CPEC and Food Security in Baluchistan

By H.M. Bilal, Mujahid Ali, Rohoma Tahir (Horticulture, UOS)

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is the largest economic project for both parties to make better infrastructure within Pakistan for better trade with China, Pakistan and with link countries. The project was launched on April 20, 2015, between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif when they signed 51 contracts and a written business communication of Understanding valued at $46 billion as initial cost. The benefit of CPEC is both to change Pakistan’s economy by upgrading its rail, road, air, and energy conveyance systems, and to connect the Pakistani ports of Gwadar and Karachi to China’s Xinjiang province. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India, and the ancient Silk Road ran through its country. This would reduce the time and cost of conveyance goods and services such as natural gas to China. CPEC is part of the larger Belt and Road Initiative is to better the connectivity, trade, communication, and cooperation between the link countries. About $46 billion worth of projects have been committed under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

It is estimated that tentatively duration for CPEC completion is 10 years or so. CPEC includes four pillars i.e. the infrastructure, the energy requirements, workforce development and economic progress. CPEC project is an investment for the next 15 years of Pakistan. This is important for Pakistan as it is the duration in which Pakistan to make useful to all its resources could bring Pakistan into global economic widespread. CPEC is a revolution in the field of economics.

Infrastructure development and growth go hand in hand. Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of energy, building a state-of-the-art road, rail, and transport infrastructure and providing reliable urban services pave the way for future investments and growth. If, however, the infrastructure stock is not maintained and new investments are not made at the requisite level, it may lead to power shortages and transmission losses, congested roads prolonging travel time and poor-quality infrastructure services discouraging investors to relocate, thereby straining growth prospects.

CPEC would be a game changer for Pakistan and for its region also. The CPEC would play an important part through economic motivation and regional functioning in the form of broadcasting, connectivity, and partnerships. It is a great project that can change the lives of the people in the region by opening a common vision of mutual benefits and development in the field of economics. CPEC is the wide part of the Chinese leadership and aspiring vision of reconstruction of old Silk Road under the new ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative.

The people would have economic progress and would get opportunities to trade and investments. The oil and mineral resources of the province would be investigating and the establishment of Gwadar Port, Gwadar International Airport and Special Economic Zones (SEZ) would further improve the importance of the business and economic location of Baluchistan.

Baluchistan is the largest province of Pakistan. CPEC would provide job opportunities for the Balochi man that would get modern forward-looking skills in the future that is being the part of CPEC. The symbolic and specific goal of Karakoram Highway (KKH) is another side of the CPEC strategy. The CPEC is not only passing through developed areas of Pakistan but it would cover developing regions of Pakistan as well.  Some routes of CPEC would greatly pass through GB. The CPEC would not only attract the tourism and direct foreign investment in Pakistan but would also help Pakistan to overflow its prevalent energy conflicts economic benefits for Pakistan.

CPEC has opened job opportunities for the people of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. October 16 is globally celebrated as World Food Day. This day is celebrated to lift about food security. On this day, Baluchistan is facing a sensitive food insecurity problem. Drought is taking its loss on the province and problems are further confined by the inability and bad governance of the provincial government. Almost 30 out of 32 districts of Baluchistan are food insecure. Only Quetta and Jaffarabad the two districts have food security in the whole province.

The main source code of food is agriculture. But in Baluchistan, this sector has been a bad influence due to the shortage of water. Almost 80% of the agricultural land of Baluchistan is depended on rain, and in the last of the years, there has been low rainfall. Rainwater is not utilized properly in the river all due to bad management. There is a lack of dams in Baluchistan, in fact, there has been not a single dam which is the main reason that the level of water rapidly falling.

Farmers mostly use tube wells to irrigate the agricultural land but there is the shortage of electricity in Baluchistan Rural areas of Baluchistan doesn’t get more than four hours of electricity daily. As a result, food insecurity has been increased. In this context, there are a lot of things that need to be done to improve the situation and prevent a humanitarian disaster.

The first thing that should be done is to modify the agriculture department. Job structures should be improving and the employee should pay attention to their duties. International organizations should be convict by the Baluchistan government to increase the funding for the drought influenced areas. The government can take the help of experts from the Food and Agriculture Organization to write down the plans to make the entire province food secure. All of this is due to deficiency of struggle by the government to restore irrigation infrastructure and agriculture. As a result, people across the province face food scarcity.

