Stevia and Cancer

According to the 2002 issue of “Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin,” leaves pulled from the plant Stevia rebaudiana have been used for centuries in South America as a sweetener in mate tea. Presently, stevia is rising in popularity in the United States instead sweetening agent. Although the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA

Four steviol compounds, naturally going on molecules derived from stevia leaves, have been tested for attainable anti-cancer results

Dr. Ken Yasukawa

The plant commonly known as Stevia contains steviol glycosides, which are used as sweeteners. If food ingredients, such as sweeteners, are generally recognized as safe (“GRAS”), they do not require FDA approval as a food additive. Based on its review of information and data submitted by industry in GRAS notices submitted to FDA, FDA has not questioned the GRAS status of certain high-purity steviol glycosides for use in food. These high-purity steviol glycosides may be lawfully marketed and added to food products sold in the United States. However, stevia leaf and crude stevia extracts are not considered GRAS and do not have FDA approval for use in food.- https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/fda-basics/has-stevia-been-approved-fda-be-used-sweetener)

does not improve utilization of stevia as a meals additive, apart from in its purest shape, stevia can also be bought as an unregulated nutritional supplement.

Stevia Carcinogenesis

Four steviol compounds, naturally going on molecules derived from stevia leaves, have been tested for attainable anti-cancer results, in step with Dr. Ken Yasukawa within the 2002 factor of “Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. The steviol molecules effectively blocked the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or TPA in mice.

TPA is a potent carcinogen in a position to spurring most cancers expansion. By inhibiting the impact of TPA, extracted molecules from stevia may have an anti-cancer effect. More research is essential.

Genotoxic Effects

Genotoxic studies are essential experiments that focus on the toxicity of certain compounds on DNA integrity. If a compound is extremely genotoxic, or extremely harmful to DNA, that is steadily an indication of the cancer-causing skill of a compound.

According to the 2009 issue of “Food and Chemical Toxicology,” Dr. Lonnie Williams confirmed that rebaudioside A, one of the major compounds in stevia leaves, did not have any genotoxic results, indicating that stevia isn’t likely carcinogenic.

Mutagenicity Studies

According to the 2002 “Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin,” Dr. Tadamasa Terai explains that many of the compounds extracted from stevia leaves don’t showcase mutagenic or genotoxic results that can reason cancer. However, they did practice that one specific stevia compound, stevioside, used to be transformed into every other molecule shape by micro organism in lab rats’ stomachs.

This new compound exhibited mutatgenic results. However, these effects are a ways from conclusive. It is unclear how those findings extrapolate to humans.

Cautions

The safety and most cancers knowledge on stevia is a ways from whole. Although it is largely considered secure, with some limited however possible anti-cancer effects, the information merely do not make stronger any ties to cancer. Furthermore, despite the fact that the present information may not support the presence of dangerous side effects in regard to stevia utilization, this would merely imply that the experiments have not but been performed. Caution is suggested.

Chilli, tomato now not wholesome options for consumers’ pocket

Chilli, tomato now not wholesome options for consumers’ pocket
LAHORE: Prices of tomato and chilli have long gone up manifold within the city within the final couple of months.

Tomatoes were available on a mean rate of Rs24 in step with kg in the corresponding duration in the remaining 12 months but the vegetable fruit is being offered from Rs100 to Rs200 according to kg now.

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Similarly, the costs of green chilli hardly crossed Rs100 within the year 2018. Now, its prices have gone up within the closing one month to Rs400 in step with kg in the native marketplace.

The two greens, in particular green chilies, are seldom noticed on distributors’ carts.

The administration fined many distributors in Sunday Bazaars for now not bringing green chilies on the market at their stalls.

Yasin, who runs a vegetable store in a posh locality, passes the buck for skyrocketing prices of greens, together with tomato and green chilies, on to the auction machine in mandis (wholesale markets).

He said that in the absence of a price ceiling in the markets, arhtis or commission brokers and middlemen were free to promote the commodities at the rates of their very own selection without any let or hindrance, while deficient shops were forced by way of various government departments to promote the merchandize at fixed charges, even underneath than their acquire costs.

“How can we sell a thing bought at Rs100 per kg at Rs80 or even at the purchase price as we have to pay transportation charges, shop rent, electricity charges, etc? Don’t we have families to feed by earning some profit from our day long labour?” he questions.

An official of the agriculture department, which is answerable for ensuring supplies to Sunday bazaars, says that since Punjab does now not produce tomato and inexperienced chili plants presently of the 12 months, those are supplied from Sindh and Balochistan provinces and thus are sold at relatively prime rates right here.
Rain in the remaining four weeks damaged crops and cut off supply routes which led to an atypical building up within the costs, he added.

He said that the prices would no longer go unusually higher prior to now as a result of there was once the choice of uploading them from India via Wagah border. Since the imposition of non-tariff obstacles by either side, and tensions prevailing in the wake of India’s Balakot aggression, provides from India have change into a matter of the previous and the end-sufferer is the patron.

5 Pakistani Vegetables You Must Include In Your Diet

Qadoo ki bhujia, tori ji bhujia, aloo ki bhujia, louki ki bhujia – the checklist is never finishing! a Normal Pakistani household will get its justifiable share of bhujias throughout the week, and the very title sends children working within the different direction. Though the standard bhujia is a quintessential Pakistani dish, we believe that it’s time to shake things up a little bit. Pakistan is blessed with some of the different kinds of vegetables, especially right through the summers. However, we finally end up shedding a large number of the vegetable’s flavor and vitamins by cooking it to a pulp, similar to in a bhujia, and covering its flavor with an endless barrage of spices.

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Instead, why no longer check out different recipes that keep the vegetable in tact and retain their vitamins and nutrients? Keep reading our blogs for different techniques to cook Pakistani greens in the summers – don’t worry, all the ideas are tried and examined on youngsters, and so they devoured them up without once calling any rapid meals chain for backup! But earlier than you starting jotting down recipe ideas, we believe it is vital for you to acquaint your self with the more than a few advantages contained in common summer season greens. This will can help you get a fairly neatly rounded idea about which vegetable is suited towards you or your circle of relatives’s specific needs.

Tomatoes:

Admit it, girls and fellas. You have incessantly tossed apart this innocent little vegetable by taking it without any consideration, without knowing its advantages. Little do you know, these meals are not most effective packed with taste that provides a zing to each dish, but additionally they include a carotenoid (which provides the tomatoes their crimson colour) referred to as lycopene; this permits your skin to be protected from sunburn and different injury from UV rays. In one study, participants who ate 2 1\/3 tablespoons of tomato pulp or paste day-to-day suffered 50 % lesser skin damage and reddening, compared to those that did not. Moreover, cooking a tomato is extra really useful than consuming it raw because the heat causes extra lycopene, diet A and C to be launched.

