Are micro leaves the next super vegetable?

Israeli company 2BFresh believes that the mix of a positive nutrient profile, functionality and increased availability mean micro greens are set to be the brand new super meals at the block. Micro greens (or micro leaves) are young sprouts of seeds grown from a lot of fit for human consumption plants harvested 7-20 days after the seedling emerges.

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According to Avner Shohet, CEO and Co-Owner of 2BFresh, part of Teshuva Agricultural Projects, at this point in the vegetation life-cycle micro greens have the very best share of nutrients and minerals to weight. As crops age this ratio decreases, Shohet instructed FoodNavigator during a visit to one of the vital corporate’s greenhouse amenities in Israel, which quilt 1.6 hectares. Small but sturdy 2BFresh cited 2015 research finding micro lettuce to be

“significantly richer in minerals including iron, manganese, zinc, selenium and molybdenum. Further studies confirmed similar results in the mineral content of micro broccoli and spinach.” “

These products are so healthy, they really should be more accessible,” said Shohet.

“Micro greens are a premium product and more importantly they are healthy.”

2BFresh is operating to make bigger availability of microgreens and build awareness of the properties of young crops.

Stevia may help to control blood sugar

The recent studies have suggested that the natural, no-calorie sweetener can help to control blood sugar levels, although exactly how it achieves this has been unclear – until now. Study co-author Koenraad Philippaert, of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at KU Leuven in Belgium, and colleagues say that their findings could open the door to new treatments for type 2 diabetes.

The plant-based sweetener is generally considered safe for people with diabetes in moderation, and previous research has indicated that stevia may even help to control blood sugar levels.

The mechanisms underlying stevia’s positive effect on blood sugar levels have, however, not been well-understood. The new study from Philippaert and colleagues aimed to shed some light.

In experiments involving cell cultures, the researchers found that stevia activates TRPM5, which is a protein important for the perception of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes.

“The taste sensation is made even stronger by the stevia component steviol, which stimulates TRPM5. This explains the extremely sweet flavour of stevia as well as its bitter aftertaste,” notes Philippaert.

Furthermore, TRPM5 prompts the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin after food intake. This helps to regulate blood sugar levels and prevents the development of type2 diabetes.

Type2 diabetes is a condition whereby the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or the body is unable to effectively use the hormone. An unhealthful diet is a common cause of type2 diabetes.

However, when the high-fat diet was supplemented with a daily dose of stevioside – an active component of stevia – the researchers found that the rodents did not develop type 2 diabetes. This was not the case for mice that lacked the TRPM5 protein.

“This indicates that the protection against abnormally high blood sugar levels and diabetes is due to the stimulation of TRPM5 with stevia components,” says study co-author Prof Rudi Vennekens, also of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at KU Leuven.

The researchers say that their findings may lead to new strategies to treat or even prevent type2 diabetes, although they caution that more research is required before that becomes a reality.

“This is fundamental research, and there is still a long way to go before we can think of new treatments for diabetes,” says Philippaert. “For one thing, the dosages that the mice received are much higher than the amount of stevioside found in beverages and other products for human consumption.”

“Further research is necessary in order to show if our findings readily apply to humans. All this means [is] that new treatments for diabetes will not be for the very near future.”

Feeding the growth of the food and beverage industry

[tds_info]Feeding the growth of the food and beverage industry: The UK food and drink industry faces challenges that will reshape the future of a sector which is fundamental to the economy[/tds_info]


The development of the UK’s food system since the Second World War is in many ways a story of unqualified success. Policies in the post-war decades to increase production and liberalise trade have meant the vast majority of the population can access high-quality, low-cost and safe food at a time and a place that suits them. 

[tds_council]In the process, the sector has developed into a key pillar of the UK’s economy. Food and drink is the country’s largest manufacturing sector accounting for 16 per cent of total manufacturing turnover and providing employment for more than 400,000 people, according to the Food and Drink Federation (FDF).[/tds_council]

The food industry is seen as having huge potential for future growth. The FDF is five years into a plan to grow the manufacturing sector by 20 per cent up to 2020, while analysts at IGD forecast the UK grocery retail market will reach £203 billion by 2019, up more than 16 per cent from 2014. 


Perhaps more than in any other post-war era, the past ten years have seen a fundamental reshaping of the food industry as changes in consumer demand, the rapid adoption of new technologies, and emerging social and environmental challenges have placed fresh demands on businesses operating across the entire supply chain. 

These changes have arguably been felt most acutely in the retail sector where the growth of online shopping, in particular, has forced supermarkets to rethink business models built around large bricks-and-mortar estates. With IGD predicting online to be the fastest-growing grocery channel between 2014 and 2019, competition is set to remain fierce, even more so following the recent arrival of Amazon into the online grocery space. 