It is scaring that successive governments in Baluchistan have totally unsuccessful to provide sufficient food and development chance for advancement to people in the Baluchistan. The scare of food security in Baluchistan is due to excessive poverty, resulting from bad governance and pathetic condition of food and agriculture departments.

In June 2007, millions of acres of fertile and well-drained land were flooded by the water of Mirani Dam which suffered the agricultural areas of Nasirabad. The government should pierce more operative programmes for the productivity of food and its provision to the people. Now a day the situation regarding food insecurity and malnutrition at district, tehsil and union council level in Baluchistan has been extensively mapped and analyzed, including the causes of malnutrition, food intake, dietary imbalances and vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies. In addition, the number of women and children, who are most affected by food insecurity, are well documented.

This extensively gathered information tells that in Baluchistan one out of two children appears to be affected by insufficient and unbalanced food in the first two years and causes of stunted growth. It should go without saying that the calculated economic costs of malnutrition and stunted children are many times higher than the costs of effectively solving the issue.

For the last of years, FAO of the United Nations, combined with the Department of Agriculture and mutual benefits of the Government of Baluchistan, has piloted with Integrated home gardens (also named kitchen gardens) at a small scale. A typical home garden in Baluchistan is handling by of women from the same village and consist of a range of fruits/vegetables that are produced nine months in a year, which include water facilities, some goats, and poultry. Most of the produce that is produced by kitchen gardening is consumed by the women, children and their families. If there is an excessive production it can be sold at the local market.

So, afterward finishing the confirmation of 20 ‘pilot’ Kitchen Gardens in 2018, Kharan and Nushki districts, nutritional communication for behavioral change will be observed with women at a small scale. Once effecting, another 500 Kitchen Gardens in both districts in 2018 and 2019 will be grown. Four more districts, Kech, Panjgur, Chaghi, and Washuk, will have 250 Kitchen Gardens Program in each of them after 2019. In the coming year, the goal is all 31 districts in Baluchistan which can only be attained by uniform mutual efforts. We should start planting those crops which require less water as water shortage is the main problem in Baluchistan.

Nearly two months after the World Food Day of 2017, where the government, the private sector and civil society in the country restore their agreement to ending need and all forms of malnutrition by 2030, our joint concentration should remain on the implementation for the encouragement of better the nutritional position and food security of the people in Baluchistan. It is important to recall that if no effective action is taken throughout Baluchistan, we should look for huge economic losses in the future.