Zucchini (Tori):

Ever wondered what those inexperienced vegetables are that look a lot like cucumbers and are served with your steaks? Well, they are those toris your ammi has been looking to feed you during your childhood! Expect to look those piled prime for your local sabzi wala’s store between May-July. Always buy zucchini if it has a skinny, smooth skin and is both inexperienced or darkish yellow and resembles a cucumber in dimension. They’re a great supply of nutritional fiber and really low in calories (a median Zucchini comprises most effective 17 energy), so incorporate them into your vitamin if you want to drop some weight or are suffering from constipation. Pregnant girls will have to additionally devour zucchini because it’s full of folic acid, which is a compulsory prenatal diet prescribed by way of the National Health System (NHS) in England. Moreover, studies have proven that zucchini can lend a hand save you asthma, reinforce eye health, balance a Vitamin C deficiency and decrease homocysteine ranges, which is helping lower the risk of contracting center disease.

Eggplant (Baingan):

Your moderate baingan is regularly referred to as the ‘King of Vegetables’ in India because of the sheer multitude of benefits it accommodates. Mix this up on your yogurt or make a scrumptious achari bhurta out of it, because it could actually do wonders for your body! Eggplant has proven skills to reduce pressure, keep watch over diabetes, fortify cardiovascular well being, lower the symptoms of anemia, prevent osteoporosis, make stronger bones, % colon most cancers and protects unborn youngsters from birth defects. Moreover, they contain no saturated fat or ldl cholesterol and are top in dietary fiber, therefore are an excellent aid to fasten your weight reduction routine. Convinced? We concept so!

Cucumbers:

These greens aren’t simply great in your darkish circles; they’re additionally beautiful superb for your body too. Loaded with silica, cucumbers assist your body generate connective tissue, which improves your skin’s elasticity. You may even find zero.five grams of dietary fiber in just one cucumber, which is prime for a vegetable. Just you’ll want to select narrow cucumbers, with company, darkish green skins as this shows their mushy age and therefore their freshness.

Okra (Bhindi):

These greens, continuously known as ‘lady fingers’, are beneficial because they include mucilaginous fiber. What this fancy medical phrases method for you and me is that it helps good move via your large intestine by means of including bulk. This ends up in regularizing your bowl actions, relieving constipation, cramps, bloating and excess gasoline (flatulence). Moreover, it’s loaded in Vitamin A antioxidants, which means it could actually lend a hand your skin heal quicker. For the ladies, this implies quicker disappearance in their zits scars and any indicators of hyperpigmentation, in addition to wrinkles and any harm.
So, the following time you wrinkle your nostril on the signal of greens and opt for fast meals, give those poor issues some other chance and feel the difference for your body! You have our guarantee (and that’s pronouncing so much).

Stop Using White Poison (Sugar)

In Pakistan:

In Pakistan, sugar production is 6 million tones and the consumption is 200,000 tons (USDA Analysis, May, 2017). Sugar is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan after Textile. The estimated per capita consumption of sugar in Pakistan is 25 kg which is highest in Asia comprising China with 11 kg, India with 20 kg and Bangladesh with 10kg per capita consumption.

Disadvantages:

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According to groups of doctors, nutritionist, and biologist, “Sugar is a toxin that disturbs the Body organs, hormonal cycle, as well as, it is the main cause of weak willpower, which are the major problem of our generation, now-a-days” (Mark Batman). Furthermore, major drawbacks of sugar are obesity and metabolic disorders, like diabetes as one third of American, 12.5 million children are obese and in 2011 about 12 million American had the illness. Sugar is one of the major causes of Heart disease and obesity (John, 1972). By combing the two documents from 1950s and 1960s, Researcher from San Francisco and University of California reported that Sugar industries diverting the attention of Sugar consumers away from Heart diseases, fat and cholesterol caused by it, by promoting and sponsoring the researches in favour of sugar.

The major sources of energy for our body are Fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The more palatable and useful carbohydrate is sugar. Sugar is also called childhood alcohol as one third American children are obese. A growing body of scientific evidence is showing that fructose can trigger processes that lead to liver toxicity and a host of other chronic diseases. Robert Lusting said that; ‘Sugar is the alcohol of child, and that’s why children today are getting the diseases of alcohol-type 2 diabetes and fatty liver diseases’

Here the query arises that our ancestors devour sugar however they by no means faced such more or less problems? Simple resolution is that Nature never provide them sugar for entire yr, they consume sugar from fruits which used to be available just for few months, however now, human is in complete access to sugar. Today more than 70% commodities are sugar primarily based. a Large Number Of nations and cities banned the alcohol and tobacco at formative years degree. But nonetheless kids have extra cases of fat, weight problems, liver and middle illnesses why? Because main thing of their vitamin is sugar and sugar based totally commodities. Now-a-days, in many parts of the arena, people are consuming an average of more than 500 calories in keeping with day from sugar alone (‘the global sugar glut’).

Sugar typically reasons the sicknesses associated with Metabolic syndrome i.e. diabetes, hypertension (Todays maximum common in Pakistani new generations), Aging procedure enhancement, it additionally causes toxic results on liver simply as in case of alcohol. The United States spends $65 billion in misplaced productiveness and $150 billion on health-care resources yearly for morbidities related to metabolic syndrome. Seventy-five in step with cent of all US health-care bucks at the moment are spent on treating those diseases and their resultant disabilities. Another research conducted in 2013 together with 175 countries clearly showed that sugar consumption immediately will increase the diabetes risks. The learn about additionally discovered that members who ate up approximately 17 to 21 per cent in their day by day energy within the form of added sugar, had about 38 percent higher possibility of dying from heart problems, when compared to people who were given more or less eight p.c of their general calories from added sugar. Recent and mounting clinical proof clearly proves that sugar — and flour, which raises blood sugar even more than table sugar — is biologically addictive. In reality, it’s up to 8 times extra addictive than cocaine.

Stevia may help to control blood sugar

The recent studies have suggested that the natural, no-calorie sweetener can help to control blood sugar levels, although exactly how it achieves this has been unclear – until now. Study co-author Koenraad Philippaert, of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at KU Leuven in Belgium, and colleagues say that their findings could open the door to new treatments for type 2 diabetes.

The plant-based sweetener is generally considered safe for people with diabetes in moderation, and previous research has indicated that stevia may even help to control blood sugar levels.

The mechanisms underlying stevia’s positive effect on blood sugar levels have, however, not been well-understood. The new study from Philippaert and colleagues aimed to shed some light.

In experiments involving cell cultures, the researchers found that stevia activates TRPM5, which is a protein important for the perception of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes.

“The taste sensation is made even stronger by the stevia component steviol, which stimulates TRPM5. This explains the extremely sweet flavour of stevia as well as its bitter aftertaste,” notes Philippaert.