The hegemony of the big supermarkets has also been threatened by the emergence of discount grocers, most notably Aldi and Lidl, whose popularity has soared as consumers are attracted by their keen prices, tight ranges and good-quality produce. 

02 Rapid growth of discount grocers Lidl and Aldi have forced the Big Four supermarkets into an ongoing price war
Rapid growth of discount grocers Lidl and Aldi have forced the Big Four supermarkets into an ongoing price war

The growth of the discounters has resulted in the waging of a seemingly perpetual price war between UK grocery retailers that has had a knock-on effect along the supply chain with margins squeezed and even well-known brands facing the threat of delisting. 

A number of British manufacturers have sought to strengthen their balance sheets either through acquisitions or by inviting inward investment from countries such as China. Others have looked to spread their risk by building a successful export business with entrepreneurial companies such as Innocent, Dorset Cereals and Ella’s Kitchen enjoying growing demand for their products overseas. 

[ads-quote-center cite=’agrinfobank’]There has been consolidation too in the wholesale sector with major players like Booker acquiring smaller rivals in a bid to achieve greater economies of scale and provide better deals to independent retailers.[/ads-quote-center]

The indies have themselves responded to the rapid expansion into the convenience sector of the big supermarkets by widening their ranges and introducing in-store services such as parcel collection. 

The UK foodservice sector, meanwhile, is changing out of all recognition as disruptive players such as Just Eat and Deliveroo remove some of the barriers to eating out and in the process drive significant growth in the sector. 

how manufacturers feel about the future


Farmers continue to feel the pressure from volatile commodity prices, particularly in dairy, where British producers are increasingly exposed to global market forces. One response from farmers has been to develop their own added-value products thus allowing them to achieve a greater margin. The UK’s decision to leave the European Union means farmers face an even more uncertain future while they wait to learn how subsidy payments currently received from the EU will be replaced, if at all. 

In our dynamic, fast-growing food sector, a number of challenges have emerged that threaten the future sustainability of the food system. The relatively low cost of food has contributed to a situation where UK households throw away seven million tonnes of food every year, according to the Love Food Hate Waste campaign. Smarter packaging, which extends the shelf life of produce, offers one potential solution, but businesses agree that real progress on food waste will require collaborative action throughout the entire supply chain. 

[tds_warning]Consumption habits will need to change if we are to leave behind the legacy of a healthy, sustainable food system for future generations[/tds_warning]

A health time bomb has emerged in the form of the billion-plus people worldwide categorised as obese as a consequence of more sedentary lifestyles and a shift in Western diets towards more nutrient dense convenience foods. In the UK, the government considers the situation so serious it has set out plans to introduce a tax on sugary soft drinks to help curb consumption. 

where growth will come from

Awareness is also growing of the environmental impact of food production, with negative externalities ranging from the high greenhouse gas emissions involved in meat production to the effect on soil fertility of modern intensive farming methods. As well as technological fixes, such as the development of new precision farming methods aimed at maximising the use of scarce natural resources, there is a growing acknowledgment that consumption habits will need to change if we are to leave behind the legacy of a healthy, sustainable food system for future generations. 

All of this means that, both by design and by necessity, the food systems of the future will look very different from those of the past and the present. 

Linking food and energy to save water

Linking food and energy to save water: The interdependence of water, energy and food resources requires co-ordinated policies and improved management

The United Nations forecasts that almost half the world’s population will be living in high water stress areas by 2030, while it has become increasingly apparent water management cannot be looked at in isolation as changes in one system affect others. 

Lisa Walker, chief executive of Ecosphere+, explains: “Essentially, it’s about competition for natural capital – animals and crops, water to feed them, as well as water for bio or hydro energy, mining, oil and gas production, agriculture and cities. The amount of water on Earth has always remained the same, but increasing population has raised demand for food and energy hugely, and both are thirsty.” 

A case in point is food consumption. Land, water, and energy are needed to produce food and, as food requirements increase, so does demand for these factors. Food production doesn’t merely stress its immediate environment; globally traded food is packaged, shipped, flown and delivered to the consumer, and these hidden environmental costs must be factored in to the choices we make as producers and consumers. 

Globally, the role of rainforests cannot be forgotten as they are responsible for 65 per cent of rainfall. The Amazon evaporates eight trillion tonnes of water vapour into the atmosphere each year. This “water pump” sustains $1 billion to $3 billion a year in rain-fed agriculture. It also flows south on a jet stream and feeds one of the world’s biggest breadbaskets, the La Plata Basin of Brazil and Argentina, with rain, while some even reaches the United States and Europe. Hydropower provides 70 per cent of Brazil’s energy, sourced from the Amazon’s rivers. High rates of deforestation are disrupting this flow. 

