East or west, Pakistani mangoes are the best

Muzammil Ferozi 

KARACHI: Mango is called “The King of Fruit,” one of the most nutritious, not to mention delicious as Pakistani Mangoes are high in fiber, low in calories and contain a small amount of carbohydrates, calcium, iron, potassium and a little protein and are rich in vitamins, A, B and C containing other antioxidant vitamins as well. It is one of the sweetest fruit in the world.

Sub-continent is the habitat of mango, where it has been growing for over 4,000 years and subsequently has spread to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mangoes have been produced in Pakistan for well over two thousand years, and the country is now the forth largest producer in the world

Among 1595 varieties of mangoes known, only 25 to 30 are being grown on commercial scale. The varieties of the king of the fruit are producing in Pakistan include Chaunsa, Sindhri, Langra, Dasehri, Anwar Ratool, Saroli, Samar Bahisht, Toota Pari, Fajri, Neelum, Alphanso, Almas, Sanwal, Surkha, Sunera and Desi.

Chaunsa mango of Pakistan is one of the worlds’ top available varieties. Chaunsa is a variety of mango grown in different parts of the world, but originally from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan in Punjab. It is an exceptionally sweet mango with a wonderful fragrance and delicious soft, succulent flesh with only the minimum of fibre. it is not a fruit of beauty, usually being of a pale, matt yellow appearance, but one inside the thin peel it is a delight. Chausna has quite a thick stone and the flesh is a fairly light yellow in colour. It’s origin from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan Punjab.

Sindhri is a Leading variety of Sindh. Its shape ovalish long, size large, skin colour lemon yellow when ripe, pulp colour yellowish cadium, texture fine and firm fibreless, stone medium sized, flavour pleasantly aromatic and taste sweet. It’s origin from Mir Pur Khas. It is also the national fruit of Pakistan because this variety is top in Pakistan. Sindhri is very famous mango variety from Pakistan and Among the Best Mangoes of the World.

Langra mango’s flesh is fiber-less, yellowish brown in color and has a strong smell when it ripens. As compared to other varieties of mangoes, it is naturally verysugary and soft. The size of the seed is small and oval in shape. Langra maintains it green color after it gets ripe, while other mangoes change into yellow-reddish color.

Dasheri mango is long and oval shaped, with a light green or yellow-green skin when mature, becoming golden yellow when ripe. Dasheri mangoes have a fiberless, peach-colored flesh with a medium-sized stone. The flavor is very sweet and aromatic. Dasheri mangoes are high in vitamin C and fiber. Mangoes naturally contain enzymes beneficial for digestion as well as many other valuable vitamins and minerals.

Anwar Ratool, mango is said to have been cultivated by Anwar-ul-haq in a garden in the Ratol area in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. But now it is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Anwar Ratole Mango is recognized for its rich flavor all around the globe. Owing to its superb taste it has gained most popularity in recent times. It has an exceptional sweet taste that makes the tasting buds so refreshing. It is the best variety of mango in terms of sweetness and flavor that distinguishes it from all the other mangoes. Its peak season starts from the mid of July and ends in August. This mango is fully loaded with nutritional values that provides sufficient amount of energy. It is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Its peak season is from mid-July to August.

Saroli, A popular variety in North India and Pakistan. It’s one of the first mangoes to appear during the season. Sweet green mangos are aromatic and rich in fragrance. It is a rich source of vitamins, potassium, phenol and iron, and looks so tempting and tastes so yummy.

Samar Bahisht is a local selection; a change seedling in Fajri plantation in village “Chaunsa” by a farmer Mir Khan Bahadur Altaf Rasul very popular late season mango. It is planted in Multan, Mirpurkhas, Tarnab (DIK) Foliage medium dense, shape ovate to oval oblong, color light green at maturity, yellow at ripening, sinus weak, conspicuous, flesh pale yellow,medium juicy, sweet, flavor rich, distinctive, aromatic, fibers medium.

The Totapuri mango is a cultivar that is widely grown in South India and is partially cultivated in Sri Lanka. … Totapuri is one of the main cultivars grown in India for mango pulp, along with ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Kesar’. The tree is medium size with greenish yellow fruits.

Fajri , it is origion from Behar, it was created by a woman the name is after her, the skin is pale and the pulp is fibreless, Fajri is also known for its sweet taste and exceptional texture.

Neelam mango grows in many areas of Pakistan. The more famous Pakistani varieties are from the Sindh region, it is also very famous in Indian mangoes varieties. Noticeable with its distinctive lovely fragrance, Neelam is available throughout the season but the tastiest ones come in only by June with the monsoons. They are tiny in comparison to other varieties and have yellow-orange skin.

Alphanso, it is very sweet and different from others. This type of mango does not grow out of seed. It is planted through artificial propagation. It is a mid season variety and is harvested in July.

Desi mangoes, Since indigenous desi mangoes varieties are not as popular as the commercial ones like Chaunsa and Dussehri, growers are fast switching over to economically profitable varieties. This does not bode well for already threatened ‘desi’ varieties. It’s the cheapest mango and hardly known in the market, even though some of them are much easier to grow as compared to the commercial varieties. Most of the times, they grow out of discarded seeds. But, most of these mangoes remain confined to orchards as they are not popular.

The main mango growing districts in the Punjab province are Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzzaffargarh and Rahim yar Khan. In the province of Sindh it mainly grows in Mir pur Khas, Hyderabad and Thatta and in the province of NWFP D.I Khan, Peshawar and Mardan are known for it.

Mango is the second most exported fruit from Pakistan mainly to Middle East, Iran, Germany, Japan, China and Hong Kong making its valuable contribution as an important foreign currency earning fruit crop. Pakistan is now the 4th largest producer in the world behind India, China, Mexico and Thailand.