FOOD SECURITY IN PAKISTAN

By M. Modassar Ali*, Abdullah Bin Masood*, Mujahid Ali** (*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Food security is defined as per the World Food Summit in 1996, Food security exists when all people, always, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs, and their food preferences are met for an active and healthy life. And the food Insecurity is defined as the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food. Food security is a major concern in the developing countries. It is a major issue in countries of Africa. Pakistan is country having a huge population confined to a limited area, and as per the census of 2016 the population of the republic was 193.2 million. There is a significant increase in population of Pakistan as comparing to the census of 1998 when it was about 132 million. The area of Pakistan is about 796098 Sq. Km. Comparing to its area, Pakistan has a vast resource in all terms. It is the blessing of nature on Pakistan. It has four seasons, a proper rainfall, readily available water throughout the year, a vast variety of fruits and vegetables readily available throughout the year, a highly fertile land and much more uncountable. Besides all the resources the state Pakistan must bear a burden of huge population. Food, Fiber and Shelter are the basic human necessities. At the time of its formation Pakistan hardly had any reliable resources. There were no proper water channels and water resources. Agriculture technology was at its dead levels. There was a poor formation of all the government institution and a list of problem to be solved. With the time being the country improved its resources and dealt with several problems. New dams were constructed under “Indus Water Treaty”. The government itself got stabilized. Agriculture sector was given a great attention especially in 1965-69. Food security, still, is one of the major problem in Pakistan but it would be true if we say that Food Security is the real problem of Pakistan. There are several areas of Pakistan where the problem of food is at its dead levels, these includes the desert of “Thar” and the areas of Sindh and Baluchistan. Natural Calamities, poor law and order, poor rate of literacy, poor organization of government departments, pollution and old technology of agriculture have led to a sharp decline in food security across the country. 21st century is the time when nations around the world are improving their Agriculture resources, technology and techniques. Their agricultural productivity is being multiplied by numbers. They are preventing disease prevalence by universal vaccination, solving the problem of environmental pollution and equipping the latest techniques and technology related to agriculture. They are managing a well-managed agricultural institutions and departments that have a key role in the development of the sector. Their farmer is educated and trained. Another addition in the food sector are GMO Foods. Developed countries are putting a great attention on GMO Foods. A lot of new and more reliable verities have been produced and work is going on for production of more. Pakistan have no national strategy and plan to counter the problems or for the improvement of the agricultural sector. Pakistan has no proper institution or councils to fix the agricultural problems. The government of Pakistan is seeking no attention for development of agricultural sector. With the massive population increase the country is leading towards the widespread famine and hunger. Food security is in fact, much more than just food production, distribution and consumption. Food is the top most priority of every living being since their inception. Food gives the energy to grow and maintain the body functions. There are certain agricultural technologies that have affected the aroma, taste and the culture of food. Use of Insecticide, pesticides, rodenticides and fertilizer have led to a couple of problems concerning food safety. Two more terms related to food security are Food safety and food sovereignty. Food Safety is related to the handling, preparation, processing, storage, and transportation in ways that prevent foodborne illness. Food can serve as a medium for the growth of microorganisms and hence can transmit diseases from person to person. The food can also get contaminated with external factor during its storage, processing, transportation and preparation. So, food safety should be a major concern while dealing food security. Food sovereignty is a broader term, it is much more complicated and is confined to a person’s choice. Food sovereignty is about the right of peoples to define their own food systems. The advocates, of food sovereignty, put the people who are related to productions, distribution and consumption of food at the center of decisions on food systems and policies, rather than the demands of local markets and local corporations that are believed to have dominated the global food system. So, the terms “Food Safety” and “Food Sovereignty” should always be associated when dealing with term “Food Security”. Food should be safe in terms of contamination (microbial, physical or Chemical), food should be safe by any means of adulteration, food should be in its pure form and it should be free from any harmful chemical fertilizers and insecticides or pesticides. The chemical fertilizers and insecticides/pesticides spoil the food, make it contaminated and then this food is not good for human consumption. Summing up, the food security is the major issue now in Pakistan. Serious attention must be given to the agriculture sector, a proper department should be formed, and check and balance must be taken. Institutions should be formed that have a concern for safety of food. So, integrated approaches, advanced technology, techniques and methods should be adopted for advancement of agriculture sector.

Role of Microorganisms in Disease Spreading in Citrus

(By Iqra Nazir*, Mujahid Ali**, Ammara Ainee*)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Microorganisms are playing a great role in disease spreading in all organisms. They are destroying our citrus production. Citrus is second most produced fruit crop in the world after grapes. Mandarins (Citrus reticulata) are a very important group of citrus, which is the main fruit crop of Pakistan. Fruit drop is a serious threat to citrus industry of Pakistan. Citrus canker is the disease of citrus. The causal organism is Xanthomonas axenopodis P.V citri. This is a bacterium. There are two types of bacteria Gram +ve and Gram-ve bacteria. Xanthomonas is a Gram-ve bacteria. XAC (Xanthomonas axenopodis P.V Citri) enter through stomata in the leaf canopy when stomata open XAC enter the stomata wound 5 directly expose mesophyll tissues due cultural practices and insects. Go to appropriated sites and organs or tissues. Settle and multiply in the organs (infection). Infection is the establishment of the pathogen into the host. After that symptoms appear in the form of the disease. The latent period is involved in it. The time between inoculation to injection is called latent period. Xanthomonas release chemical is known as xanthomonadin which interrupt the normal physiological mechanism of the plant. In the early-stage attack of XAC is high as compared to a later stage. There are 7 to 10 days for symptom appearance after inoculation. symptoms are pinpoints spots that may reach high up to 2 to 10mm size. spots appear first on lower sides than upper sides. spot size depends on the age of injection, type of cultivar and time of inoculation. Raised pustular with definite margin and sunken center deep from the marginal surface. The sunken center is spongy and corky this condition is known as cratriform. Water soaked margins around necrotic tissues which lead to necrosis (death of tissues by autolysis). The yellow halo around each spot-on leaf. It’s fruit and stem lesions size may be up to 1mm.Its vector is citrus leaf miner which forms the galleries on the leaves expose the mesophyll tissues. The biology of the pathogen is Gram –ve, a rod shape, single polar flagellum. The favorable environment is warm, wet condition. The temperature is minimum 20-degree centigrade, optimum 28 to 30-degree centigrade and the maximum is 39-degree centigrade. The spreading method is when it prevails wet condition bacterial ooze come out from bacterial canker spot. Millions of bacteria are present in ooze. Rain and wind spread the ooze and enter through stomata. The pathogen is persistent that can survive for a long time. This pathogen firstly found in Florida USA in 1912. Then in Japan, Africa, Europe epidemic in 30 countries. Citrus Greening is another disease of citrus. It is the 2nd most important disease of citrus.