As Rabi Mohtar, of the World Water Council’s board of governors, says: “The land, water and energy footprint, as well as air, water and soil qualities, are issues that must be quantified and carefully managed to have a food system that is sustainable over time.” He warns: “Due to the inherent interconnections between them, a risk to one of these resources will impact the others.” 

cracked desert ground with grass
Rates of desertification and drought have skyrocketed

Agriculture already consumes two-thirds of the world’s freshwater resources, while one quarter of global energy use is within food production and supply. Hydropower alone is the biggest supplier of renewable energy and provided more than 16 per cent of the world’s electricity in 2016. Rates of desertification and drought have skyrocketed to the tune of 12 million hectares of arable land annually. 

Action is being taken. Large organisations are looking at vertical integration in the supply chain in a number of different ways, from the implementation of new processes to new technologies. Unilever, for example, is encouraging intercropping for its tea farmers, maximising the use of land and providing diversification for farmers. Smart agriculture is becoming a major buzzword and the widespread implementation is laying groundwork for entirely new approaches. 

Addressing losses in water, energy and food is the first step towards their effective management

Mohsen Mohseninia, vice president of market development in Europe at Aeris, says: “Sensors can help collect data about the entire ecosystem in real time, while helping companies offset the environmental footprint of our food. The possibilities that such technologies offer are endless. Data can be captured on anything from the changing amounts of rainfall, to the amount of petrol used transporting goods, to the condition of livestock or crops. This real-time data can be used to better understand how this nexus operates and more importantly understand the impact of people’s decisions.” 

There is no doubt that actions are being taken, ranging from increasing support, to fighting deforestation, to changing management of commodity supply chains. The Paris Agreement on climate change includes the REDD+ mechanism to help reduce deforestation and degradation, development of carbon pricing at the “micro-transaction” which can be scaled up into large sums, and the development of new processes and technologies; these will all provide part of the solution to the challenge. 

However, as Dr Feja Lesniewska, from the School of Law at SOAS, says: “All positive incentives could be cancelled out by climate change response measures that are not in harmony with WEF [water-energy-food] systems thinking. For instance, expanding monocultural plantations for bioenergy crops could reduce the availability of land suitable for agricultural purposes, especially in developing countries, as well as place further stresses on fresh water. Although interventions may be geographically specific, they can often have transnational ramifications that threaten other regional ecosystems WEF resilience.” 

Managing waste is one of the most important ways in which we can address these systemic challenges. In the UK, we throw away around half our food, import more than half our water in goods and energy efficiency is relatively low throughout the economy. Addressing losses in water, energy and food is the first step towards their effective management, while more education about the interconnectedness of these systems should help drive action. 

Many governments are beginning to take the interconnected nature of systems into account, but it’s a slow process. The role of business in sustainable development is vital and the UN’s sustainable development goals have provided a strategic framework for companies leading the charge. 

Gary Davis, president of Ecometrica, points out: “We can drive change through behaviour. Consumers can change their habits quickly and companies take notice of that. Companies get a competitive edge [by greening their supply chain], but it’s always important for governments to come in behind, reinforce actions and put in place a regulatory framework.” 

Mr Mohtar concludes: “Enabling policy coherence must be a priority for addressing and resolving nexus issues. This involves adjusting current practices – business as usual – to allow better communication and co-ordination across agencies that manage water-energy-food resources. Policies for any one of the WEF sectors must also consider its impact upon other sectors.” 