Furthermore, TRPM5 prompts the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin after food intake. This helps to regulate blood sugar levels and prevents the development of type2 diabetes.

Type2 diabetes is a condition whereby the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or the body is unable to effectively use the hormone. An unhealthful diet is a common cause of type2 diabetes.

However, when the high-fat diet was supplemented with a daily dose of stevioside – an active component of stevia – the researchers found that the rodents did not develop type 2 diabetes. This was not the case for mice that lacked the TRPM5 protein.

“This indicates that the protection against abnormally high blood sugar levels and diabetes is due to the stimulation of TRPM5 with stevia components,” says study co-author Prof Rudi Vennekens, also of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine at KU Leuven.

The researchers say that their findings may lead to new strategies to treat or even prevent type2 diabetes, although they caution that more research is required before that becomes a reality.

“This is fundamental research, and there is still a long way to go before we can think of new treatments for diabetes,” says Philippaert. “For one thing, the dosages that the mice received are much higher than the amount of stevioside found in beverages and other products for human consumption.”

“Further research is necessary in order to show if our findings readily apply to humans. All this means [is] that new treatments for diabetes will not be for the very near future.”

Lemon Balm Benefits

Latin Name: Melissa officinalis

Also Known As

Cure All, Sweet Balm, Sweet Mary, Melissa, Honey Plant

Origin: Southern Europe

Parts Used

Leaves

Traditional Use and Health Benefits

For more than 2,000 years Lemon Balm has been cultivated as a culinary and medicinal plant. Herbalists in the Renaissance period held this herb in high regard for its healing ability, with many attributing to it the potential for a long life when taken every day in elixir form.

People throughout Europe have been using Lemon Balm for centuries as a digestive aid and to calm frazzled nerves. It was traditionally used to treat headaches, migraines, stomach cramps and urinary infections amongst other things.

Lemon Balm Benefits

Digestive Health

Lemon Balm is what’s known as a “carminative herb”, meaning it can relieve stagnant digestion, ease abdominal cramping, and promote the overall digestive process. The volatile oils in Lemon Balm contain chemicals known as “terpenes” that relax muscles and relieve symptoms such as excess gas.

Lemon Balm contains both “choloretics” and “colagogues”, which may also help with liver and gall bladder problems. Bile is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and then released into the small intestine to digest fats. A choloretic stimulates production of bile whilst a colagogue enhances the expulsion of bile from the gall bladder. The primary Lemon Balm constituents in these categories are; caffeic acid, eugenol, chlorogenic acid and P-coumaric acid, which enhance the content of digestive juices thus improving the digestion of food.

For digestive relief, Lemon Balm is best consumed as a tea taken immediately after meals.

Anxiety/Insomnia

Lemon Balm contains the active compound “rosmarinic acid” – an enzyme which effectively increases GABA (gamma amino-butyric acid) in the brain. GABA is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters, used by the brain to prevent over-excitement and attain balance. It is responsible for ensuring that we are not overly stressed and plays a role in sleep cycles. Increasing stimulation of GABA receptors will produce a sedative or calming effect and explains why Lemon Balm works well as an anti-anxiety herb.

The difference between Lemon Balm being an effective anti-anxiety herb and a sleep aid is dosage. It combines extremely well with the herb Valerian, with several studies showing that these two herbs combined can induce a deep and restful night’s sleep.

Neuroprotective

The aforementioned “rosmarinic acid” has also been found to exert neuroprotective effects, helping to protect the cells of the brain thereby potentially slowing down the aging of this all important organ. Researchers in India found that rosmarinic acid reduces free radicals, as well as protecting the nerve cells in the brain from deterioration. Lemon Balm also contains powerful antioxidants such as “eugenol” which intercept free radicals before they can attack brain cells.

Thyroid

Research suggests that the flavonoids, phenolic acids and other compounds found in this versatile herb appear to be responsible for Lemon Balm’s thyroid-regulating actions. Test tube studies have found that Lemon Balm blocks the attachment of antibodies to the thyroid cells that cause Grave’s disease (hyperthyroidism). The brain’s signal to the thyroid (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) is also blocked from further stimulating the excessively active thyroid gland in this disease.

Typical Use

Combines well with Valerian and Chamomile.

Recommended Dosage  Powdered, crushed, cut, or whole: 2 grams per day Infusion: 2 grams in 150 ml of boiling water 1:1 Fluid Extract: 2 ml dose per day  1:5 Tincture: 10 ml dose per day .

Folklore and History

Texts describing Lemon Balm can be found as far back as Ancient Turkey, where it was planted near bee hives to encourage the bees to return home to the hive rather than swarm away. It’s name Melissa officinalis” is derived from the Greek word Melissa, meaning honeybee. In Ancient Greece it was planted and used by the beekeepers of the Temple of Artemis to help keep the sacred honeybees content.

A perfume containing Lemon Balm, known as Carmelite Water, was in high demand in Renaissance times due more to practicality than the need to allure through scent. Carmelite Water helped to cover the stench of unwashed bodies as bathing was considered an “opening” for sinful thoughts due to exposure of naked skin to the eyes of the bather. As most people of that time period only bathed once a year, or in some cases once a lifetime, the need for sweet smelling perfumed waters was very high. Carmelite Water also covered the smell of disease (plague), death (from plagues), and filthy living environments (attributors to plague) so rampant at that period of human history.

The Greek physician Dioscorides used Lemon Balm as a medicinal herb, describing it as useful to treat a disordered state of the nervous system.

Constituents

Citronellal, Triterpenens, Geranial, Neral, Rosmarinic acid, Geraniol, Flavonoids, Polyphenols.

Precautions
Lemon Balm should not be used during pregnancy or lactation.

Due to its anti-thyroid action, Lemon Balm should not be taken by people with thyroid conditions without consulting their healthcare professional.

Lemon Balm should not be taken by people on prescription medication for mental health disorders as it can affect the medication. Please consult your healthcare professional.

Lemon Balm can cause drowsiness and should therefore not be consumed prior to operating machinery or driving.

Nutritional Importance of Citrus

Nutritional Importance of Citrus: Citrus is a very valuable plant with a diverse group of species and its fruit is liked all around the world. Pakistan is a big producer of citrus, especially kinnow. Every kind of age peoples are like its fruit variety and use fresh and in processing industry mainly as juice.

[ads-quote-center cite=’2018-07-28 Department of Horticulture, UOS’]H. M. Bilal, Mujahid Ali, Rohoma Tahir[/ads-quote-center]

Botanically citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae. Plants in this genus produce citrus fruits including vital types of crops such as lime, lemon, kinnow (mandarins), grapefruit, poemlo, oranges (blood red) etc.


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Citrus plants are native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and the Malay Archipelago and they were first domesticated in these areas.