Mango is the second largest fruit crop of Pakistan. At present it has grown on an area of 170.1000 thousand hectares with production of 1.8 million tones. Only in Punjab province, there are mango gardens on 271,700 acres of land and they are producing 70% mangoes of total production, Sindh produces 24% and KPK produces 1% of total production, which seems to be reducing this year, the second major fruit crop of Pakistan produces 8.5% of world’s Mango. The climate earlier than that of Punjab has given the province the privilege to grow early varieties of Mango.

According to Waheed Ahmed Chairman All Pakistan Fruit and Vegetable Exporters Importers and Merchant Association (PFVA) that in the past few years the production of quality Mangoes is on the decrease due to global warming and government is not taking any imitative to tackle the problem.

Moreover he told that Pakistan’s horticulture has been badly hit by global warming and extreme weather, and a major casualty this season has been the Mango crop in Punjab. Mango output has also been affected in south Punjab where fruit plants are in Rahim Yar Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan. However, the crop in Sindh is comparatively less affected and only a 10% reduction is likely in its share of 35% in the country’s total Mango output. In southern Sindh, Mango production has not been a viable business over the years due to harsh weather.

According to a senior official of the Agriculture Department, this year March surprisingly turned to be cold like January or February. Later the dust storms and sudden increase in temperature affected the fruit. “Farmers are worried, as they will hardly be able to recover cost,” he feared.

In addition he told that the Soil and climatic environment in Pakistan support Mango production in terms of capitulate and quality. Number of factors contributes towards low production of Mango. Unchecked use of unhealthy seeds forming diseased seedlings, Insect attack (Mango mealy bug, fruit fly, Mango weevil, scales, mites), improper management practices during budding or grafting, time of irrigation, pruning and time of application of fertilizers are contributing substantially to the downfall of the industry. Adding to the ever increasing problems are the post harvest losses contributing almost 40% to 50%.

. Pakistan is riding on the wave of taking more than 2 lakh mangoes to different parts of the world this year due to negligence mangoes shipment have been cancelled last year.

Since Pakistan’s last year mango production was reported to be 1.7 million tonne with two-third and one-third share of Punjab and Sindh respectively.

In addition to major crop losses, bad luck awaited Pakistan at another front. A Pakistani Mango consignment of 4.5 tonnes was rejected last year in Amsterdam after discovering fruit fly in the fruit, making the first such instance last year. The EU had already made it clear last year that more than five rejections will mean a complete ban on Pakistani fruit and vegetable imports in the European markets.

To promote and introduce mangoes Three-day annual mango show is arranged by Agriculture Department in RAHIM YAR KHAN and besides this National Mango and Summer Fruits Festival is also arranged every year at the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Exhibition Hall in Mirpurkhas.

Approximately 1% of Mango production is utilized for processing for juice, nectars, preserves, fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp, and as flavoring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc.

Holistic Health Benefits of Mango

(By Sidra Bashir*, Mujahid Ali**, Tehseen Ashraf**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Mango is called “King of Fruits” because of it is most delicious fruit in the world. All kind and age of people like it. It is much sweet in taste. Pakistan is also a big producer and exporter of mango. The mango is an oval-shaped, creamy, juicy and fleshy tropical fruit, a drupe or stone fruit, which has a characteristic outer fleshy part surrounding a shell (pit or stone) with a seed inside. Coconuts, cherries, plums, peaches, olives, and dates are also drupes. The mango is the fruit of a large evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and sub evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and subtropics. Mangoes can vary in skin color from green to red or yellow to orange, but the inner flesh of the mango is typically golden yellow. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, as well as the national tree of Bangladesh, the mango fruit, and its leaves, are used ritually to decorate religious ceremonies, community festivals and celebrations as well as weddings. Mango is known as the king of fruits. The mango tree can grow to great height anywhere from sixty-five to hundred feet tall. They can also live for extended periods of time. There are lots of recopies that are made by mango. There are lots of varieties of mangoes and each variety has its own taste. Pakistan’s mangoes are the best and tasty mangoes, but their export is not so high due sap burn injury. But a lot of efforts are done to manage or to control that injury. Mango’s tree is erect and evergreen.

Mangoes popularity grew and grew so that, today, mangoes presently hold the honor of being named the most commonly consumed fruit in the world. In India, giving someone a basket of mangoes is considered an act of friendship. In short, mangoes are beloved fruits that are also nutritional powerhouses as containing a lot of energy. Mango Nutrition Facts Belonging to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae and known by the scientific name Mangifera indica L., mangoes are filled with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants. One cup of diced mango contains the 100 calories 28 grams of carbohydrates 3 grams of fiber 0.8 grams of protein, vitamins A, E, K, B6, and Potassium. It has also a fair amount of Vitamin C, also provide calcium; iron; magnesium; and powerful antioxidants such as zeaxanthin, quercetin, astragalin, and beta-carotene. Following is a list of some salient benefits of mango fruit. Mango juices and shake is very famous in Pakistan.