Let’s Look Health Benefits of Pineapple

By Samavia Amjad*, Mujahid Ali**, Tehseen Ashraf**

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Horticulture is the branch of agriculture dealing with delicious fruits. It is an art of growing plants like fruits, vegetables, flowers etc. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management and garden design its construction and maintenance. Horticulturist apply their skills and technologies to grow plants used for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs or requirements. They cultivate the plants with the aim of improving plant growth, yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistant to diseases, insects etc. Horticulturist worked as growers, gardeners, designer in the section of horticulture. Food science is indirectly related with horticulture. Pineapple is the major horticultural fruit. Christopher Columbus brought pineapples back to Europe after a hike to South America. Pineapples became known as a lavish fruit. Today pineapple can be easily found in any store or in any market around the world. In South America, pineapple is not only valued for its sweet taste, it has been used for centuries to treat digestion problems and inflammation. Now we discuss about the benefits of pineapple, consuming fruits and vegetables of all kind has long been associated with a reduced risk of many lifestyle-related health conditions. Pineapple decreases the risk of obesity, diabetes, and heart diseases. It also promotes complexion and hair, increased energy and caused the healthy weight loss. Pineapple’s possible benefits are: Age-related macular degeneration; a higher intake of pineapple reduced or decreased the risk or any progression of macular degeneration. Asthma prevention; the risks for developing asthma are lower in people who consume a high amount of certain nutrients and one of these is beta-carotene, and this one is found in pineapple. Blood pressure; increasing potassium intake by consuming high potassium fruits and vegetables could lower the blood pressure, so pineapple is a fruit which contain high potassium. Cancer; pineapple is an excellent source of antioxidant i.e. vitamin C, pineapple cure cancer by preventing the formation of free radicals. High fiber intakes from all fruits and vegetables are associated with a lowers risk of colorectal cancer. Digestion; pineapple because of their fiber and water content, help to prevent constipation and promote regularity and a healthy digestive tract.  Fertility; because free radicals damage the reproductive system, foods with high antioxidant activity like pineapples are recommended for those who trying to conceive. Antioxidants in pineapple have properties that affect both male and female fertility. Healing and inflammation; Bromelain an enzyme found in pineapple, can reduce swelling, bruising, healing time, and pain associated with injury and surgical intervention. Bromelain is being used to treat and reduced inflammation from tendinitis, sprains, strains, and other minor muscle injuries as well as swelling related to ear, nose, and throat surgeries or trauma. Heart health; fiber, potassium and vitamin C all support heart health. High potassium intakes are also associated with a reduced risk of stroke, protection against loss of muscle mass, preservation of bone mineral density and reduction in the formation of kidney stone. Skin; vitamin C present in pineapple, can help to fight skin damage caused by the sun and pollution, reduced wrinkles and improve general skin texture. Treats cough and cold; pineapple helps in preventing and treating respiratory illness, while eliminating phlegm and mucus from your body if you’ve already contracted an illness or infection. The immune system boosting property of Vitamin C is well known, but the special enzyme, bromelain, is also connected with the reduction of phlegm and mucus build up in the respiratory tracts and sinus cavities. Improves bone health; although pineapple is not famous for having strong calcium content, which most people immediately associate with bone health, it does have an impressive amount of manganese. Manganese is another trace mineral essential for the strengthening of bones, as well as their growth and repair. It is the most prominent mineral in pineapple, and a single serving can provide you with more important sensory organ of the human body and pineapple can improve eye health and prevent other age-related eye diseases. Macular degeneration affects many elderly people, and beta-carotene present in pineapple can help delay this vision problem. Improves blood circulation; in a related benefit to the vasodilating potential of potassium, pineapple also provides the body with copper, another essential mineral that functions in several enzymatic reactions and compounds in the body, copper is a necessary element for the formation of healthy red blood cells. High red blood cells count increases oxygenation to the various organ systems and make them function at optimal levels. It also increases cognitive abilities and can maintain neural pathways to prevent neural disorders like dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Improves oral health; along with the antioxidant compounds that protect against oral cancer, pineapple also has astringent properties, which strengthen gums and teeth. Astringent agents tighten up tissues and tone the body so that tooth loss, hair loss, muscle weakness and skin loosening do not occur. Pineapple is a very powerful astringent and is often prescribed as a natural remedy to fix the loosening of teeth or for the retraction of gums. Treats arthritis; pineapple can reduce the inflammation of joints and muscles, particularly those associated with arthritis, a debilitating disease that affects millions of people around the world. Boost immunity; pineapple helps in reducing illness and boosting the immune system by stimulating the activity of white blood cells and acting as an antioxidant to defend against the harmful effect of free radicals.

Nutritional Aspects of Sugar Beet

(Kubra Fatima*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. M. Irfan Ashraf***)

(IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS; ***Horticulture, UAF)

Allah Almighty has blessed us with many blessings, one such blessing includes fruits and vegetables and among these is the sugar beet with is basically our concerned topic. Sugar beet is very important commercial food plant. Sugar beet is botanically called Beta vulgaris, in Urdu called “Chokandar”. It belongs to family Amaranthaceae. In North America, it is just called beet. Its leaves are called green beet. We eat its root (tuber) portion. Its internal color is dark red to purple-red. It is also consumed as fresh in salad, boiled, steamed or in pickle form. It is used to extract sugar in different countries of the world on a commercial level. Leading producers of sugar beet are Russia, France, United States, Germany, and Turkey. It is also grown widely in Pakistan. It is a very use full and beneficial food are a plant. It is also used to produce sugar. Nutritionally, sugar beet is very important. It provides many health benefits to us. It meets the water requirement of our body as it provides about 75% water. Many types of essential vitamins and minerals are obtained by eating sugar beet. It also detoxifies the blood by removing the harmful bacteria and other such substances which contaminated our blood. The vitamins and minerals present in it also help in clearing the skin of humans. It removes the blemishes from the skin and control acne and makes the skin fresh. Moreover, it contains many antioxidants which help in weight loss. It is an excellent food for the persons on diet. It is basically a balanced diet. Sugar extracted from the sugar beet has to use as an alternate for the common sugar. It provides the body which uniforms proportion of sugar. The pulp of sugar beet contains many compounds which besides human beings provides cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and pectin. These compounds are used in the animal feed. The feed of animals containing these compounds having an excellent proportion of nutrients. It is also greatly acceptable by the animals too.