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Citrus are basically large, fleshy, juicy, acidic, and good source of vitamin C. Moreover, citrus does not only contain a large amount of vitamin C but also a rich source of antioxidants, vitamin A, and potassium. Citrus has become an important agricultural product in the Mediterranean Sea, Mexico, and South America. Citrus also contains ascorbic acid which is considered good food for health. One of the best characteristics of the citrus that it has been considered best choices for weight loss program. Generally, citrus fruits are incredible fruits that add additional value to a nutritious diet. Citrus fruits are value able fruits, so we can consume it to overcome micronutrient deficiencies because most people are suffering from obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. Firstly, the citrus fruits wastage was ponded or flushed into the stream, lakes etc. but now the waste is converted into the useful product such as pectin manufacturing, extraction of oil, dried pulp etc. Hence the citrus has been ranked the 2nd worldwide first in Pakistan W.R.T. to its area and production among fruits. Citrus fruits have been long valued for a nutritious diet. The main energy nutrient in citrus is carbohydrate. Fructose, Glucose etc. Citrus fruits contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which is complex with important health benefits. In the body, this polysaccharide holds water-soluble nutrient in a gel which delays emptying and slow digestion and absorption. Potassium also works to maintain the body`s water and acid balance. Some of the nutritional facts about citrus are such as the weight of orange is about (131g), Energy (62kcal), Fiber content (3.1g), Ascorbic acid (70 mg), Folate (40 mcg), Potassium (237). Citrus food may help to reduce the risk of several diseases and disorder such as heart diseases, stroke, cancer, and anemia. Citrus is a good source of fiber, so women should consume of fiber (25 gram) per day and tangerine (1.6 gram) per day. Citrus fruits are hydrating as they contain high water content. Citrus also contains flavonoid plant compound that may promote health. Citrus fruits are used in fruit industry mainly as a gelling agent, thickening agent, and stabilizer. As medicinal values citrus fruits have great importance i.e. against constipation. Diarrhea, Anti-stress, Gastrointestinal problems. Also, in cosmetics products i.e. food flavoring, fragrances in perfume or in the scent industry. People like its fragrance. Also used as insecticides due to the presence of enantiomer. As it is combustible it considers as biofuel. More ever the great benefit of citrus peel has been used in making candies. Dried citrus peel is used in making black tea and simply our home-made tea. Citrus can also enhance meat dishes by putting them in a cavity of the whole chicken before roasting. Moreover, citrus infused vodka being used for an excellent cocktail. Further peels throw in the kindling for making an especially fragrant fire.

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Proceeds from the production or by-products may spell the difference between profit and loss in the citrus canning industry. The three primary by-products of citrus are dried citrus pulp, molasses, and citrus peel oil. The most important utilization of citrus wastes is as stock feed, which consumes large quantities of dried pulp and citrus molasses. Citrus seed oil, alcohol, pectin, bland syrup, and feed yeast have been produced to a lesser extent.

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The term citrus by-product includes numerous by-product feedstuffs which vary according to the originating crop and method of production, that are an important component of ruminant feeding systems in many areas of the world. Citrus fruits are mainly eaten fresh fruit and in processed form as juice. After the juice is extracted from the fruit, there remains a residue comprised of peel (flavedo and albedo), pulp (juice sac residue), rag (membranes and cores) and seeds. These components, either individually or in various combinations, are the source materials from which citrus by-product feedstuffs (BPF) are produced. In India total availability of grape and orange waste is about 2.20 million tonnes.

The fresh citrus pulp waste is palatable to cattle when they are accustomed to the feed and a mature cow can consume about 10 kg per day. Dried citrus pulp has been used as the main energy source for beef cattle and heifers, and up to 45 percent has been used in rations. However, the pulp should not be used at high levels for milking cows as milk production tends to decrease. Digestibility trials with sheep show that its digestibility decreases when the citrus pulp is included at levels more than 30 percent of the ration. It is more advantageous to mix the fresh pulp with partially dried grass or with legumes which cannot be successfully ensiled on their own. To produce seedless or less seeded kinnow and other citrus fruits is a great challenge. Many seeds in kinnow and related types is the main hindrance for Pakistan export.

Moringa -A precious tree crop

Every plant has useful characteristics which Allah has inserted in it. Some tree crops are of much value because its every part (leaves, stem, seeds, roots) has equal worth and moringa is among those plants. In science, it is called Moringa oleifera.  

[ads_row][ads_col col=”cell”]Authors[/ads_col][ads_col col=”cell”]Mujahid Ali, Dr. Zahoor Hussain (Horticulture, UOS)[/ads_col][/ads_row]

In Urdu, it is called Sohanjna. It belongs to family Moringaceae.  Its origin is reported in Indo-Pak regions. It is used as a vegetable. Moringa plant has extraordinary uses in herbal medicine and in allelopathy. This plant is used for centuries due to its nutritional aspects. Himalayan region is famous for its wild cultivation. It is settled in tropical and subtropical areas in the word.

Now comes towards it propagation. It is propagated both sexually and asexually. By asexual propagation, it means stem cuttings are used for propagation purpose so mature stems or branches are used. There are different steps i.e., initially, we take a mature stem or branch of about six feet long and two inches thick.  Then insert two third part of cutting in soil, sand and compost preferably green manure and affirm the cutting from the base to avoid shaking. Provide proper moisture conditions. There is another way that through sexual propagation means through seeds. One of the advantages of seed is that naturally, it has no dormancy. We can sow it nursery and trays can also be used. Its seed germination is up to 90-100 percent. For moringa cultivation light sandy loam and well-drained soils are considered best. Waterlogging and high rainfall are dangerous for it.

Let’s move towards its health benefits. Moringa seed oils are beneficial for our skin and hair growth. This oil has agents for detoxify free radicals and have the hydrating ability for skin and hair. Its oil has protein contents that make it more beneficial. It is helpful in treating skin infection sores.

For curing edema is always being a problem when fluids rise in some tissues. Due to its anti-inflammatory characteristics, it is helpful in this regard. The liver is our sensitive internal organ in the body. Its protection and repair against anti-tubercular drugs are giving moringa a pride.

Moringa has found its importance in the treatment of cancer as it has a compound named niazimicin a precious chemical in checking cancer cells from further damage. There are various stomach disorders which our body face. Extracts of moringa is found useful in curing constipation gastritis, and ulcerative colitis. It has the capability to destroy numerous pathogens and have a sufficient amount of vitamin B.

Our body is always facing complaints of bacterial and fungal diseases. It has antibacterial and antifungal properties to cope with it. Some elements like Ca and P are responsible for bone health.  Moringa plants have rich in these elements making bone strong and curing arthritis.

Moringa is useful in controlling some of our mood characters or feeling like depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Moringa contains such antioxidants which give heart protection from damage and maintain our cardiovascular system. It helps to heal and save to make scars sign at a spot of wounds.

