edible seeds and nuts. 100 g of the nuts carry 13,541 µmol TE (Trolox equivalents) of oxidant radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Eating as many as six to seven walnuts a day could help stave off most of the disease-causing free radicals from the human body.

Further, they are an excellent source of vitamin-E, especially rich in γ -tocopherol; carry about 21 g per 100 g (about 140% of daily required levels). Vitamin-E is a powerful lipid soluble antioxidant essential for maintaining the integrity of cell membrane of mucosa and skin by protecting it from harmful oxygen-induced free radicals.

They are also packed with several important B-complex groups of vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B-6, and folates.

They also very are a rich source of minerals such as manganese, copper, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium. Copper is a cofactor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome C-oxidize and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Zinc is a co-factor in growth and development, gonad development, digestion, and nucleic acid synthesis.

But eating too much walnut is harmful as it causes allergic reactions, lip cancer, tongue swelling, sometimes body produces rashes and swelling, diarrhea, nausea, lip cancer, asthma, acne, and ulcer etc.

Hidden Health Benefits of Peas

(By Rida Yasmen*, H. M. Kashif**, Mujahid Ali***)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UAF; **Horticulture, UOS)

It is very rare that some plants keep both human and plants healthy, that is pea. A rich source of protein and adds nitrogen in soil for crops and this nitrogen is in organic farm. That is why plant growth and development effect positively. It is often called that vegetables are poor in protein, but peas provide rich source for it. Doctors often say “Health will become better by using natural food”.

The peas whose scientific name is Pisum sativum is an annual plant which have a life cycle of about one year. Pea is a cool season crop. Which is grown in many parts of the world and planting occurs from winter to early summer depending on location the immature peas are used as vegetable fresh frozen or canned. It is cooked with different mixed vegetables and fish.

Peas are used in varieties of ways like peas soup. matter pannier matter pillow peas are very use full vegetable provide a lot of benefits as notional point of view and used in medicines. Peas are stretchy but high in fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc.

Dry weight about is about one quarter protein and one quarter sugar a lot of people think so that peas are just a poor man’s meat are a cheap restaurant site dish that just putts ‘’green’’’ on your plate. But this is not true because peas are little power house of nutrition that provide energy and boost to all the people. Peas are greatly beneficial for over health peas help in weight management peas are low fat but high very thing.

One cup of peas has less than 100 calories but infect lots of protein fiber and micro nutrients it helps to prevent stomach cancer because peas contain high amounts of health protective polyphone called coumostrol, which prevent stomach cancer. Peas help in strong immune system and high emery due to high level of anti-oxidant like flavonoids carotenoid, phenolic acid peas reduce the risk of wrinkles Alzheimer’s arthritis, bronchitis, osteoporosis and Candida due to peas strong and inflammatory properties.

The result of excess of inflammation may lead to heart disease cancer and aging peas contain anti-inflammatory poly nutrient. Peas also contain omega 3 fat in the form of alpha linolenic acid. Peas maintain blood sugar regulation due to high fiber which slow and protein slow down how fast sugar are digested. The anti oxidants and anti inflammatory present in peas prevent insulin resistance which is type 2 diabetes.

The very important and major health benefits provided by are peas that prevent heart disease which are leading hazardous issue of today’s world again the anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory compound supports healthy blood vessels. The formation of plaque along our blood vessel. The walls start with chronic excessive oxidative stress and inflammation peas contain generous amount of vitamin B1 and floated b2, b3 and b6 which reduce homocysteine levels which are the risk factor for heart disease.

Peas are healthy for environment like for nitrogen fixation form the air and deposit in the soil. So by doing this reduces the need for artificial fertile because the main ingredient is nitrogen. After the harvesting of Peas, the remain in plant is easily breakdown to create more organic fertilizers for the soil.

Peas can prevent constipation due to high fiber content which improve bowel health an and peristalsis. Peas maintain healthy bone. One cup of peas contains 44% of vitamin k which helps to anchor calcium inside the bone. Last but not the least pea reduces bad cholesterol because of nicking in peas which reduce the production of triglycerides which result in less bad cholesterol and lowered triglyceride. Natural food is more beneficial than the artificial one, so they were the interesting health befits of peas so eat and enjoy good health.