  1. More recently, mango consumption has been connected for lessening of blood sugar among obese adults. Although it did not produce weight loss, regular consumption of mango did have a positive effect on their blood glucose. Meanwhile, other studies indicate blood sugar management with mango consumption as a well glycemic control.
  2. Mangoes are a food rich in magnesium and potassium as well as low in sodium, they are another natural way to lower blood pressure which is “the silent killer,” high blood pressure affects approximately 70 million of American adults, which is nearly one in every three adults, while only about half of those have their blood pressure under control.
  3. One of the great brain foods, mangoes are packed with vitamin B6, which is essential for maintaining the health of the human brain. “Vitamin B6” and other “B vitamins” are crucial for preserving healthy brain neurotransmitters and help in supporting a healthy mood as well as healthy sleep patterns.
  4. Mangoes contain the antioxidant “zeaxanthin”. “Zeaxanthin” works to filter out harmful blue light rays, thereby playing a vital role in eye health as well as probably protecting against age-related macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States.
  5. Mangoes contain good levels of bone-building vitamin K, and a vitamin K deficiency has been linked to a higher risk of bone fracture. Vitamin K is also important for proper calcium absorption. Mangoes also provide calcium, which is a major bone nutrient.
  6. Mangoes contain high amounts of pectin, a soluble fiber that can help naturally lower cholesterol level in the blood. Add that to the low sodium levels as well as high potassium and B vitamins, and together, they can help lower the risk for heart disease. Heart disease is a major killer and leading cause of death for both women and men in the world
  7. Mangoes are high in pectin, which not only helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood but can also guard against prostate cancer. A compound within pectin combines with galectin 3, a protein that plays a strong part in all stages of cancer.

Additionally, high dietary intakes of beta-carotene of which mangoes contain a lot can help protect against prostate cancer. Mangoes may also be beneficial for fighting breast cancer. Although research is still in the early stages, mangoes may be a helpful part of natural cancer treatment protocol.

  1. Mangoes are also rich in iron and may be part of the answer for the millions of people worldwide who are iron deficient. In fact, an iron deficiency can lead to becoming anemic, since iron deficiency is the most common feature of anemia. If any per suffer from anemia, then he starts eating more mangoes and other iron-packed foods.
  2. No one wants to show signs of aging especially before their time and mangoes can help slow the process of natural aging due to their high amounts of vitamins A and C, which help produce collagen proteins within the body. Collagen is known to help slow down the skin’s natural aging process by protecting blood vessels and bodily connective tissue.
  3. Your immune system is your body’s first line of defense against unwanted invaders and has everything to do with keeping you healthy. It is a rich source of beta-carotene, which also helps bolster a healthy immune system. Likewise, extra beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A inside the body, and vitamin A can help you to fight free radicals that can damage your body and health.
  4. An average-sized mango can have up to 40 percent of your daily requirement for fiber, and fiber offers many health benefits, including acting as a natural remedy for constipation.
  5. People who consume certain nutrients such as beta-carotene can lower their risk of developing asthma. As you’ll recall from the mango nutrition lineup, mangoes are chock full of beta-carotene and thus can act as an asthma natural remedy. But eating too much mango can also be health hazardous, so we should eat mango in balanced amount.

Hidden Health Treasures of Pomegranate

                     (By Mahnoor Khalid*, Umm-e-Habiba*, Mujahid Ali**)

            (*Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Pomegranate is one of the world’s oldest known fruit and has long been considered a symbol of health and fertility. Pomegranates have been a popular fruit in the Middle East, Asia, and India throughout history but in recent have become very popular in other regions of the world, China is now one of the largest producers of this beneficial fruit and it is famous also because of their many health benefits and outstanding nutritional value. It is also one of the most beneficial fruit to consume. After splitting apart the pomegranate’s tough outer layer complex chamber of red seeds lies in it. These small seeds are the only part of the pomegranate that is edible, but a numerous study proves their nutritional value is considerably greater than what you might expect.

Research indicates that pomegranates reduce artherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) which is the leading cause of heart disease and cancer the two very common chronic diseases in Pakistan. Pomegranate inhibits many forms of cancer, especially the prostate, breast, lung, and skin cancer. A 2012 study reports that cytotoxic activities of pomegranate extract are used for the treatment of prostate cell line by induction of apoptosis. A 2014 study published in Molecular Carcinogenesis highlights the anti-proliferative effects of pomegranate extract in breast cancer cells. According to a study published in experimental dermatology in June 2009, pomegranate juice and oils can protect our skin from solar radiations, thereby help to guard us against skin cancer associated with excessive sun exposure. The results from the researchers show that the anthocyanin and tannins present in pomegranate provide effective antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. These same properties also provide anti-aging benefits and can protect us from the degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and rheumatoid arthritis.

A study published in the journal of inflammation in January 2009 found that pomegranate juice can inhibit the inflammatory activity of the excess mast cells. (Mast cells are the cells present naturally in the body and play an important protective role but can become an aggressive inflammatory force when imbalanced). The researcher’s results proved to pomegranates concentrations of naturally occurring antioxidants.

Studies have shown that the regular intake of pomegranates and pomegranate juice can reduce LDL cholesterol in both animals and humans. A study featured in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2000, discovered that pomegranate juice help to inhibit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in humans. Excess LDL cholesterol is one of the biggest sources of coronary heart diseases, which is the most common type of heart disease in the united states.

By keeping our blood pressure in control has been found to reduce the chance of heart attack and stroke. UK’s Express, researchers at “Queen Margaret University in Edinburg found that people who consume 500ml of pomegranate juice every day for four weeks had unsaturated fatty acids in a lower quantity which are commonly linked to the storage of abdominal fat. A 2011 study published in complementary therapies in clinical practices tells us that pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces blood pressure.

Pomegranate that stimulates estrogen and serotonin receptors in the body, thereby boosting our mood and reducing feelings of sadness and depression than why many people feel better after eating a pomegranate, there’s a good reason, researchers even suggest that long-term consumption of pomegranates and pomegranate products could regulate serotonin level in the brain and can treat low moods caused by chemical imbalances.

Pomegranates are surprisingly rich in nutrients. In fact, their seeds contain more fiber and minerals than many other more popular fruits. A 100g serving of pomegranate seed provides 18.7g carbohydrates,13.67g sugars,1.17g fat,11g dietary fiber and 1.67g of protein. For example, one whole pomegranate contains about 11grams of dietary fiber (this is twice the amount of fiber of an average sized banana) 29 milligrams of vitamin C and 46 micrograms of vitamin K. In all three instances, these numbers average at about 50% of our daily intake recommendation. Iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium (a powerful mineral that optimizes the nervous system, regulates metabolism and maintains healthy kidney function), folate, manganese, selenium, and zinc are other nutrients found in this nutritious fruit. The pomegranate is also a reliable source of omega-6 fatty acids.