In China it yellow shoot disease while in Africa it is yellow branch disease, yellow dragon disease. First, it is a belief that it is a viral disease but later discover that it is a bacterial disease Not grow on artificial media. It is phloem-limited bacteria. Casual organism candiddatus liberibacter. It is a rod-shaped bacteria. Citrus psyllid is a vector for it. It acquires from infected source then they transmit to the healthy plants. The citrus psyllid is a sucking insect. They suck on the lower side of the leaf. After acquiring the infected source, it feeds on Lowe side of the leaf. During sucking the plant sap bacteria transmitted into the phloem. Settle down in the phloem and multiply. Established in the phloem (infection). Plant defense will activate. Symptoms appear epidemiology is Asian form can tolerant up to 30 degrees centigrade. African and American form heat sensitive up to 20 to 25 degrees centigrade. Symptoms are yellow shoot, phloem-limited, interrupted with photosynthetic. Yellow foliage half of the fruit remain yellow, uneven fruit ripening.

Citrus malanose is also a disease of citrus. Its causal organism is Diaporthe citri. Symptoms are many dark spots of various sizes merge on fruit and leaf surface. This condition is known as mud cake malanose. Spots on leaves and fruit flow with water on the surface. This condition is known as tear stain malanose. Many spots appear close and form the fruit and leaf surface rough. This condition is known as sandpaper malanose. Citrus malanose is a fungal disease. Citrus gummosis is a disease of citrus in which we can see the gum production on root and trunk. The causal organism of this disease is Phytophthora citrophthora. symptoms are the bark of stem and branches are cracked. From cracks, sap oozing occurs this condition is known as bleeding appearance with the passage of time sap sticks on the stem just like gum. Gum girdle the whole trunk. Bark may be removed easily. Leaves show the nutritional deficiency. Disease life cycle can be described as zoospores moves with the irrigation water then enter the root of the plants, germination and gum formation.

Citrus dieback is a disease of citrus. It is caused by colletotrichum gloeosporidies. Symptoms are it starts drying slowly from top to bottom of branches and twigs. Branches and twigs look like scorched by fire. Minute slightly raised clumps pustules can be seen on affected branches and twigs. Dry twigs look like Ash color.

The blue mold of citrus is caused by Penicillium italicum. Airborne spores that can contaminate and transmit container with movement, packing houses, storage, cleaning equipment and water .it is a post-harvest disease. Symptoms are the blue colored sporulating area on affected fruit. The affected area is surrounding by white mycelium in a narrow range.

The green mold of citrus is caused by Pencilium digitatum. Symptoms are the sporulating area on affected fruit have olive green spores. The affected area is surrounded by broad zone with whitish mycelium. A brush like structure can be seen under microscope known as penicillus brush. Citrus stubborn disease caused by bacteria which is phloem-limited. The causal organism of this disease is Spiroplasma citri. The vector of this leafhopper which is sucking, phloem-limited. Symptoms are an irregularity in fruit arrangement on same plant shape, size, and color. Affected fruit drop out. Irregularity in affected fruit can be seen by cutting into two halves. Bunchy appearance on the top of the affected fruit. There two ends of fruits blossom end green and stem end discolored.