There are also some more and fantastic health benefits of peas which will really prove useful for fighting against more dangerous disease. Peas are such a natural food that provides us too many benefits .peas are considered as primary protein source. Peas are super food that is not only delicious but bring many benefits to our body .peas can be considered as protein group because contains high amount of protein. Peas are also high in foliate and vitamin B12 vit is said that ½ cup of peas serving contains 7g of fiber and most of fiber is insoluble.

Peas help to treat against celiac disease. The person suffering from this disease should not consume such kind of food which contains gluten and for these people the best source to get protein and fiber is peas because peas are gluten free. And gluten is present in wheat

Peas also contain high amount of vitamin c which can prevent skin damage by consumption of pea’s everyday keep the skin healthy as well as make it glow. Peas can combat aging. peas contain high antioxidant which neutralize the effect of free radicals which are main culprit in ageing process. Peas help to prevent anemic. Peas contain some amount of iron that promote red blood cells production and thus maintain normal blood function and prevent anemia.

Peas also maintain healthy nerve function because these contain potassium and magnesium which are important for muscle and nerve function. Peas also promote healthy eyes due to rich in vitamin A and beta carton that are beneficial in keeping healthy eyes and normal eyesight. Likewise there are too much health benefits of peas just like help to repair broken tissue maintain healthy hair prevent scurvy and treat chilblains due to the high amount of nutrient that it contains and prevent us away from these dangerous and life threading disease so Peas are natural beneficial food product for us.

Hidden Health Benefits of Olives

(By Mehak Khalid*, Mujahid Ali**, Muhammad Ali**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS; Horticulture, BZU)

Olive is a great blessing of Allah, the Almighty. It has amazing health benefits in its fruit and one of the oldest fruit in the history. A lot of great personalities enjoyed this fruit including Prophet Muahmmad (SAW). Olives are small fruits that grow on olive tree. Olive trees know as Olea europaea. In Urdu It is called “Zaitoon”. It belongs to a group of fruit called drupes or stone fruit olives. It is mentioned in Quran as “And He it is who causes gardens to grow, [both] trellised and untrellised, and palm trees and crops of different [kinds of] food and olives and pomegranates, similar and dissimilar. Eat of [each of] its fruit when it yields and give its due [zakah] on the day of its harvest. And be not excessive. Indeed, He does not like those who commit excess. [Surah al-Anaam, 6:141]. It is also mentioned in Hadith, Abu Aseed said: “The Prophet (SAW) said: “Eat the oil and use it on your hair and skin, for it comes from a blessed tree.” (Al-Tirmidhi, 1775).

Olive top producing countries are Italy Greece, Turkey, Tunisia, Portugal, Syria and Morocco. Olives are related to mangoes, cherries, peaches, almonds, and pistachios. there are so many health benefits of olives as olives are very high in vitamin E. They are power full anti-oxidant. Anti-oxidant reduces the risk of chronic disease such as heart and cancer. Due to rich in anti-oxidant it reduces the inflammation which ultimately reduces the growth of unwanted microorganism. Olive increase blood level of Glutathione. Glutathione is a most power full and anti-oxidant in body. Due to anti-oxidant property they reduce oxidative damage in the body and help to fight infection caused by bacteria.

It is good for heart and protect against osteoporosis and cancer. Fresh unripened olives have high amount of oleuropein. During ripening of olives oleuropein is broken down into hydroxytyrosol which is power full anti-oxidant. Olive oil make body strong as it has lot of energy. That is why Arab people have strong body who use this oil. It also improves sterility in male.

Olives are rich in carbohydrates vitamins protein these are rich source of energy for human body. Black olive contain iron and iron is important for the transport of oxygen in RBCs. Due to deficiency of iron anemia cause. Olives also contain copper and copper deficiency may increase the risk of heart disease. Olives contain calcium which is abundant material found in the body and necessary for bone muscle and nerve function. Sodium is present in high amount in olives because olives are packaged and canned in brine or salt water. Olives reduce the blood pressure because high blood pressure and high cholesterol level are both factor for heart disease. Oleic acid in olives regulate the cholesterol and protect the cholesterol form oxidation.