Sugar obtained from the sugar beet contains a large quantity of sucrose which is a carbohydrate area and best alternate of glucose as well. It contains about 99.95 percent of sucrose. It is widely several appetizers are made as it provides excellent carb for appetizing. It is red-purple in color and his very low fats and calories in it. This basically makes a sugar beet fat reducing diet. As discussed earlier the sugar obtained from beetroot.

Whenever we eat the sugar beet with chicken or any other seafood or meat product. It provides the body with many proteins, which are the building blocks of enzymes and amino acids. We obtain vitamin C from the sugar beet. And consuming is sugar beet a day meet the needs of vitamin C which we need on daily basis 6% calcium in our body. It presents the body Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Tocopherol, Vitamin K, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B-12 and pantothenic and so, by eating a sugar beet we can be saved from the deficiency diseases caused by them. It consists of 0 % cholesterol and serves as the best diet for the human body. It also helps to meet the water requirement needs of the body. If we eat one sugar beet then it will provide 119 g of water to our body. Besides, macro-nutrients, sugar beet also contains micro-nutrients in a very large quantity. It includes zinc, manganese, copper, and boron. These help in the prevention of many deficiency diseases.

It is also very useful against the cardiovascular health. As it contains unique anti-oxidant pigments in the root and upper green parts it helps in the pretention against artery diseases and strokes. It has low cholesterol in it. It also lowers the cholesterol levels in the blood too.

It is also a rich source of phytochemical compound ‘glycine-betaine’. This chemical is associated with the property to lower homocysteine is the highly toxic metabolite and it promotes the formation platelets which in turn are used in the blood clotting during any trauma or surgeries etc. they are an excellent source of folates too. As they are necessary for DNA formation. If folates are deficient in the body, it will lead to the defective formation of the neural tube in the body. It provides the body with potassium. Potassium lowers the heart rate and regulates the metabolism of the body. That was all about the nutritional value of sugar beet.

Wake Forest University has researched out that becomes a cause of oxygenation of the brain to improve brain memory and help in decreasing dementia. It contains alpha-lipoic acid that is a good antioxidant, so it helps in prevention of diabetes. It improves digestion due to fiber contents. Chronic inflammation is recovered by sugar beet as choline. Athletic people eat it as it has the capacity for more oxygenation, so they feel comfortable during hard exercise. But its improper storage can be harmful as nitrites are produced in this way. Its juice can cause urine to red color, so we should use it in balance with other food.

Interesting Facts about Date-Plum

(By Ayesha Khurshid*, Dr. Ghulam Mueen-un-din*, Mujahid Ali**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Date plum is commonly known as “Lilic persimmon” or “Caucasian persimmon” and interestingly known as “Divine fruit”. In Persian, it is called Khormaloo. Date palm scientifically known as Diospyros lotus is the oldest plant in cultivation. Its taste is between Date fruit and plum fruit. It belongs to genus Diospyros. Date plum belongs to family Ebenaceae. It is among oldest fruits mentioned in the history, date back to the time of civilization date plum holds many literary references. Homer the author of the Greek epic poem’ ’The Odyssey” describe this fruit as the god of the fruits according to Greeks.

By the old ages, Greeks date plum referred to wheat of Zeus because this was worshiped for its divinity because diospyros lotus means divine fruit. It is cultivated for purposeful uses. Date plum is also called natural candies. It is highly considered for its flavor across the world.

In Afghanistan and Pakistan, it is considered as delicacies fruit. But it is not very common in is eaten as just any other fruit. It is broadly grown in the colder region. Except for use as the raw material is added to many other dishes .it is used as a core component in various dishes.

It is also used to bring a delicious taste to the pallet as a catalyst. By treating it with lemon and sugar, it can be used in is used widely in bakeries for making of cakes and pies. For breakfast, it is added to cereal oats and granolas. Fruits leather is made by use of drying of date plum. The wood of date plum is hard and strong and due to its strengths, it is used in the construction of houses and building.

Date plum is highly anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and helps the body without any toxicity. It helps to prevent brain cancer tumor in head and neck because of the presence of the anti-cancerous substance, it also helps in major healing and fighting asthma and lungs infection it is highly used in curing fever anxiety stress and diarrhea due to its medical importance. unrepented may cause the health hazard.

Persimmons are native of date plums to for east region as China Korea Japan and the Himalayan region. Its native species are also found in western Asia like Pakistan Afghanistan eastern Europe and in Mediterranean region, Turkey, Greece, and banks of the black sea are the fertile lands for cultivation of date plum. It grew abundantly in these regions and these regions are also known as footprints of date plum.

Because of the popularity of in the world this fruit, it is also grown in India and the West Bengal is fertile land for date ward off evil spirits and evil at bay branches of this tree was used and considered the magical power of the branch.