Citrus variegated chlorosis is caused by organism Xylella fastidiosa. It is a xylem limited bacterium. So, it is a bacterial disease. The vector of this disease is sharpshooter leafhopper. it is a sucking insect suck the sap from xylem. Acquisition feeding period is 2 hours. It has a wide host range. It has several generations per year. Symptoms on leaves are interveinal (between the veins) chlorotic lines. Gummy lesions on lower sides of the leaf. Gummy lesions become black and necrotic. Symptoms of fruits look like damage, changed color, the rind is held, lack of juice and acidic flavor. Symptoms of the tree are reducing vigor and growth with abnormal fruit and flower setting. In this way not only, fruit yield but also fruit quality in decreasing in citrus.

Food security under threat despite surplus food

Despite the country is enjoying surplus crops especially of wheat and rice, the food security seems extremely chaotic, as high inflation, declining income, unequal distribution of resources and stagnating domestic productivity are hampering attempts to achieve food security.
Experts are critically examining this situation giving a warning that the country’s food security is under threat due to the shallow approach of the economic managers.
Pakistan Agriculture Scientists Association Chairman Jamshed Iqbal Cheema said that there is a significant increase in the number of food insecure people in Pakistan, which now stands at 51 per cent of the total population as compared to about 22 per cent six years back; this is largely due to decline in agricultural production, especially in the Punjab, caused by ill-conceived policies.
Food security under threat despite surplus foodHe said that investment in agriculture sector not only ensures food security of any country but also help to produce a healthy nation besides promoting rule of law in the society. Farming is just not a profession but an effort to save 194 million people of Pakistan from hunger.
Keeping in view the population growth, Pakistan needs 50 percent more agricultural production by 2025 and it can only be done by strengthening the agricultural sector and promoting good agricultural practices for maximum per acre yield.
He was of the view that the government should reduce the input cost by waiving taxes on the inputs and bringing down diesel and electricity prices. He was of the view that it would enhance usage of quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and other inputs which would result in better production thus ensuring more grain for ever increasing population of Pakistan.
PASA Chairman believed that undernourished Pakistani population were reduced to two meals a days from three meals. Due to increase in input cost, the per head person cost of Pakistani has increased to Rs 3,000 per month, Cheema said and added that due to increase in this cost people were compromising their meals to manage the other day to day affairs.
He said average family size in Pakistan was 5.5 persons which mean a family have to spend Rs 16,500 per month to ensure three meals a day.
He regretted that Pakistan which is attributed as basically agricultural country lacks in provision of sufficient food and it is in the ranks of those countries which have low grains per capita for its citizens.
Agri Forum Pakistan Chairman, Ibrahim Mughal, while commenting on the food security in Pakistan said that it happened first time in the history of Pakistan that despite food surplus, shortage and price hike has been created several times during last one decade. While farmer is producing more and more wheat but not getting any benefit,” he commented.

Source: The Nation

Food security issues and the challenges

By  Tahir Hasnain

Food security is in fact much more than just food production, distribution and consumption. Food is the top most priority of everybody since our inception.

It gives us energy to grow and live stronger. Apart from dietary needs, food has a cultural value as well. Many cultures hold some food preferences and some food taboos. Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion.

For example, only halal foods are permitted by Islam, kosher foods by Judaism, and in Hinduism beef is restricted.

In addition, the dietary choices of different countries or regions have different characteristics. This is highly related to a culture’s cuisine.How to define food security? The World Food Summit (1996) defines it as, “food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs, and their food preferences are met for an active and healthy life.

” The right to food is a human right derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), recognizing the “right to an adequate standard of living, including adequate food”, as well as the “fundamental right to be free from hunger”.

Food safety and food sovereignty are other terminologies very common in the food related discussions. Food safety describes handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In some countries, there are complex standards for food preparation, whereas in poor countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO, are:
1. Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.
2. Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
3. Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature to kill pathogens.
4. Store food at the proper temperature.
5. Do use safe water and cooked materials.

Food security issues and the challengesFood sovereignty, a term coined by members of Via Campesina in 1996, is about the right of peoples to define their own food systems. Advocates of food sovereignty puts the people who produce, distribute and consume food at the centre of decisions on food systems and policies, rather than the demands of markets and corporations that they believe have come to dominate the global food system. This movement is advocated by a number of farmers, peasants, pastoralists, fisherfolk, indigenous peoples, women, rural youth and environmental organizations.