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Moringa use has shown to reduce glucose level in the blood making it useful for diabetic’s patients and give urine a normal condition. Enhance hemoglobin and protein level in the body.

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Its extract is very supportive in treating asthma and save our bronchial construction. It has very low fat and cholesterol making it safe for our health. Moringa has anti-fertility qualities and is, therefore, avoid its use by pregnant women. There have been very rare side effects stated. So, we should consult it in severe conditions and use it according to doctor advice.

Due to unique chemistry of compounds in the extract of moringa, it is popular in horticulture as medicinal and vegetable, agronomy and forestry. The government should encourage its cultivation and conduct seminars for its public awareness.

Misuse of drugs and development of their resistance

Chemotherapy is essential in intensive poultry production all over the world. It has played a significant role in helping to meet the ever growing demands for animal protein.

Ahmed Din Anjum
Professor, Department of Veterinary Pathology,
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
38040, Pakistan

INTRODUCTION

Chemotherapy is essential in intensive poultry production all over the world. It has played a significant role in helping to meet the ever growing demands for animal protein.

Antibiotics have been used for therapy, prophylaxis and for growth promotion in poultry. However, choosing between the available drugs and using them to the best advantage is not always straightforward and the rational use of drugs is particularly complex for poultry veterinarian.

A vet should come up with an effective flock health programme which combines management, hygiene, quarantine and chemotherapy in the most rational and profitable way.

A chemotherapeutic programme should be efficacious, safe, practical and legal and ethical. Most importantly, the vet must not panic or allow himself to be rushed into poorly planned, ineffective, unwarranted or unethical medication programmes.

In our poultry industry, in spite of heavy reliance on medication, poultry health is deteriorating; there are new diseases, high drug dependency and susceptibility to epidemics.

Medicate or not – a critical decision ?

Medication is justified in bacterial outbreaks. However, it is essential that a diagnosis, even if only tentative, is made before embarking on medication. Important questions such as whether a treatment is required and with what drug, hinge on the diagnosis.

Without a reasonably accurate diagnosis, chemotherapy becomes a trial and error or hit and miss affair.

Medication is not justified when it will be ineffective such as uncomplicated viral infections, uncomplicated management induced problems, disease caused by environmental factors, nutritional diseases and toxic diseases. Ineffective medication will reduce the credibility of the veterinarian or the drug.

Furthermore, medication my create a false sense of security, or detract from the real cause of the problem and how it should be corrected.

Medication is unwarranted if the only reason for using it is to provide non-specific cover over a stress period, be seen to be doing something, bring piece of mind (in the absence of any real disease risk), satisfy the argument that “it won’t do any harm but it just might do some good”, use up drug stocks. Sometimes a drug is used as the scapegoat for poor flock performance.

Medication can sometimes be counterproductive. Examples are:

1. It may delay desirable exposure and immunity to coccidiosis.
2. Medication of mycoplasmosis during rearing may simply delay the inevitable exposure until a less desirable time, such as point of lay.
3. Prolonged use of antibacterial can upset the normal flora of the digestive tract and lead to secondary fungal infections.
4. Medication may hinder or delay the detection of infection with Myco. gallisepticum or salmonella.
5. Medication may encourage the development of microbial resistance to the drug, especially if sub therapeutic levels are administered repeatedly or for a prolonged period.
6. Many antibiotics including chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and tylosin are immunosuppressive and their use will prolong uncomplicated viral diseases.
Medication is not justified if it is illegal or unethical.

SELECTION OF A DRUG

The selection of the most effective drug should be based on a combination of theoretical knowledge, laboratory sensitivity testing, historical records, and practical experience. There is no point in using a drug it won’t work, no matter what its other advantages may be. Even in case of a broad spectrum of activity, the principal activity of most drugs is directed against a fairly narrow range of infectious organisms. Some diseases have a drug of first choice and a guide must be considered.

In theory, bactericidal is preferable to bacteriostatic activity, particularly in severely ill and immunosuppressed patients. In practice, it makes little difference, as a functional immune system is essential to the resolution of all infections irregardless of the mode of action of the drug used to treat it.

Multiple drug therapy is a very poor substitute for accurate diagnosis and selection of the most efficacious treatment. Complicated infections may require the use of two drugs at the same time. Some drug combinations are synergistic, increasing both the efficacy and spectrum of activity.

Given the large number of birds in intensive systems, when a small proportion of the birds become ill, mass medication with therapeutic antibiotics is practiced because treating only the infected birds is considered impractical.

DOSE RATE AND FREQUENCY OF MEDICATION

Ideally, the dose rate of each drug should be based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) which is required, attained and maintained in infected tissues. Unfortunately little work is done on drug absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs in the chicken. Also, the dose rates should be adjusted to allow for spillage or wastage.

Dose rates should be calculated based on body weight rather than on concentration in water or feed as this gives accurate and consistent dosage. Flock dosage based on water and feed consumption will fluctuate from day to day and from flock to flock, potentially resulting in under- or over-dosage and a variable and unpredictable clinical response. For greatest efficacy, treatment of disease outbreaks should always commence at maximum dose rates. Remember that doses used in excess of those recommended will not be any more effective and may be toxic. Chickens have been accidentally paralyzed by overdosing ionophores. For long term prevention, use the minimum effective dose rate. Remember that doses below the recommended will be ineffective. When controlled challenge and immunity are desired, such as with coccidiosis, a suboptimal dose rate may be employed.

In theory, the MIC of a drug should be maintained or exceeded in tissues throughout the course of treatment. In practice, it is not critical. Continuous medication is more desirable with bacteriostatic drugs. On the other hand, bactericidal drugs are probably as or more effective when given in two divided doses daily.

ONSET AND DURATION OF MEDICATION

Normally treatment of a disease outbreak should commence within 24 hours. The sooner medication is commenced the more effective it will be. Sometimes, treatment is best delayed in order to allow the whole flock to become exposed and immune e.g., early treatment of mild coccidiosis or coryza in replacement breeders or pullets may result in uneven flock immunity and subsequent relapses. Prophylactic medication should commence just before the anticipated disease challenge.
With acute disease outbreaks, medication should continue until mortality stops and clinical signs are no longer present in the flock. Usually this takes at least 3 days. Usually, an acute disease outbreak is under control within 5-7 days. However, if a response is not apparent within 3-5 days, then the diagnosis and treatment regime should be carefully reassessed.

After an initial period of treatment at maximum dose rates, and once the outbreak has subsided, it may be necessary with some diseases to continue medication at lower levels for a few weeks to allow controlled exposure and immunity to develop throughout the flock. However, remember prolonged exposure to low levels of drug is more likely to encourage acquired resistance.