Like all other fruits, pomegranates are best for health benefits when eaten raw. While purchasing them, select organic pomegranates that you feel heavy for their size and have unblemished skin. These are the best quality pomegranates and they can be refrigerated for up to two months without affecting their nutritional value.

Medicinal Importance of Guava

(M. Modassar Ali*, Dr. Tusneem Kausar*, Mujahid Ali**)

(*Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Industrialization has prompted numerous adjustments in the way of life of the world’s populace, offering ascend to expand the files of a few illnesses, including ceaseless degenerative maladies, for example, insulin protection, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, metabolic disorder and cardiovascular infections, lessening the personal satisfaction and expanding costs of hospitalizations, prescriptions, and other general wellbeing intercessions. Guava are regular tropical natural products developed and delighted in numerous tropical and subtropical districts. Psidium guajava (normal guava, lemon guava) is a little tree in the Myrtle family (Myrtaceae), local to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Albeit related species may likewise be called guavas, they have a place with different animal varieties or genera, for example, the “pineapple guava” Acca sellowiana. In 2011, India was the biggest maker of guavas. The principal constituents of guava are vitamins, tannins, phenolic mixes, flavonoids, basic oils, sesquiterpene alcohols and triterpenoid acids. These and different mixes are identified with numerous wellbeing impacts of guava. A few creators have discovered high groupings of carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin), vitamin C and polyphenols in guava mash. Lycopene has been connected with the counteractive action of cardiovascular harm in view of its constructive outcomes on dyslipidemia. Ascorbic corrosive is perceived for its imperative cell reinforcement impacts. Psidium guajava is one of such restorative plants having a place with the family Myrtaceae that is likewise utilized as a wellspring of sustenance. P. guajava has a rich ethno-restorative history. Distinctive parts of the plant are utilized as a part of different indigenous frameworks of pharmaceutical, basically for the treatment of gastrointestinal issue (Begum et al., 2002; Jaiarj et al., 1999). A portion of the ethno-therapeutic uses incorporates the devastating of the leaves and the utilization of the fluids turning out from them on wounds, cuts, ulcers, bubbles, skin and delicate tissue irresistible site, rheumatic spots (Aliyu, 2006). All parts of this tree, including organic products, leaves, bark, and roots, have been utilized for treating stomachache and looseness of the bowels in numerous nations. Leaves, mash and seeds are utilized to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal scatters, and as an antispasmodic, calming, as a hack soothing, against diarrheic, in the administration of hypertension, weight and in the control of diabetes mellitus. It additionally has anticancer properties. The seeds are utilized as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, hostile to unfavorably susceptible and against cancer-causing movement. Guava bark is utilized restoratively as an astringent and to treat loose bowels in kids, while the blossoms have been utilized to treat bronchitis and blemishes and to cool the body. The organic product has been utilized as a tonic and diuretic, and for treatment of draining gums. The plant is utilized as a part of Africa and Asia to anticipate and treat scurvy; it additionally is utilized to treat hypertension in the focal level of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Ethno-therapeutic reports record utilization of the plant in treating jungle fever (Begum et al., 2002; Belemtougri et al., 2006). The youthful leaves of the plant have been utilized as a tonic to regard stomach related conditions, for example, cholera and looseness of the bowels in Brazil and Mexico. Flow Mexican restorative information record the treatment of intense looseness of the bowels, tooting, and gastric agony by utilizing a guava leaf water decoction for oral organization 3 times day by day. A decoction of youthful leaves and shoots is recommended as a febrifuge and a spasmolytic. In Bolivia and Egypt, guava leaves are utilized to treat hack and aspiratory maladies. Youthful guava leaves are utilized to treat hack in India, and in China, the leaves are utilized as a calming and haemostatic operator (Jaiarj et al., 1999; Begum et al., 2002). Guava leaf separate has pain relieving, mitigating, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and cancer prevention agent exercises. These impacts are presumably because of the nearness of phenolic mixes. The guava has numerous little seeds with maroon or white mash. The guava seeds are palatable. The guava is stacked with cancer prevention agents, fundamental unsaturated fats, iodine and different supplements. The skin and seed of the guava have carotenoids, flavonoid, glycosides and phenolic mixes. It has additionally got anti-infection and calming impacts. It is exceedingly prescribed that guava seeds must expand with entire guava (counting skin and tissue). No one but seeds could cause issue in stomach. The guava seeds and natural products help to bring down the hypertension as it is rich in potassium. Guava seeds are successful in curing obstruction with its stimulant purgative impact. It helps in processing since guava seeds are an incredible wellspring of dietary fiber. As the guava seeds have the polyunsaturated unsaturated fats keeps up the cholesterol levels. As the seeds are stacked with fiber, it keeps the bile retention in the digestive organs. The liver create bile salts to cover the loss of bile. The cholesterol in the circulatory system is brought down as the body delivers the bile salts by expanding the creation of LDL receptors. The guava mash wipes out the development of tumor cells. It has lycopene in the high sum which faces the prostate tumor. It additionally keeps the advancement of bosom disease cells. The disease is controlled and counteracted by the cancer prevention agent which protects the body from free radicals. Concentrates give the counter malignancy impacts on hematological and strong neoplasms. Fiber is vital for bringing down glucose levels. In the meantime, it is useful for purifying the stomach related framework and keeping up free defecation. Guava mash is rich in filaments. The more your framework remains clean, the more joyful you will be from inside. Guavas contain a mineral known as folate. It advances fruitfulness in people.