Osteoporosis is deducted by decreased bone mass and bone quality which increase the risk of fractures, but the use of olives can lower the risk because it is found protective which help to prevent bone lose. olives reduce the risk of cancer due to high content of partially due to high content of anti-oxidant and oleic acid. Olive contain low calories. Olives have a “negative caloric load” which mean we born more calories digesting an olive that we gain eating one.

Olive are not fattening because the contain mono unsaturated fat which increase good cholesterol level. olives contain polyphenols which is a natural chemical that reduce oxidative street in bandoliers can improve memories. Olives help the skin stay soft and healthy due to oleic acid as it removes wrinkles of face and around eyes.

Olives can edge off appetite because mono unsaturated fatty acid in olives slow down digestion and stimulate the hormone cholecystokinin. Which send message of fullness and brain. olives oil contains oleocanthal a substance which is anti-inflammatory agent that can act as natural ibuprofen.

Olives reduce the effect of degenerative disease like Alzheimer’s benign and malignant tumors. Olives help prevent blood clot that could lead to myo-cordial infection or deep vein thromobosis. Olives enhances fertility a reproductivity. Olives play vital role in maintaining healthy immune system especially during oxidative stress. oleuropein a value able chemical found in olive act as anti-microbial and anti-bacterial agent for the body.

Tyrosol is present in olive oil prevent heart disease and oleanolic acid help to prevent liver damage regulate blood fats and reduce inflammation. Quercetin lower the blood pressure and improve heart health. Due to so many health benefits of olives we should take adequate amount of olives in our daily diet. It can be used as replacement of vegetable oil or along with it in cooking meals. Its fruit pickles are also available in markets now a day. Now a days Pakistan govt is organizing planes to grow olive in different barren areas of the countries. Its cuttings have been planted in different areas for propagation.

Medicinal Importance of Banana

(By Muhammad Mudassar Ali, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem)

(Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, UOS)

Banana is historically being used due to its medicinal value. Its different varieties are used as ornamental purpose due to ts stem and leaf beauty. It is rich source of Vitamin E and carbohydrates. Products from the natural sources are being used as a medicine from thousands of years all around the world (Wang M W et al., 2007). This tradition is still common, and several researches are being conducted form a hundred of institutes all around the globe (Liz Fajbar et al., 1997). A major portion of the drugs, at present, are directly or indirectly extracted from the natural sources (Rojas A et al., 1992). An individual from the Musa, Banana is an herbaceous plant grown throughout the world from centuries (Kumar et al., 2012). Bananas are the second largest fruit crop produced in the globe after citrus (FAO, 2009). It is one of the fruit plants who’s all parts have natural and traditional medicinal uses (Kumar et al., 2012). It’s all parts can be used and processed. Diseases like cancer, diabetes, hypertension, ulcer and diarrhoea can be treated by banana. Banana is a universally consumed food; it is a favourite of the people of all age group, so banana is one of the very important foods produced. It is also one of the fruits that is affordable by people of all income group. Comparing to other fruits, banana is readily digestible even comparing to Apple. Taking its nutritional profile under consideration, a hundred grams of Banana gives about 370 kJ of energy (Kumar et al., 2012). Along with the terrace amount of Iron, Sodium and Zinc, Banana is rich with Potassium (358 mg), Magnesium (27 grams) and Phosphorous 22 grams. It has a significant proportion of Vitamin A Vitamin B Complex, Vitamin C and Vitamin D. Banana has less protein as compared to other foods (Kumar et al., 2012). An handsome amount of fiber could be extracted from all the verities of Banana (Mukhopadhay et al., 2008) Being a rich source of Potassium banana benefits the muscles as it keeps up their appropriate working and anticipates muscle spasms. Besides this, potassium helps in regulating the higher blood pressure as it is a common problem these days (Sarkar C., et. Al.). It also helps to reduce the risk of stroke. Banana is an excellent source of vitamins, Vitamin A aid in strong teeth and bones, Vitamin-B6 contribute in the immune system it also promotes brain healthiness and lastly the health of our heart. Vitamin-C helps in the growth of tissue and ligaments and finally Vitamin-D that helps the bones to absorb calcium (Kumar et al., 2012). Banana is excellent for the people who want to lose their weight besides having high calories, as it provides necessary power for a longer exercise. Banana contains a significant amount of Iron. Iron helps the body to make hemoglobin. So, it can readily be used in case of anemia (A condition in which hemoglobin is reduced because of deficiency of Iron). Banana also help to control Diabetes. Ethanol Extract of Green Banana has antioxidant activity that help in treating diabetes mellitus (Kaimal S et al., 2010). Banana has also an anti-microbial activity. The extract obtained by the pulp and skin of banana had an anti-microbial activity. The ripened banana have more anti-microbial activity as compared to green banana. There is a significant observed anti-fungal activity of banana pulp and skin extract. Ethyl Acetate Extract of banana has a significant observed antimicrobial activity. (Scott et al., 1949). Bananas have an anti-ulcer and anti-diarrhoea activity. An anti-ulcerogenic compound is extracted from un-ripe banana by solvent fractionation (Lewis DA et al., 1999). Eating banana can reduce the risk of cancer. Bananas are a good source to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (Hugo, D –P et al., 1996). Bananas are also useful in controlling the pollution. Activated carbon can be produced by banana stalks that is then used to remove Carbofuran (An insecticide) from an aqueous solution. This activated carbon could be used as an alternative to activated carbon available commercially (Salman JM et al., 2010). Banana can also be used for treatment of stones in Kidney and urinary bladder, an extract from the core of the stem of banana plant is able to dissolve the stones in Urinary bladder and kidney (Kumar et al., 2012). Some kids have worm problem which is very dangerous for their health, eating banana can reduce these problems (Kumar et al., 2012). Some other benefits of banana include; Banana is widely used as an anti-wrinkle agent, a scrub made from the banana puree is very useful for it (Kumar et al., 2012). Beside the useful aspects there are some harmful aspects of banana to. As rich with carbohydrates and tryptophan it inspires sleepiness (Kumar et al., 2012). Consumption of banana with alcohol me influence the migraine headaches (Kumar et al., 2012). That is why is consumed throughout the world. As it is natural parthenocarpic (having no seed inside fruit) so this make it more valuable and convenient to consume.



  1. FAO, 2009
  2. Hugo Deneo- Pellegrini et al. Vegetables, fruits and colorectal cancer: A case control study from Uruguay. Nutrition and Cancer .1996; 25(30): 297-304.
  3. Kumar, K. P. S., Bhowmik, D., Duraivel, S. and Umadevi, M. 2012. Traditional and medicinal uses of banana. Journal Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1: 51-63.
  4. Kaimal S et al. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol.2010; 48(2): 165-73.
  5. Lewis D A et al. A natural flavonoid present in unripe plantain banana pulp (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiaca) protects the gastric mucosa from aspirininduced erosions. J Ethnopharmacol.1999; 65(3): 283-8.
  6. Liz Fajbar. IDRC and Medicinal Plants: Priority issues and Research needs – A summary document March 1997, pp1.
  7. Mukhopadhyay, S., Fangueiro, R., Yusuf, A. and Senturk, U. 2008. Banana fibresvariability and fracture behaviour. Journal Engineered Fibres and Fabrics, 3(2): 39- 45.
  8. Mohapatra, D., Mishra, S. and Sutar, N. 2010. Banana and its by-product utilization: an overview. Journal Scientific & Industrial Research, 69: 323-329.
  9. Rojas A et al. Screening for antimicrobial activity of crude drug extracts and pure natural products from Mexican medicinal plants, J. Ethnopharmacol.1992; 35: 127- 149.

Medical Importance of Jamun Fruit

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines.

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines. It is famous for its cooling effect. It helps to treat diabetes mellitus, ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea. The compound is highly rich in compounds containing anthocyanin, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquecetin and myrecetin. Seeds of jamun contain an alkaloid, jambosin and glycoside jambolin or antimellin which helps to convert starch into sugar Ambreen Afzal*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Shahid Mahmood*
*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS

Jamun is a very important medicinal plant used in medicines. It is famous for its cooling effect. It helps to treat diabetes mellitus, ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea. The compound is highly rich in compounds containing anthocyanin, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquecetin and myrecetin. Seeds of jamun contain an alkaloid, jambosin and glycoside jambolin or antimellin which helps to convert starch into sugar.

Jamun has a sharp sweet or sour taste. The fruit is rich in nutrients and has several health benefits. Jamun is extremely good for diabetic patients because it has a low glycemic index. It not only prevents common diabetes symptoms like frequent thirst and urination but also keeps your blood sugar level in check.

Jamun juice is excellent for syrup and squash. Later in India, the bottled drink was prepared by cooking the crushed fruits for 10 to 20 minutes at 140-degree Fahrenheit. Then press out the juice, combining it with sugar and water and adding citric acid and Sodium benzoate as a preservative. Jamun of decent size and quality have a sweet and sub-acid flavor. It may be made into sauces and James.

Jamun has a rich an amount of nutrients, like calcium, iron, potassium, and vitamin C strengthens your bones and enhance the immune system of our body. Studies have proved that the fruits also help to increase the hemoglobin count. The two nutrients that are iron and vitamin C are also responsible for health benefit.

Potassium is another content which is present in high amount in jamun. A 100g serving of jamun contains 55 mg of K. people should face a deficiency of this beneficial ingredient if they eat an unhealthy diet and it may also lead to other heart diseases, high blood pressure and stroke. It is good to consume these foods like jamun and tomatoes which are not only rich in this ingredient but also contain many other nutrients which are beneficial for our health.

The leaves of jamun trees are also important. They are good for our digestive system and oral health. The leaves of jamun are also used in Ayurvedic medicines which are used to treat diarrhea and ulcers. They are used in medicines mainly due to its anti-bacterial properties. The jamun fruit, leaves, seeds, and bark are all used in Ayurvedic medicines.

The seeds of jamun are used as an effective acne treating agent. First, crush the jamun seeds and mix cow milk to it, then apply the paste before going to the bed, and wash it in the morning. Its regular application is helpful in curing and treating of acne.

Oily skin problems are also controlled by the mix of jamun pulp, barley flour, amla juice and rose water. Use this mixture as a face mask and wash when it gets dry. To control dark spots from your face the paste of jamun seed powder, lemon powder, gram flour, few drops of almond oil and rose water. and then apply it on your face and wash it when it dries off.

Jamun stimulates melanin which cures leukoderma; teeth related problems can be treated by drinking black jamun juice or by applying black plum juice. Jamun juice is also beneficial in treating of piles. Drinking of fresh fruit juice helps in cough and asthma. It protects us from cold, and acts of anti-aging agents

The fruits iron content acts as a blood purifying agent. people suffering from anemia and jaundice should eat jamun because of its high iron content. Jamun juice helps to improve the immune system of the body. Almost all parts of jamun can be used medicinally. In type 2 diabetes, jamun fruit is most often recognized as an adjuvant therapy.

Jamun vinegar, extensively made throughout India, is an attractive clear pulp, with peasant aroma and mild flavor. Brandy and distilled liquor called “Jambava “ have made from the fermented fruit.

Jamun fruit can also be used for the cure of cancer. Regularly use of jamun reduce the risk of cancer. Polyphenols, which are present in jamun fruit, fight against cancer cells in the body. Jamun fruit strengthens the bones and may prevent from osteoporosis and other calcium deficiency problems because of the presence of nutrients like calcium, iron, Vitamin C, and Potassium.

Jamun juice along with curd is good for digestive problems. Urinary disorders can also be treated with the help of bark of jamun tree which has antihelmintic properties. To cure urinary infections and urinary disorders, one glass of jambul juice with a half teaspoon of bark powder at daily basis is recommended. Tapeworm infection can also be cured by mixing bark powder with water. Jamun consumption for 2 to 4 months on regular basis helps in hemorrhoids problems significantly.

Nutritional Status of Mushrooms

Mushrooms are a very healthy vegetable and a vital food. Mushrooms are low in calories and also they are low in carbohydrates. But along this mushrooms are a good source of vitamins B, fiber protein, and even trace minerals. Mushrooms are also containing high levels of beta-glucans compounds that compounds keep immune cells and system alert and mushrooms are also an anti-inflammatory food.

 (Adeeba Ilyas*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Farzana Siddique*)

(*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS: **Horticulture, UOS)

It also contains a powerful antioxidant that helps in lowering body-wide inflammation called ergothioneine. In the Asian countries, it was a tradition to use mushrooms as medicine that goes thousand of the year-ago Mushroom are widely used nowadays in western hemisphere because mushrooms are vital, biologically active compounds with significant protective effects. According to research, many types of mushrooms contain a variety of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-viral abilities, it also contains a wide variety of bioactive compounds.