Chronic flock infections such as Mycoplasma or Haemophilus, often respond poorly to medication, so an initial period of treatment may be followed up with intermittent medication at treatment dose rates, or more prolonged medication at control dose rates.

ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

In general, the most effective route depends on the site of infection. Parenteral medication is the most effective route of treating systemic diseases. IM injection is recommended for long-acting drugs. Oral medication is the most effective route for alimentary infections. Remember some drugs are not absorbed from the digestive tract and will be ineffective against systemic infections if given by this route. DW medication is usually more effective in disease treatment than in feed medication. Remember sick birds continue drinking longer than eating. Enteric absorption of many drugs is delayed in the presence of food. Topical medication is the most effective way of treating external parasites.

DRUG SENSITIVITY AND RESITANCE

All infectious organisms have an inherent pattern of sensitivity and resistance to specific drugs. Resistance to certain drugs may also be acquired. This can occur through mutation and selection and cross resistance. Multiple drug resistance may be to a number of unrelated antibiotics. R-plasmids (transferable drug resistance) may be transferred between individual bacteria within a strain, between strains or species, and between genera, e.g., E.coli and salmonella.

Antibiotics are selecting an ever widening range of resistant bacteria and this is being potentiated by gene transfer. We must expect the incidence and types of resistant bacteria to continue to increase if the overall rate of antibiotic usage continues.

Antibiotic resistant E. coli are particularly prevalent in the gut flora of poultry. Antibiotic resistant E. coli persist long after the antibiotic has been withdrawn since many of these strains are good colonisers of the gut. There is no evidence that E. coli of animal origin cause disease episodes in man. Their importance lies in the fact that they constitute a highly versatile pool of R plasmids which may be transferred ultimately to important pathogens.

SAFETY

Safety is an important prerequisite for any flock health programme. There is no point in using a drug if it will cause more problems than it solves. Safety referes to both poultry and people.

Drug toxicity to poultry may occur due to inherent features of the drug, overdosage, prolonged usage and interaction with other drugs or chemicals. Lack of safety in poultry may manifest as:

1. Clinical signs or mortality caused directly by the drug.
2. Reduced growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, egg production, fertility or hatchability.
3. Reduced feed or water consumption.
4. Secondary or super-infections.
Drug toxicity to people may occur due to consumption of drug residues in poultry meat and eggs. This may result in an immediate clinical reaction (allergy to penicillins and sulophonamides), gradual development of a fatal aplastic anaemia (in people sensitive to chloramphenicol), acquisition of an allergy or sensitivity to the drug or acquired resistance by human bacteria. Furazolidone, and chloramphenicol are potentially carcinogenic.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food pose a substantially greater risk to human health than antibiotic residues. Consumption of drug resistant bacteria on poultry meat can cause food poisoning in humans. Poultry enteric bacteria may transfer their resistance plasmids to human pathogens. Multiple-drug resistance is increasing at an alarming rate.

The possible adverse effects on people can be avoided by:

1. Using antibiotics correctly and only when necessary.
2. Avoiding prolonged use of subtherapeutic doses which encourage bacterial resistance.
3. Adhering to withdrawal/product withholding periods before poultry are processed or eggs are sold.
4. Not using chloramphenicol.
5. Avoid contact with drugs when they are handled.
6. Minimising salmonella infection in poultry flocks and salmonella contamination of poultry carcasses and products.
7. Cooking poultry thoroughly and handling it hygienically.

COST :
Cost has a large bearing on the practicality of chemotherapy. Medication cost has 3 main components: drug cost, administration cost and cost of adverse effects. Sometimes it may be cheaper to live with a minor or refractory disease than to attempt to control it through medication. Cost may be expressed as an amount per kg, per egg or as a proportion of the total flock value.

There is a high expenditure on veterinary drugs in modern poultry production in Pakistan.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The establishment by government of a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance.
2. The use of antibiotics for growth promotion should be banned immediately.
3. Fluroquinolones, and 3rd generation cephalosporins, should no longer be permitted for mass medication. This is to prevent the further development of resistant food poisoning strains.
4. Poor prescribing by vets should lead to retraining and excessive prescribing should result in legal action.
5. The Government should help establish a School of Preventative Veterinary Medicine. It should research, collate and disseminate reliable information to farmers, vets and others.
6. Veterinary and agricultural colleges should place greater emphasis on the teaching of drug-free preventative medicine.
7. Practical and technical help should be given free of charge to producers to encourage them to alter production methods in order to reduce dependency on antibiotics.
8. The Concept of Positive Health: we need to shift away from pathogen-targeted fire-fighting towards proactive, health-targeted policies and practices. Organic farming is a holistic system for achieving positive animal health with proven positive effects.
a. Short-term biosecurity or treatment measures.
b. The long-term goal of positive animal health.

AVOID! The Toxic Truth About Stevia

Stevia is marketed as a healthy sweetener. But surprising new evidence indicates all stevia sold in grocery stores is highly processed with methyl alcohol or other toxic chemicals. Healthy Solution: Look for natural zero-sugar sweeteners. Is your stevia pure? Or is it mixed with other sweeteners and chemicals? Do you wonder how your stevia is refined? What does “natural” mean, if anything? You deserve to know what’s hidden in your stevia. It is essential for your health to learn how stevia is processed, and decide for yourself. This article strips away the marketing hype, with clear evidence that’s very surprising.

Executive Summary:

Yes, Stevia’s green leaves are naturally sweet. However those white powders and clear drops we find in groceries have very little to do with stevia leaves. They aren’t really stevia at all. They’re an extract that’s been super-refined using toxic chemicals, bleach, and marketed as “healthy”. When you look at the chemical refinement process, stevia is no more natural than Aspartame, Splenda, NutraSweet, Equal, Sweet N Low, etc. Everybody is looking for a non-addictive, healthy sweetener. But beware of any sugar-free sweetener that gives you the illusion of a “free ride”, because you may just be deepening your addiction.

Grow Your Own Stevia!

The best stevia is the kind you can grow yourself. When it’s alive you know it’s REAL! Stevia plants grow beautifully in a pot, a garden, a window box, or on your kitchen window sill. Just pull off a leaf when you need to sweeten something. This way you can be sure it’s organic, and the soil is healthy.

What is Stevia Really? How can I Know if it is Pure?

Stevia, or “stevia rebaudiana” is a plant that originates in Brazil with naturally sweet leaves. The leaves can be dried and powdered into a pure sweetener about 40 times sweeter than sugar. These raw, unprocessed stevia leaves have a strong aftertaste akin to licorice, and taste artificial. Pure unprocessed stevia leaves and green powder are not widely available due to their strong aftertaste. If you live in Santa Fe like I do, buy them bulk at the Coop on Alameda near the almond butter grinder.