Its ripening season is from January through February and spring season. It can be grown 600 m above sea level. In the chilly Himalayan region, they grow in the thick woody forest at an elevation of 2500 to 6000 feet it grows in deep soil and within the light shade of sun in the dry warm and sheltered places it grows best because it has a low tolerance of wetlands.

These fruits don’t depend on pollination, so also the known as off spring of dioecious seed. And because of male and female parts in the same plant. method of germination is the common propagating method of date plum seedling are germinating in the soil and required six months to bud from the soil. This method is applying during the early days of the year when the temperature is 15 centigrade. In short, the date plum is not very common but have a significant role in history and our daily life.

Holistic Health Benefits of Mango

(By Sidra Bashir*, Mujahid Ali**, Tehseen Ashraf**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Mango is called “King of Fruits” because of it is most delicious fruit in the world. All kind and age of people like it. It is much sweet in taste. Pakistan is also a big producer and exporter of mango. The mango is an oval-shaped, creamy, juicy and fleshy tropical fruit, a drupe or stone fruit, which has a characteristic outer fleshy part surrounding a shell (pit or stone) with a seed inside. Coconuts, cherries, plums, peaches, olives, and dates are also drupes. The mango is the fruit of a large evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and sub evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and subtropics. Mangoes can vary in skin color from green to red or yellow to orange, but the inner flesh of the mango is typically golden yellow. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, as well as the national tree of Bangladesh, the mango fruit, and its leaves, are used ritually to decorate religious ceremonies, community festivals and celebrations as well as weddings. Mango is known as the king of fruits. The mango tree can grow to great height anywhere from sixty-five to hundred feet tall. They can also live for extended periods of time. There are lots of recopies that are made by mango. There are lots of varieties of mangoes and each variety has its own taste. Pakistan’s mangoes are the best and tasty mangoes, but their export is not so high due sap burn injury. But a lot of efforts are done to manage or to control that injury. Mango’s tree is erect and evergreen.

Mangoes popularity grew and grew so that, today, mangoes presently hold the honor of being named the most commonly consumed fruit in the world. In India, giving someone a basket of mangoes is considered an act of friendship. In short, mangoes are beloved fruits that are also nutritional powerhouses as containing a lot of energy. Mango Nutrition Facts Belonging to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae and known by the scientific name Mangifera indica L., mangoes are filled with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants. One cup of diced mango contains the 100 calories 28 grams of carbohydrates 3 grams of fiber 0.8 grams of protein, vitamins A, E, K, B6, and Potassium. It has also a fair amount of Vitamin C, also provide calcium; iron; magnesium; and powerful antioxidants such as zeaxanthin, quercetin, astragalin, and beta-carotene. Following is a list of some salient benefits of mango fruit. Mango juices and shake is very famous in Pakistan.

  1. More recently, mango consumption has been connected for lessening of blood sugar among obese adults. Although it did not produce weight loss, regular consumption of mango did have a positive effect on their blood glucose. Meanwhile, other studies indicate blood sugar management with mango consumption as a well glycemic control.
  2. Mangoes are a food rich in magnesium and potassium as well as low in sodium, they are another natural way to lower blood pressure which is “the silent killer,” high blood pressure affects approximately 70 million of American adults, which is nearly one in every three adults, while only about half of those have their blood pressure under control.
  3. One of the great brain foods, mangoes are packed with vitamin B6, which is essential for maintaining the health of the human brain. “Vitamin B6” and other “B vitamins” are crucial for preserving healthy brain neurotransmitters and help in supporting a healthy mood as well as healthy sleep patterns.
  4. Mangoes contain the antioxidant “zeaxanthin”. “Zeaxanthin” works to filter out harmful blue light rays, thereby playing a vital role in eye health as well as probably protecting against age-related macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States.
  5. Mangoes contain good levels of bone-building vitamin K, and a vitamin K deficiency has been linked to a higher risk of bone fracture. Vitamin K is also important for proper calcium absorption. Mangoes also provide calcium, which is a major bone nutrient.
  6. Mangoes contain high amounts of pectin, a soluble fiber that can help naturally lower cholesterol level in the blood. Add that to the low sodium levels as well as high potassium and B vitamins, and together, they can help lower the risk for heart disease. Heart disease is a major killer and leading cause of death for both women and men in the world
  7. Mangoes are high in pectin, which not only helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood but can also guard against prostate cancer. A compound within pectin combines with galectin 3, a protein that plays a strong part in all stages of cancer.

Additionally, high dietary intakes of beta-carotene of which mangoes contain a lot can help protect against prostate cancer. Mangoes may also be beneficial for fighting breast cancer. Although research is still in the early stages, mangoes may be a helpful part of natural cancer treatment protocol.

  1. Mangoes are also rich in iron and may be part of the answer for the millions of people worldwide who are iron deficient. In fact, an iron deficiency can lead to becoming anemic, since iron deficiency is the most common feature of anemia. If any per suffer from anemia, then he starts eating more mangoes and other iron-packed foods.
  2. No one wants to show signs of aging especially before their time and mangoes can help slow the process of natural aging due to their high amounts of vitamins A and C, which help produce collagen proteins within the body. Collagen is known to help slow down the skin’s natural aging process by protecting blood vessels and bodily connective tissue.
  3. Your immune system is your body’s first line of defense against unwanted invaders and has everything to do with keeping you healthy. It is a rich source of beta-carotene, which also helps bolster a healthy immune system. Likewise, extra beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A inside the body, and vitamin A can help you to fight free radicals that can damage your body and health.
  4. An average-sized mango can have up to 40 percent of your daily requirement for fiber, and fiber offers many health benefits, including acting as a natural remedy for constipation.
  5. People who consume certain nutrients such as beta-carotene can lower their risk of developing asthma. As you’ll recall from the mango nutrition lineup, mangoes are chock full of beta-carotene and thus can act as an asthma natural remedy. But eating too much mango can also be health hazardous, so we should eat mango in balanced amount.

Historical view of Apricot

(By Sehrish Fatima*, Mujahid Ali**, Ammara Ainee*)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

A consumer today is more likely to inclined towards the neutraceuticals (a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient) rich foods. In order to quench free radicals and reactive oxygen species produced in biological systems, there are external sources via diet are required to meet bodily requirements. Apricot is prominent among stone fruits due to significant functional potentials. It has a lot of rich nutritional content in terms of crude fiber, fibers, proteins, sugars, minerals, vitamins, A, B, C and K and organic acids i.e. malic acids and citric acids. It has a lot of phenolic and flavonoids which turn it into more likely to be a functional food. In Gilgit Baltistan, it is considered to be the most charming source of income among stone fruits and has the highest market share. It has important uses in folk medicines as a cure for cold, fever, cough.

Apricot was known, appeared and cultivated back to as approximately as 2000 B.C. in states of China and Central Asia. Country trade men who traveled across `Great Silk Road`, migrated apricot along with them. The apricot fruit was presented before Persia by the merchants of China who was a Botanist, Berthold Laufer suggests apricot to Persians. They named it as` Yellow Palm` (ZARDALOO). It was popularized across the Eurasian Steppe, throughout by tribes who are horseback riding nomadic people.

Apricot, member of a rose family, whose companions include plum, cherry, peach, almond is scientifically known as `Prunus armeniaca` which is a mark from a land from where it has emerged as a fruit. By the Romans in first century A.D. when they came to know about it designated it as practicum, `the precious one`.

It was then indicated to them that fruit sprouting comes and appeared in early summer. Hurricane, tornados, strong winds, or frosts are dangerous sources for injury of the apricot tree. This soft and fleshy fruit remained appealing and favorite to Royals and Aristocrats. The beauty of apricots has been a captivating source for writing poetry for many poets like an English writer Ruskin, who portrayed it as `shinning in a sweet brightness of golden velvet`. This luxurious food travels from Central Asia to the Middle East by conquering Arabs. Apricot was stretched from Tus in Northeast Persia to their capital in Baghdad by ruling caliphs of vast Islamic empire between Gulf to Sicily in between A.D. 750 and 1258.

Al- barqouoq `apricot in Arabic` has a lot of dishes made by prevailing chefs of courts, adopted in a lot of Islamic Dominions. To boost up their meat dishes, Arabs from Persians picked up the technique of adding tangy fruits i.e. cherries and apricots. Apricot was exploited by Arabs to soothes their buds by sugary confections. The medieval syrup in which apricot juice is blended with sweet almonds was a pioneer of fruit drinks later hawked by vendors or sold in cafes in the middle east. It also beautifies repertoire of Arabic desserts.

Apricot complemented its relative i.e. almond or almond paste. Pureed apricots were often perfumed with either rose or orange blossom water with topped pistachios or almonds. It came across all of the Islamic dominions. It became famous in Spain, Syria, Damascus. In the Middle East to preserve its whole years produce it was conserved in form of paste and then sun-dried. Today paste is being proceeded by Mohamed el- Shalati, owner of Damascus company. Egyptians like to eat dried apricots. In England during 17th-century apricot oil is used as treatment as herbalism. Apricot was brought to English colonies in the new world by English people in the 17th century. In 2005 leading producer was Turkey followed by Iran, Italy, Pakistan, France, Algeria, Spain, Morocco, Japan, Syria. Now a day they are popular in Egypt and Iran, but production in united states is low. Iran, Uzbekistan, and Algeria are major producers.

Apricot is much delicious fruit. It is consumed both fresh, processed and dried. Considering above mentioned benefits, we should eat it in its season. Present trends in nutrition sciences have curved people more likely to consume fruits and vegetables to make up their nutritional needs and maintain a healthy life. Fruits are important tool and junction of health-promoting ingredients. So, fruits should be consumed in ample amounts to cure a lot of chronic diseases and to neutralize harmful effects on the body.

Hidden Health Benefits of Peas

(By Rida Yasmen*, H. M. Kashif**, Mujahid Ali***)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UAF; **Horticulture, UOS)

It is very rare that some plants keep both human and plants healthy, that is pea. A rich source of protein and adds nitrogen in soil for crops and this nitrogen is in organic farm. That is why plant growth and development effect positively. It is often called that vegetables are poor in protein, but peas provide rich source for it. Doctors often say “Health will become better by using natural food”.

The peas whose scientific name is Pisum sativum is an annual plant which have a life cycle of about one year. Pea is a cool season crop. Which is grown in many parts of the world and planting occurs from winter to early summer depending on location the immature peas are used as vegetable fresh frozen or canned. It is cooked with different mixed vegetables and fish.

Peas are used in varieties of ways like peas soup. matter pannier matter pillow peas are very use full vegetable provide a lot of benefits as notional point of view and used in medicines. Peas are stretchy but high in fiber, protein, vitamin A, vitamin B6, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc.

Dry weight about is about one quarter protein and one quarter sugar a lot of people think so that peas are just a poor man’s meat are a cheap restaurant site dish that just putts ‘’green’’’ on your plate. But this is not true because peas are little power house of nutrition that provide energy and boost to all the people. Peas are greatly beneficial for over health peas help in weight management peas are low fat but high very thing.

One cup of peas has less than 100 calories but infect lots of protein fiber and micro nutrients it helps to prevent stomach cancer because peas contain high amounts of health protective polyphone called coumostrol, which prevent stomach cancer. Peas help in strong immune system and high emery due to high level of anti-oxidant like flavonoids carotenoid, phenolic acid peas reduce the risk of wrinkles Alzheimer’s arthritis, bronchitis, osteoporosis and Candida due to peas strong and inflammatory properties.

The result of excess of inflammation may lead to heart disease cancer and aging peas contain anti-inflammatory poly nutrient. Peas also contain omega 3 fat in the form of alpha linolenic acid. Peas maintain blood sugar regulation due to high fiber which slow and protein slow down how fast sugar are digested. The anti oxidants and anti inflammatory present in peas prevent insulin resistance which is type 2 diabetes.

The very important and major health benefits provided by are peas that prevent heart disease which are leading hazardous issue of today’s world again the anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory compound supports healthy blood vessels. The formation of plaque along our blood vessel. The walls start with chronic excessive oxidative stress and inflammation peas contain generous amount of vitamin B1 and floated b2, b3 and b6 which reduce homocysteine levels which are the risk factor for heart disease.

Peas are healthy for environment like for nitrogen fixation form the air and deposit in the soil. So by doing this reduces the need for artificial fertile because the main ingredient is nitrogen. After the harvesting of Peas, the remain in plant is easily breakdown to create more organic fertilizers for the soil.

Peas can prevent constipation due to high fiber content which improve bowel health an and peristalsis. Peas maintain healthy bone. One cup of peas contains 44% of vitamin k which helps to anchor calcium inside the bone. Last but not the least pea reduces bad cholesterol because of nicking in peas which reduce the production of triglycerides which result in less bad cholesterol and lowered triglyceride. Natural food is more beneficial than the artificial one, so they were the interesting health befits of peas so eat and enjoy good health.

There are also some more and fantastic health benefits of peas which will really prove useful for fighting against more dangerous disease. Peas are such a natural food that provides us too many benefits .peas are considered as primary protein source. Peas are super food that is not only delicious but bring many benefits to our body .peas can be considered as protein group because contains high amount of protein. Peas are also high in foliate and vitamin B12 vit is said that ½ cup of peas serving contains 7g of fiber and most of fiber is insoluble.

Peas help to treat against celiac disease. The person suffering from this disease should not consume such kind of food which contains gluten and for these people the best source to get protein and fiber is peas because peas are gluten free. And gluten is present in wheat

Peas also contain high amount of vitamin c which can prevent skin damage by consumption of pea’s everyday keep the skin healthy as well as make it glow. Peas can combat aging. peas contain high antioxidant which neutralize the effect of free radicals which are main culprit in ageing process. Peas help to prevent anemic. Peas contain some amount of iron that promote red blood cells production and thus maintain normal blood function and prevent anemia.

Peas also maintain healthy nerve function because these contain potassium and magnesium which are important for muscle and nerve function. Peas also promote healthy eyes due to rich in vitamin A and beta carton that are beneficial in keeping healthy eyes and normal eyesight. Likewise there are too much health benefits of peas just like help to repair broken tissue maintain healthy hair prevent scurvy and treat chilblains due to the high amount of nutrient that it contains and prevent us away from these dangerous and life threading disease so Peas are natural beneficial food product for us.