Mushrooms have many nutrition benefits including the ability to combat disease by providing important minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. It also has the ability to boost the immune system. Mushrooms also fight with free radical so they are called high anti-oxidant food. Its nutritional value also includes their ability to inhibit viruses and also to decrease the severity of illness, in those who are already sick. For example, some mushrooms increase production of B and T lymphocytes which are important immune cells that important immune cells that help to control our response to pathogens / harmful bacteria , toxin other harmful substances and viruses that can make us for the victim to the disease.

In china, 2000 mushrooms species are used in old and new traditional Chinese medicine practices and about 25 parent of those medicine practices are found to fight against harmful tumors effectively. Antioxidants are highly present in mushrooms like red and green peppers, tomato, pumpkins and tomatoes. These are chemicals which harms human’s body cells and lead to cancer. Selenium is an important mineral which helps in the detoxification of cancer causing agents. Selenium is also very important for the bladder.

Mushrooms contain at least 14,000 different plant species the term “Mushrooms” means macro fungus with the distinctive fruiting body which are large enough to be seen with the raked eye. Mushrooms are high in copper selenium, antioxidants and energizing vitamin B. But they are low in sugars, carbohydrates, calories, fat and sodium.

One cup of raw white bottom mushroom has about 2 grams crabs, 1 gram’s fiber, 0.4 milligrams vitamins B2 (riboflavin), 2 calories or 3 grams protein, less than 1 gram fat, 4 milligram vitamin B5 Panthothenic acid, 5 milligram vitamin B3 (niacin), 83 milligrams phosphorus 305 milligrams potassium 0.3 milligrams copper 9 milligrams selection.

Mushrooms fight against cancer, improve immunity lower inflammation, protect heart health, support energy and improve brain function, help with weight management provide vitamin D. By eating mushrooms beta glucans level increase and it increases the T-cell level which means they lower inflammation responses caused by stress environmental factors, poor diet. Mushrooms contain gonoderic acids  lower the blood pressure risk of blood clot cholesterol, triglyceride levels and even help to correct the heart arrhythmia. Reishis also contain lanostan, which is antihistamine that can act as a natural arthritis cure and shitake mushrooms contain chemical compounds e.g. lentinan, that chemical compounds protect the DNA from oxidative damage. Lentinan substance can heal chromosome damage caused anti cancer treatment shitake mushrooms podrida.

This compound which is used as a natural treatment for cancers used in Japan. Cordyceps mushrooms are known as anti-aging mushrooms. It has the ability to produce ATP in a body, because of this ability it helps to increase stamina because ATP is the primary fuel for our bodies. This mushroom is used to increase energy and to reduce stress, fatigue cordyceps are also act as protectors of mitochondria which is a power house of cell by prohibiting into cordial swelling and by increasing activities of antioxidant substances. Mushrooms can help as a natural cancer remedy by decreasing the growth and production of cancer cell division. The nutritional benefits of mushrooms are due to the presence of special polysaccharide compound called beta-1.6

Mushrooms are beneficial to improve bone health, increase iron absorption; present diabetes treat anemia lowers the cholesterol level. Mushrooms are not vegetables but basically, it is edible fungi having varies scientific names. Generally, mushrooms are saprophytes. So intake of mushrooms will lower the cholesterol level. Because of the presence of fiber and certain enzymes in them. Balancing of cholesterol between good cholesterol and bed cholesterol is essential to present many cardiovascular diseases e.g. heart attack stroke. In Amebic patients, areal of iron is lower than normal level. So the mushrooms are a good source of iron. Thus intake of mushroom can treat anemia. Because of deficiency of calcium condition like osteoporosis develop in adults. Mushrooms are an excellent source of calcium. It can reduce joint pain is provide a rich amount of calcium and phosphorus. Thus it treats osteoporosis as well mushrooms also contain naturally existing antibodies which are similar to lecithin. These antibiotics inhibit the fungal infection and microbial growth. Mushrooms are a good combination of vitamin A, B complex vitamin. These strengthen the immense system copper is present is mushrooms. It has a number of beneficial effects in the body. Copper can ultimate and regulate the absorption source of recession which strengthen nails hat and teeth.

Vitamin B is present abundantly mushrooms such as thiamine (B1) riboflavin (B2) vitamin B helps in the formation of red blood very important for health brain. Doctors advised pregnant women to take of folic acid or folate which is abundantly present in mushrooms. Mushrooms are also offer an alternative source of vitamin D.

It is the best way to lower cholesterol level naturally in the body by consumption of more and more mushrooms. They also maintain blood pressure and regulate circulation. Iron is abundantly present in mushrooms. Mushrooms also contain an appreciable amount of zinc. Mushrooms also contain copper in good quantity. Mushrooms help in fertility. It is must be included in the healthy diet.


                           By Rahema Hameed*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Anjum Murtaza*
                                           (*Food Science, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Cucumber is a vital vegetable mainly used as salads. Without cucumber salad is considered incomplete. Allah has made every vegetable for the benefit of human being it’s up to him how he gets avail it. Cucumber is a natural source of water intake by ingesting process. It is the precious gift of nature for us and we should take benefits from this excellent source of hydration. Here we will discuss the holistic benefits of cucumber to get to know how crucial it for us is and how can we improve our body metabolism and hydration rate. It has cooling effects in the body.


Cucumber is the rich source of vitamin A, vitamin C, and folic acid while its hard skin is the storehouse of essential fibers including potassium, magnesium and the molybdenum. Thus, we can say it is also a reliable source of trace minerals. We know that it is a source of ascorbic acid and caffeic acid which prevents the water loss and thus hydrate our body and prevents us from several deficiencies which occur due to poor digestion and hydration.


Cucumber, as we know, is the powerhouse of water and thus helps the kidney to absorb maximum water and smooth the process of digestion and helps in removal of toxins from the body with the help of kidney and thus ultimately when toxins get removed and kidney and stomach work properly then sugar level would be at its optimum point due to equilibrium in body functioning and prevention from malfunctioning thus diabetic patients should make the intake of cucumber compulsory in their diet.


Blood pressure exceeds when our blood circulation get too fast and our heartbeat starts to extend in its rate and this condition is caused when our blood and body temperature gets too high due to continuous intake of hot meal and spices and when body does not get enough water to remove toxins from body then it get accumulate in the body leading to high temperature and ultimately blood pressure  too. So, cucumber daily intake in the optimum range ensures the control of blood pressure to the high or low blood pressure patients must take it in their diets.


Cucumber is the source of 70% water and helps in making digestion smoother and faster thus lubricate the body and prevent us from constipation.


Cucumber is an excellent source of folic acid and fibers like magnesium potassium etc. and thus helps the body to works properly and through this kidney would work better and do its functions properly and kidney stone accumulation in the kidney get prevented by the removal of toxins and by the fulfillment of all the minerals and fibers.


The research has concluded that cucumber is used in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and in different botanicals research centers too. Thus, it is also used in making medicines, homeopathic remedies and in cosmetic products too.


The research has proved that cucumber is extremely beneficial in estrogen relating cancer and thus it is also a hormone regulating product which can save the life of many women. Its Lasi is an innovation which has antioxidants against cancer.


Cucumber helps in retaining body water and helps the cells and the connective tissues to regulate their own specific functions and it works synergistically to brain and bone health. Thus, some quantity of daily intake of cucumber can prove to be very effective for our bones and brain.


High acid food remain in the body can cause dehydration in the cell and thus can lead to malfunctioning of the body, so cucumber helps to neutralize the body acidity and thus helps to maintain the extracellular functions.


Stress is the main factor that leads to cell malfunctioning and that affects our health and cell-deteriorating process occur. Stress which comes from the environmental or cultural resource can get reduce by the cucumber intake as it would get the refreshing sense to the body and soothing of brain heart occur which can minimize depression or stress level


Cucumber is excellent of removing toxins and is low in the calories and rich in the fibers and thus its intake can aid in removing hunger as we can eat it easily to our fill and thus can remove our appetite by its good quantity intake.

Thus, from our literature, it is concluded that it is an excellent product and a precious gift of nature its intake should be made compulsory in the diet to ensure the body healthy and to ensure the wholesomeness of the body minerals. its benefits are numerous if we start to explain all page would get low in quantity. Thus, I tried my best to explain some of the crucial benefits of this holistic product in front of you people. Hope you people will like it and ensure its practical intake its diet.