There is parcel of others medical advantages like Guavas contain the following component copper which is great for keeping up the great working of the thyroid organ. Guavas are rich in manganese which causes the body to ingest other key supplements from the nourishment that we eat. Guava is rich in magnesium which goes about as an anxious relaxant. It unwinds muscles and nerves of the body. It keeps your cerebrum capacities positive by keeping up great bloodstream and furthermore by imbuing it with Vit B3 and Vit B6. Guava can help weight reduction as it adequately avoids or backs off the ingestion of sugar in the blood. With its extravagance in fiber, guava is a brilliant common body chemical. Guava Juice goes about as an antibacterial operator. Guava has an ability to a therapist and gets any open tissues in your body. Guava juice is a viable solution for treat dengue fever. It is prescribed to drink the guava squeeze no less than three times in a day for viable outcomes. Guava natural product juice is an astringent that can give you moment help from a toothache and mouth and gum bruises. Guava can enhance cerebrum work since it enhances dissemination in your body. Since it contains abnormal amounts of potassium, it helps in directing pulse. It has been accounted for that this mineral can help in turning around the impacts of over the top sodium in the body. Guava has an essential part to play in skincare since it possesses large amounts of vitamin C, cancer prevention agents, and carotene, which are all advantageous for your skin. Pink guava helps in decorating your skin, along these lines empowering it to recapture its brilliance and freshness. Pink guavas contain double the measure of lycopene show in tomatoes. Pakistan is famous for guava production. Guava is the fourth most important fruit crop in Pakistan.

Historical View of Pumpkin

                   (By Rabia Mazhar*, Dr. Farzana Siddique*, Mujahid Ali**, Amber Mazhar*)

(*Food Science and Nutrition, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

As we know that in our everyday life, vegetables are an important source in our daily meals. But no one of us thinks about that from where these vegetables come from? From where they were first grown.  There are many vegetables growing enormously in the world, but we only talk about the pumpkin. History tells important and interesting facts about vegetables. Following the history of Pumpkin is derived from different historical books. Prophit Muhammad (SAW) liked Kaddu (a kind of pumpkin). Pumpkin was first originated in Central America about 5500 B.C. this word pumpkin is derived from a Greek word “Pepon”. The oldest evidence about pumpkin was found in Mexico between 7000 and 5500 BC. Pumpkins are used as vegetable many years before it was also used as Jack-o-laterals’. If we talk about that Jack-o-lanterns that we came to know the tale of the “Sting Jack”. Stingy Jack was a very naughty person who always plays tricks with his friends, family, and all the people related to them. One day, the devil arrived, he got scared and climb up a tree. When the devil climbs up a tree, he gets down from the apple tree and makes crosses. around the tree trunk. Devil was entrapped in that tree and was not able to climb down. So Stingy Jack takes a promise from Devil Not to take away his life. So, Devil promises him, and Jack removes that crosses. Now the Devil went away without taking his life. After few years Jack died, as he spent a miserable life on Earth, so he was not allowed to enter in heaven. Now he was sent to Hell, and in hell, Devil was there. Devil fulfills his promise and does not allow the Jack to enter. At that time Devil gave an ember to Jack and Jack was having a turnip with him. Because it was his favorite, so he always kept one with him. So, when the devil gave him ember from hell, he hollows that turnip and put that ember into it. He starts roaming the Earth without any place to stay at. A turnip was small, so pumpkin was used to make Jack-o-lanterns. Pumpkins are heat-loving plants and they are not grown in a cool climate. Columbus was known to take pumpkin seeds to Europe, but as Europe is a cool place so pumpkin not grows there properly. If we talk about the early origins of pumpkins than we know that it belongs to “cucurbitaceous family”. In cucurbitaceous family cucumber, melons, squashes, gourds all were included. They all were considered as fruit, not vegetable. But in this family, the pumpkin was not considered as fruit. Pumpkin was considered as the vegetable because when we cook or bake, it is treated like a vegetable. We are fancy men, pumpkins are same as us, so it is said that every pumpkin in the field must pass through every point of pumpkin history.

A pumpkin seed is also known as pepiter which is the edible seed of a pumpkin or other cultivars of squashes. The pumpkin seed is typically flat and asymmetrical oval. It is light green in color and it has a white outer hull. The seeds are nutrient-rich which have a high content of proteins, dietary fibers, and various other nutrients. Pumpkins are basically the warm season vegetables which are grown in much of the United States. Cultivated pumpkins were believed to be originated in North America. English named it pumpion or pompion, it is a term which dates to 1547. Now pumpkins are grown all over the world with Antarctica being the sole exception the pumpkins are for such a brief period, to display its all of its charming. Plastic models of pumpkins have been crafted in the form of candy containers for young ones. Whenever the pumpkins were grown its spacing and depth must be considered. Vining pumpkins require a minimum of 50 to 100 square feet per hill. Plants seeds are almost one inch deep. Pumpkins are harvested when they are deep solid color and their rind is hard. The earliest known evidence of the cucurbits dates back 8000-10000 years ago. The process to develop pumpkin is agricultural crop domestication, took place over 5000-6500 years in Mesoamerica. Pumpkin as an ingredient in mole dishes is very well known in Spanish as pipan. In Mexico, the pumpkin is used as a snack which is an artisan fashion is referred to as pepitoria. In, Greece, the pumpkins are lightly roasted, salted and then given an Italian descriptive name passatempo. The seeds of pumpkins were ones used as an anthelmintic in traditional medicine by indigenous people of North America to expel tapeworms and other if intestinal parasites. In the United States, it was considered as an antiparasitic until 1863. The seeds of the pumpkin are one of the most efficient vermifuges in the plant kingdom. These seeds are taken by children to whom stronger-action and toxic preparations are unsuitable. The seeds were used in Central America as a medicine for the treatment of nephritis and other urinary problems. There are certain varieties of pumpkins which were used as a tonic to an irritable bladder. It is said that pumpkins were cultivated from Northern Mexico to Argentina and Chile and has spread to Europe, Asia, and Western America. The craving of pumpkins into Jack-o-lanterns is a popular Halloween tradition that originated hundreds of year ago in Ireland.  Halloween is an annual holiday celebrated each year on 31st October. The original Jack-o-lanterns were earned for turnips, potatoes or beets. The immigrants from different countries brought Jack-o-lanterns tradition with them to the United States. They soon found the pumpkins; a natural fruit of America make perfect Jack-o-lanterns. Pumpkins and squash seeds are an excellent source of tryptophan, which is an essential amino acid which helps to produce happy chemicals in the brain. Pumpkins are a versatile and important food worth celebrating. Each year, a multitude of pumpkin recipes pop up in cookbooks, culinary TV shows, and food blogs. I think 17th-century cooks would be proud of our modern kitchen ingenuity. “Those who don’t know history are destined to repeat it”, so when we are eating anything we must know its history that from where it is originated, how it was grown and how it is processed. Now leading producers of pumpkin are China, India, Russian Federation, Ukraine and the United States.