In grocery stores, we find an entire shelf of “stevia” in the form of processed liquid drops and white powders – all highly refined chemical extractions from the leaves, in the hopes of reducing the aftertaste. The resulting processed sweeteners are called myriad confusing names such as stevia, stevia extract, pure stevia, Rebaudioside A, Reb A, steviol glycosides, etc, and are anywhere from 2X to 350X sweeter than sugar, depending on the blend with other fillers. As a high-intensity sweetener, a little goes a long way, therefore it is often pre-measured in packets or mixed with other fillers such as GMO Maltodextrin, GMO corn Erythritol, inulin fiber, or even cane sugar. Processing is done with a variety of chemicals, such as, methanol, arsenic, ethanol, acetone, and others.

The resulting artificial sweetener called “Stevia” is toxic and unhealthy.

Don’t be fooled by the name, that seemingly innocent stevia we find in grocery stores is a chemical concoction just like Splenda and Aspartame. In fact, it’s highly probable that you’re buying a blend that’s 99.8% Erythritol, a fermented sweetener made from genetically modified corn, with a pinch of refined stevioside powder. Your “Stevia” can be processed, mixed with chemicals, blended in a hundred ways, and still legally be called simply “stevia”. Refined stevioside is sold under countless brand names such as Sun Crystals, SweetLeaf, Truvia, PureVia, Stevia in the Raw, Pyure, and NuStevia to name a few.

Commercial Stevia is bad news.

Stay away from it. That includes Stevioside and Rebaudioside and all the names. All “stevia” in grocery stores is processed with toxic chemicals. If you’re still going for the story that stevia is natural and comes from Peru, know that 85% of all stevia comes from China. Even the world’s top stevia marketer, international sugar giant Cargill, top food manufacturer in the world with over $102.7 billion in 2016 sales, manufacturer of Truvia and PureVia with Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, has all of its stevia produced in China. It’s a small world when you control the sweeteners every body is addicted to.

Take-Home Message:

If you truly want to be free of sugar addiction, then processed stevia and other artificial sweeteners won’t help you. It’s better to skip all forms of Stevia, Truvia, and the blends listed below. The best solution is to use small doses of sugar-free sweeteners, to slowly detox your system from regular sugars.

(Most people don’t want too much information. However if YOU are one of those folks that desire the whole truth, read on. To learn how Stevia leaves are processed into a toxic sweetener, it required a bit of digging. As usual, the devil is in the details. To learn the whole Stevia story, continue reading…)

How is Stevia Processed?


Processed stevia is made with a dangerous chemical refining process hidden from the public and deceptively marketed as “natural”. Manufacturers run into the problem that stevia leaves are extraordinarily resilient. The stevia cell walls are so tough that they resist the usual methods of boiling or centrifuging. Producers aim to to extract the active sweet compound, stevioside, and remove the funny aftertaste. In order to concentrate stevia to 300X concentration, toxic chemicals and artificial chemical enzymes are used, such as methanol, kerosene, alcohol, chlorine, ash, acids, titanium dioxide, arsenic, preservatives, chemical stabilizers, and emulsifiers.

The world’s largest producers of stevia hold patents for undisclosed, proprietary extraction methods. These patents belong to industry giants such as Coca Cola, PureCircle in Malaysia and USA, Cargill – maker of Truvia and PureVia, JustBio – A Canadian Biotech firm, McNeil Nuritionals LLC- maker of Splenda, and Chengdu Waggott Pharmaceutical Company in Sichuan China. That’s quite a line-up! Here are 5 common stevia extraction methods I located in public patent records. They all indicate the use of toxic chemicals, which are difficult or impossible to remove.

  1. One of the more popular methods of producing stevia extract was developed by D. Payzant, U.S. Pat. No. 5,962,678. In summary, sweet stevia glycosides are extracted using methanol, a toxic, colorless, volatile flammable liquid alcohol. This method has been used for decades. The major drawback is that a toxic solvent like methanol is difficult to remove. Trace amounts are harmful to health and not ideal for human consumption.
  2. Another common production method comes from Uenishi Hideaki, Japan Patent 54030199. To extract the sweetness and discard a bitter aftertaste, this method also requires the use of various toxic solvents. The removal of solvents requires energy and time, which are not considered cost-effective.
  3. A third production method developed by R. H. Dobberstein, U.S. Pat. No. 4,361,697, uses several toxic solvents including methanol in a complex multi-step process. The major drawback is still the presence of toxic solvents, and their complete removal is not possible and not considered commercially viable.
  4. Sato Toru, Japan Patent JP57005663 uses a new and improved process to extract sweetness from stevia hydrated in water containing alcohol, with the addition of calcium, iron, or aluminum. These compounds are then removed, passed through an acid-ication exchange resin using toxic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, etc. The major drawbacks here are the removal of water from aqueous extract, and removal of toxic solvents, which is not economical.
  5. US. Pat. No. 4,599,403 by Sampath Kumar uses an improved method that is said to be less dependent on toxic chemicals. The major drawbacks are that the aqueous extract is treated first with an acid and then with base and then treated with toxic solvents like n-butanol, which lower the final yield and must ultimately be removed. Again, removal of solvents is not commercially viable, therefore most stevioside products generally contain these toxins.

What’s Really in Your Stevia Bottle?


Well, you can start with the knowledge that there’s almost NO pure stevia out there, except for that rare green powder with a funny aftertaste. (I don’t mind the aftertaste, but many people don’t care for it.) If you want to know what’s really in your stevia, you can try reading the label. However that’s a problem since labels don’t have to disclose all ingredients. Your next hint is serving size. A low serving size of one gram or less is a good indication that the manufacturer is taking full advantage of the legal loophole, and omitting certain chemicals or ingredients. Here’s the loophole: By law, any item under 0.5 grams per serving is not required to be disclosed. So there’s no way you can know for sure what’s really in there. If your Stevia is any of the popular products below, I’ve done some of your homework for you, by reading the labels. However what’s undisclosed we’ll never know.

Popular Stevia Products and their Surprising Ingredients!

1 Better Stevia liquid This is a NOW Foods blend of refined Stevioside with Vegetable Glycerin, a non-glycemic fermented sweetener. 1 tsp liquid = 1 cup sugar sweetness. See Stevia Glycerite.
2 Better Stevia packets NOW Foods makes this product of powdered refined stevioside blended with Non-GMO Rice Maltodextrin.
3 Generic Stevioside Drops See Stevioside Liquid Extract. Generic refined stevioside drops are sold in every grocery chain under their private label, such as Trader Joe’s, Kroger’s, Safeway, Albertson’s, and many other store labels.
3 Generic Stevioside Powder See Stevioside Powder, refined. Refined stevioside powders are sold in grocery chains under their private label, such as Trader Joe’s, Kroger’s, Safeway, Albertson’s, and many other store labels.
4 Generic Stevioside, Industrial See Stevioside Powder, refined. This is a generic powder made of refined stevioside, that is sold on the industrial level as a food additive for the food industry. It is used in a wide variety of food products, such as Good Earth Teas, Celestial Seasonings Tea, Energy Drinks, Sodas, Chocolates, Ice Creams, and Energy Bars. It often contains toxic chemicals, however the amounts are usually under the 0.5 grams per serving, therefore disclosure is not required.
5 Green Leaf Stevia This is a proprietary blend by Swanson made of refined Stevioside powder and high-glycemic non-GMO rice Maltodextrin.
6 Green Stevia Powder This is the pure stuff, and the only healthy stevia. Pure dried stevia leaf is available in a fine green powder that is 30 – 40 times sweeter than sugar. It is raw, and has a peculiar aftertaste. 
7 NuNaturals MoreFiber Stevia Baking Blend This is a sugar substitute blend of high glycemic GMO Corn Maltodextrin with refined stevioside. Prepare for a spike in your blood sugar.
8 NuStevia This sugar substitute blends high glycemic GMO Corn Maltodextrin with refined stevioside. Another blood-sugar spike here.
9 PureVia™ Made by Cargill, this sweetener blends genetically modified corn Erythritol with refined Stevioside or Rebaudioside. The Stevia is extracted by proprietary methods we can’t know. There’s nothing natural here.
10 Pyure Organic Stevia A sweetener made from refined stevioside sold in sachets or liquid. It contains agave inulin, refined Stevioside extract, and other unknown ingredients.
11 Rebiana Rebiana is a zero-calorie sweetener produced by proprietary methods by extracting sweetness from the stevia leaf with chemicals and heat, and refining into a high intensity powder that is 200 – 300 times as sweet as sugar. See Stevioside.
12 Rebaudioside Refined Rebaudioside is made from the stevia leaf, where its sweetness is isolated and concentrated using heat and chemicals into a powder about 300X sweeter than table sugar, with somewhat reduced aftertaste. It can be purchased as a white powder or liquid drops. China is the world’s primary producer of rebaudioside. Nothing natural here.
13 Slimstevia A Chinese sweetener similar to Truvia made from genetically modified corn Erythritol with refined Stevioside and/or Rebaudioside. Not natural.
14 Slimtevia This high-intensity sweetener is 3 times sweeter than sugar. It is said to contain high-sugar Fructose, Inulin fiber, FOS (Fructo-oligosaccharides), stevia, and Magnesium Carbonate. This won’t help anyone end the sugar habit.
15 Stevia by Xymogen A sweeter blend of high-glycemic Maltodextrin and refined Stevioside Extract (Rebiana). Prepare for a blood sugar jolt.
16 Stevia dried leaf This is the pure stuff. Unrefined, dried leaves of the South American plant Stevia Rebaudiana are 30–45 times as sweet as table sugar. You can keep this as a potted plant, in bulk dried leaves, or as a green powder. This is a 100% safe sweetener, truly natural (and Paleo). However many people find it has a strong aftertaste. Find it as leaf particles or green powder in food coops and online.
17 Stevia in the raw™ This is a high-glycemic combination of GMO corn Maltodextrin or Dextrose plus refined stevioside. It’s an attractive name, but neither natural nor healthy. Prepare for blood sugar blues.
18 Stevia FOS Blend This is a brand of refined stevioside powder blended with Inulin Fructo-oligosaccharides. It is a zero-calorie, zero carb, sweetener.
19 Stevia Glycerate Proprietary liquid drops produced by NOW Foods, made from refined stevioside and non-glycemic Vegetable Glycerin, a fermented liquid sweetener from oils. 1 tsp Stevia Glycerate = 1 cup sugar sweetness.
20 Steviacane™ This is a blend of refined stevioside with high-glycemic cane sugar by Imperial Sugar Company. Expect a blood sugar jolt here.
21 SteviaClear Drops This is refined stevioside powder in a liquid alcohol solution. The drops are 250 – 300 times as sweet as sugar. Nothing natural here. I suggest first having it tested for methanol and other toxins.
22 Stevioside Liquid Extract These stevioside drops are made from stevia leaves that are refined using methanol and then dissolved in a liquid alcohol solution. There are many sources for stevioside drops, and countless private labels. Most refined Stevioside drops are mixed with other ingredients. The pure stevioside drops are 250 – 300 times as sweet as sugar.
23 Stevioside Powder, refined Refined Stevioside and Rebaudioside are made from the stevia leaf. Its sweetness is isolated and concentrated using heat and chemicals into a powder c. 300 times sweeter than sugar, with reduced aftertaste. China is the world’s primary producer of stevioside. Refined Stevioside and Rebaudioside are often sold in proprietary blends with cane sugar, artificial sweeteners, or other chemicals and rebranded under the generic name of ”Stevia”.
24 Stevita Spoonables A blend of Erythritol and refined Stevioside. Don’t know if it is GMO or NON-GMO corn Erythritol.
25 Steviva Blend A blend of high quality Non-GMO Erythritol with refined Stevioside powder. Steviva Blend is twice as sweet as sugar. There’s nothing natural here.
26 Sun Crystals® A blend of cane sugar mixed with refined stevioside. Prepare for sugar shock.
27 Sweet Serum A low-carb, low-glycemic liquid sweetener that contains organic raw agave inulin, Yacon root and Stevioside. Sweet Serum has a concentrated sweet honey taste. 1 teaspoon Sweet Serum is equal in sweetness to about 5 teaspoons sugar. Nothing natural here.
28 Sweet Simplicity® A Sugar Substitute made from genetically modified corn Erythritol, Fructose sugars and Natural Flavors by Whole Earth Sweetener Company, the makers of PureVia. Prepare for insulin shock.
29 Sweet’nVit stevia A high intensity sweetener developed by the European firm Vitiva containing refined Stevioside, genetically modified Corn Erythritol and Maltitol, a fermented sweetener.
30 SweetLeaf Stevia Shaker A blend of refined stevioside powder and inulin. Nothing natural here.
31 Truvia™ A blend of GMO corn Erythritol, refined Rebaudioside, and other ingredients by Cargill.
32 ZSweet® A sweetener that can be used cup for cup like sugar, made from Non-GMO Erythritol and highly refined Stevioside or Rebaudioside.

 Conclusion:

Stevia was once a simple plant used by the Guarani Indians in South America for healing. But our world-wide craving for sweetness, along with modern food processing methods have changed all that. Now stevia is refined with toxic chemicals in private proprietary procedures deeply linked to the largest international corporations and the sugar industry. Most of our stevia is produced in China, and then marketed as our most beloved natural sweetener. If you still believe your stevia to be healthy, check out the links below for a journey of deception and international intrigue that will make your hair stand up on end.