How to secure food? If the food distribution systems and the patterns of food consumption in our society are somehow rationalized, there is enough food already being produced and available all over the world. For instance, let us take the food consumption aspect alone and we find that our dietary needs have already been reduced over the time due to our changing lifestyle in which we do not have much physical activity. Essentially, we need small amount of food to provide energy to our body. Since eating is also a source of leisure and amusement, we serve and eat food irrationally.

Moreover, we also abandoned our traditional healthy food habits substituting them with packed and fast foods. Fatness, obesity and related medical disorders are now very common as a result of new lifestyle and changing food habits.

Food for thought: if we go through our routine food menu or the food we currently take in, the “real-food” is in fact meager as compared to a large quantity & variety of “junk-food”. Junk-food is injurious to health but we still prefer to take it because we consider food as an enjoyment rather than a body-need. Or in other words, “we take it because it tastes good and it satisfies our obsessive appetite”

In spite of appended above facts, there are many issues to be rectified in the system of food production as well. Modern agricultural technologies have affected the aroma, taste and the culture of food. New food varieties with increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have had a severe health impact directly and indirectly. Direct health impacts involve consumption of contaminated food and water with chemical pesticides & fertilizers. The indirect health impacts involve environmental degradation; climate change; extermination of local variety of food and uncultivated food; loss of biodiversity; etc.

Other issues that contribute to ongoing food insecurity in the country are discussed as under:

Population: Pakistan’s current estimated population is over 188 millionmaking it the world’s sixth most-populous country in the world. During 1950–2012, Pakistan’s urban population expanded over sevenfold, while the total population increased by over fourfold. As a consequence, a lot more food is currently needed to meet dietary requirements of the masses.

Urbanization: The growing populations of urban areas and new urban settlements are currently making food security even more challenging. The fertile land outside cities available and used earlier for food cultivation, livestock and dairy farming is now increasingly been converted into housing sectors. As consequence, rural agriculture sector has got immense pressure to produce and provide food to huge numbers of urban settlers. Kitchen gardening has traditionally been the central feature of households and a source of fresh vegetables and fruits. Houses were often had a garden space in the backyard for kitchen gardening that has completely been abandoned due to population and housing pressure.

Cash Crops replacing Food Crops: With the introduction of so called Green Revolution agriculture technologies in the country, agriculture has become a rich-men business. While poor farmers are failing to meet the increased cost of agricultural production and are suffering economic losses; the rich-ones and opportunist investors have replaced food crops with cash crops such as cotton, sugarcane, Kinoo, tobacco, banana, etc.

Gender Role and Discrimination: Women are involved from three dimensions of food security, i.e., production, availability and accessibility. At household level, women play a decisive role in food security, dietary diversity and children’s health. Pakistani women remain involved in various stages of food production not only in family farms but also in others farms in the village. Because of their responsibilities of fetching water, collecting fodder, firewood and crop residue, grazing animals, and collecting plants and herbs for either own use or to sell as food or medicine, they remain closely associated with natural resources and therefore have better knowledge about them.

It has been observed that with the introduction of green revolution technologies and heavy farm machinery i.e. tractor, harvester, thresher, etc., women participation in agricultural activities have consistently been limiting and food insecurity at the rural level is linked with change in gender roles in agriculture. Given women’s crucial role in food production and provision, strategies for sustainable food security must address their limited access to productive resources including access to land, assets and financial resources.
Degradation of Ecology: Due to local interventions i.e. use of chemicals in agriculture, deforestation and industrial pollution, and natural disorders i.e. climate change and global warming, the ecosystems of the country have been effected negatively. As a consequence, cultivable land in consistently decreasing and weathers are consistently changing that have an impact on food production.
Food Sovereignty being compromised: The major food sector is currently being controlled by the multinational/national corporate sector i.e. Monsanto, Engro, etc. and the market forces. The government has repeatedly failed to protect right of its peoples to produce, distribute and consume food for themselves, rather than on the demands of markets and corporations.
Politics in Food: Lastly, the food has remained a subject of politics as well. At many instances, surplus food remained available in one corner of the country but poor people were allowed to die of hunger at other corner at the same time. Similarly, it has also been reported repeatedly in the media that a bulk of food was exported by the government and vested groups despite food insecurity prevailing in the country.

Source: scoop.co.nz