Salient Features of Kiwifruit Cultivation

Ahsan Ramzan, Mujahid Ali, Tehseen Ashraf

(Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha)

Citrus, mango guava, date palm etc. are major fruits cultivated in Pakistan. Kiwi is a minor fruit, its area of production is very low in Pakistan. But nutritional value of kiwi fruit is very high. It is tropical and sub-tropical fruit. Kiwifruit has high medicinal value. Kiwifruit contains a high nutritional value, vitamin A, vitamin E, and potassium. More consumption of kiwi fruit is better for heart patients.

Kiwifruit is also known as Chinese gooseberry and called China miracle. Its botanical name is Actinidia deliciosa and belongs to family actinidiacea. It is native to central China, it is being grown commercially in New Zealand, Italy, USA, Japan, Australia, France, Chile and Spain. Kiwifruit is national fruit of New Zealand. Cultivation of kiwi fruit spread from China to new Zeeland first commercially orchard and then California. In India, the kiwi was first planted in the Lal Bagh Gardens at Bangalore as an ornamental tree. In Pakistan, it is mostly grown in Mansehra for the research project. Kiwifruit is not commercially grown in Pakistan, but it can be grown in Kashmir, Mansehra etc. Kiwifruit vine is not resistant to frost. It cannot be bear very low and very high temperature. The fruits are small, oval and pulp is yellow, green etc. Distinct species exhibits variation in the fruit size, some have large and others have very small size sweet and almost citrus taste with several small seeds that are embedded in the fleshy fruits.

The most favorable conditions for the growing of kiwi fruit is in central China. This plant requires favorable temperature is 22oC to 30oC with humidity for his better fruit. Its fruit normally eats as fresh. The main constituent of the carbohydrates in kiwifruit is starch and sugar. Kiwifruit contains 42 calories, 0.8 g protein, o.4g total fat, 2.1g fiber, 64-milligram vitamin C,3 microgram vitamin A, 0.2 milligram iron per fruit. It contains vitamin A, E and a small amount of potassium. The kiwifruit leaves and branches are boiled in water and liquid is used for the treatment of mange in dogs. The scraped stems of the vine are used as the rope in China and paper has been made from leave and bark. It is used as a tonic for a woman after childbirth and growing children. The fruit is handpicked and use in the home. They are served as in the salad, in fish, fowl and meat dishes and prepared as a cake filling. The fruit is used in bread and various beverages. Only overripe and pored shape fruit is used in ice cream and juice production. Unripe fruit is used for making jams, jelly, and chutney. It is used for health full looking skin. It is used for better sleep. Kiwifruit is mostly used for heart patients and used for lowering blood pressure. It is used to ensure good eyes health. Kiwifruit is used for the excellent way of treating depression. Consumption of kiwifruit is used for treatment as the kidney stone.

It can be grown on a wide range of soil, but deep, rich, well-drained sandy loam soil is best for kiwi production. Kashmiri soil is best for kiwifruit production. Soil pH slightly less than 6.9 results in maximum yield but higher pH up to7.3 effects adversely because of Mn deficiency. It is cultivated through sexual and a-sexual method. In the sexual method, it is cultivated through seed and a- sexual it is cultivated through cutting, budding, grafting, and micropropagation. Kiwifruit is commercially propagated through budding and grafting. This is the most popular and easiest method of propagation. The seedling becomes ready for budding and grafting normally at the end of the first growing season. Its stem diameter is 8-10 mm. The scion wood is collected from the one-year-old shoots for dormant season grafting.

Hard-wood cutting, semi hard-wood cutting, and softwood cutting are used for cutting of nursery plant. If cutting is used for propagation it is treated with 500 ppm Indole butyric acid (IBA) for 15 seconds or treated with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A rooting medium consisting of farmyard manure, soil, sand, leaf compost in the ratio of 1:1:1:1 results in highest rooting in open condition. By cutting if it is treated with chemical 80% cutting are start sprouting and regular watering and cultural practices are given to the cutting give a number of plants. Firstly, cutting is growing in the nursery bed than after one year it is transplanted in the field. The cutting growing season is February to the first week of March or October to November. In layout, it is planted at the distance of row to row 4 meter and plant to plant 6 meters. Kiwifruit flower is very difficult to pollinate because the flower is not very attractive. It is pollinated by honey bees.  Planting time is December to February and the time of planting one male plant and 9 female plants have planted the ratio between the vines for better pollination. Kiwi is deciduous vine and for good fruit production, a male plant is interplanted with the female plant. A rainfall of about 150 cm per year is sufficient. Different varieties of kiwi fruit are Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Tomuri, Monty, Hayward etc.

Pruning and training are important management practices for its reproductive and vegetative growth. The vine grows 2-3 meter every year and overcrowding occur if it is not pruned in summer and winter. It bears heavy fruit if give proper pruning and regular watering for vine growth. Its main aim of training is to establish and maintain the framework of main branches and fruiting arm. Irrigation depends upon the soil, climate, age of vine or temperature etc. Irrigation 10-15 days interval is quite satisfactory for good economic return. Kiwifruit requires much water due to their vigorous vegetative growth. Irrigation is also needed during September and October when the fruit is on initial stage for growing and development. Farmyard manure given before planting of kiwi fruit or at the time of land preparation fertilizer given to the plant at the rate of 0.5 kg mixture of fertilizer and 15 g nitrogen is applied per vine. nitrogen apply vines give proper length or to complete its vegetative growth and the reproductive stage. If proper pruning and training is given to the vine, then we get more yield per vine.

The shelf life of kiwi fruit is maximum 6 months and it can be stored in cool place eight weeks in refrigerators. Without a refrigerator, the shelf life of fruit is 6 months at the temperature of -0.6 to 0C. The kiwifruit is fleshy. It tree takes 4-5 years for bearing and full bearing; its tree age is a 7-8 year. Harvesting period varies from area to area and firstly fruit mature lower altitude and later higher altitude. Because of variation in temperature. Harvesting period November and December. kiwi fruit having 6.2% TSS. Two pickings are done in kiwi fruit and larger berries are harvested firstly and smaller fruit is time harvested later and the fruit is harvested when fruit size increased. On average fruit, yield varies 50-100kg fruit per vines. Fruit weight is 70 g and after harvesting packing in polythene bags, these bags are very useful and maintain fruit shelf life for a longer time. Its packing is done in cardboard boxes and in baskets etc. Different insect, pest, and diseases attack kiwi fruit e.g. boxelder bug, armored scale, crown gall, Armillaria root rot etc. If kiwi fruit protected from insect pest and diseases we should give proper management, insecticide, and pesticide use.

Kiwifruit is also high in folic acid which makes it an ideal fruit to be consumed during pregnancy as folic acid prevent neural tube defect. Only overripe and poor shape fruit is used for flavoring ice cream and commercial juices production etc.in some country they are used sometimes coated with chocolates. So, we should encourage the growth of this minor fruit as Pakistan is blessed with all kind of seasons with plenty of resources.

Salient Features of Jamun Cultivation

Fruit is the oldest form of food known to man. In ancient literature, there is much more reference to the fruits. According to the Holy Quran, fruits like figs, dates, grapes, pomegranates, and olives are gifts. The dried and fresh fruits are the natural food of man. This natural food is called staple food. They contain many essential nutrients in enormous quantities. Consumption of quality nutrients is very important for growth and good health. A man has the quality of judging and feeling to see things that are beneficial for us, for all other living beings. Allah has more blessings on us. Being a human being, among all other creatures, the human is a good creature of God. This creature is called “ASHRAF-UL-MAKHLUKAT”.

It is a worldwide phenomenon that a living organism feeds on another living organism. People will always enjoy good health that subsists in this natural diet. Furthermore, both fresh and dried fruit are not only a staple food but also a good medicine. In several verses, the Holy Quran is one of the reference books that describes the importance of fruit plants used for different purposes. Several verses of the Holy Quran speak of fruits in Paradise, including; fig, pomegranate, grapes, olive, banana, and date. What is mentioned in the Holy Quran and what have been the scientists reached over time, since the Holy Quran is logically governed? However, for many things, we do not know the reasons of the Qur’an, we consider it only as the basis.

For the soft movement of the digestive system, the fiber is very essential that is found in the fruits. Some fruits provide energy to the body because they contain carbohydrates and carbohydrates are the main source of energy.               The fruits have 90-95% of water, which is an important nutrient. Basically, fruits give us a healthy lifestyle in the form of fibers, carbohydrates and micronutrients that help our body function properly. Compared to sugar or sweets, the fruits give more energy, as they contain fructose and natural glucose. Fruits also contain vitamins and minerals that are also very essential for a good and healthy life. Fresh fruit can be used in juices, desserts and delicious desserts. The fruits are easily cooked and digested. In their daily food, there are some healthy and popular fruits that can be consumed like banana, apple, mango, grapefruit, orange, guava, strawberry, papaya, sweet lime, watermelon, melon and jamun, etc. Jamun (Syzygium cumini) is a tropical leaf and dense perennial fruit belonging to the myrtaceae family. Common names for Jamun are Java plum, Black plum, Jambu and Jambolana. It is native to India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Recently, Jaman has achieved an importance as a horticultural crop in the arid area due to its high yield potential and resistant nature. The fruit of jamun has considerable nutritional value. Jamun is a reliable source of iron. It also has proteins, minerals, sugar and pigments, etc. The fruit of jamun has a great medicinal value that controls many diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, kidney stones and polyurea, etc. The maximum number of jamun trees is spread in Pakistan throughout the tropical zone as well as in the subtropical areas and have not yet designed the orchards.              

In a wide range of soil, jamun plant can be grown. However, deep and well-drained soils are recommended for high yield potential. These types of soil also maintain a large amount of moisture, which is best for optimal growth and good fruiting. Jamun can also grow well even under salinity and flood conditions. So, it’s not an economical way to grow jamun on very light, sandy and heavy soils. In tropical and subtropical climates, jamun cultivation is preferred. It can also be grown in lower areas (up to an altitude of 1300 meters) of the Himalayas. At the time of fruit regulation and height, a dry climate is required for the growth of jamun. In subtropical areas, the correct development of its taste, size and color and for the ripening of the fruits, the early rain is beneficial for growth.              

The Eugenia genus is composed of 1,000 species of evergreen trees and shrubs, most of tropical origin. Some of the old-world Eugenia species are now included in the Syzygium genus. It belongs to the myrtaceae family. Many of these species produce edible fruits and some of them have an ornamental and medicinal value. A wild species S. frniticosum with small edible fruits is cultivated as windbreaks. The large evergreen tree has small dark purple fruits with prominent elongated seeds. The fruit is astringent (causing contraction of the body tissue) even when it is mature. A popular fruit is the pink apple or the Gulab-jamun (S. jambos). It is found in southern India and western Bengal. The tree is very ornamental. The fruit is yellow in color, generally tasteless and has a high pectin content               There are lot decent cultivars of jamun having charming characters. A small tree with edible fruits, S. malaccensis (Malay pink apple) found in southern India and S. zeylanica is found in the Western Ghats. And another related fruit found in southern India is the cherry of Suriname (S. uniflora). This small tree is full of aromatic red fruits. In West Bengal and southern India, there is also S. javanicum (water apple). To resist the attack of termites, S. densiflora is used as a scheme in jamun (S. cumini). Under cultivation, there is no specific variety of this fruit. Under the conditions of northern India, the common variety “Ram Jamun” is cultivated. This Ram Jamun variety produces oblong, large, dark violet or bluish black fruits in the full ripening phase. The size of the stone of this variety is small. The fruit ripens in June-July and in both rural and urban markets, the fruits of this variety are common.               Jamun propagation is performed with both methods, such as seed sowing and the vegetative method. Because of the existence of polyembryony, through the seed, it becomes a reality for their parents because there is a polembrian existence. Although the vegetative methods, seed propagation is still preferred and in most cases, has had some success. However, due to the results of the late bearing, seed propagation is not preferred. Latency is not present in the jamun seeds. The seeds for sowing will be fresh and healthy. After 10 or 15 days, the germination will take place. To transplant the seedlings are ready, which can be used as rootstocks in the following monsoons (from August to September) or in spring (from February to March).              

The flowering occurs in populations of seedlings of a year, which have a thickness of 10 -14 mm. The epidemic takes place in July and August, in conditions of little precipitation it will be very effective. The success of budding is demonstrated by Forket and by the methods of the patch and the grass shield. In the middle, the possibility of a better success in the forkert method with respect to the bud shield or “T” has been reported. Jamun can also be widespread inorching. About 60% of the air layers are obtained with 500 ppm of IBA in lanolin paste, provided that the air layers are produced in spring and not in the rainy season. Under intermittent fog, cuttings are obtained in jamun for better rooting. The 20-25 cm long cuts will be taken and treated with 2000 ppm of IBA (butyric indolico acid) and, therefore, the result will be better.Jamun is an evergreen tree and can be planted both in spring and in the monsoon season. Before planting, the field must be plowed and cleaned properly. The holes are dug at a distance of 10 m with a depth of 1x1x1 m.              

The wells should be filled with 75% earth and the remaining 25% well rotten. Approximately 19 kg of manure and 75 kg tree-bearing trees are considered an annual dose during the pre-stimulation period. Normally, the seedlings of the jamun plant begin to develop after 8 or 10 years, while they transplant or flower after 6-7 years of sowing. When the plant shows such a shortage of the required amount of manure and fertilizers that should not be provided, irrigation should be administered in moderation and resistance in September-October and again in February-March.               The application of fertilizers helps the flowering, the formation of the bud of the fruit and the configuration of the fruit. Sometimes, this application of fertilizers and fertilizers may not be effective and there may also be more drastic treatments, such as buzzing and root pruning. A fruit producer should be advised when applying fertilizer and fertilizer to jamun trees and must adjust the dosage based on fruiting and tree growth.              

Jamun trees require frequent irrigation in the initial stages. When the trees are established, the irrigation interval will be 8 to 10 irrigations in a year. In autumn and winter, occasional watering will be applied when the soil is dry. The vegetables are planted as a consociation during the first years of sowing. Regular pruning of the jamun shaft is not necessary. However, in the last few years, crossed branches and dry branches must be eliminated. During plant training, the branches can grow above 60-100 cm above ground level.              

Jamun’s parasites are whiteflies and caterpillar that eat leaves. The whitefly can be controlled by removing all the diseased fruit and destroying it, improving the hygienic conditions around the plant, while the leaves caterpillars can be controlled by spraying 0.1% Malathion or by spraying Rogor 30 EC. In other pests, squirrels and birds like crows and parrots. These pests can be scared by throwing stones or hitting the drums. And of the diseases, the anthracnose attacks the jamun fruit. Bordeaux mixture at a concentration of 4: 4: 50 and 0.2% Dithane Z-78 Spray will control this disease. The ripe fruits will be hand-picked by themselves with shoulder bags climbing up the tree. Care must be taken to avoid damage to the fruit. The average yield is around 80-100 kg per year.              

Jamun is highly perishable in nature. More than 3-4 days, Jamun cannot be stored under normal conditions. Pre-refrigerated fruits packed in polyethylene bags can be stored for 3 weeks at a relative humidity of 85-90% at a temperature of 8-10 °C. The fruit is packaged and sent to the market almost every day. The ripe and healthy fruits are selected for marketing. The sick, damaged and immature fruits should be removed. These selected fruits must be packaged in wooden baskets and sent to the market. By applying the above-mentioned recommendations, we can not only improve our yield and quality but also its shelf life.  

Authors: 
Dr. Zahoor Hussain, Ishfaq Hussain, Mujahid Ali 
(Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha