انگور کی برداشت اور دیکھ بھال

انگور ایک ایسا پھل ہے جس کا ذکر قرآن پاک میں بھی موجود ہے اور یہ بادشاہوں کاپھل بھی کہلاتا ہے ۔انگور تقریباً دنیا کے ہر ملک میں کاشت کیا جاتا ہے ۔ دنیا میں سب سے زیادہ انگور چین ، امریکہ ، اٹلی اور فرانس میں پیدا ہوتا ہے اور اس کی پیداوار 70ہزار ملین ٹن ہے ۔ 8ہزار سال پہلے تجارتی پیمانے پر جس علاقے میں باقاعدہ طور پر انگور کی کاشت کی گئی تھی اس کو اب مڈل ایسٹ کہتے ہیں ۔ پاکستان میں انگور 15302ہیکٹر رقبے پر کاشت کیا جاتا ہے اور اس کی سالانہ پیداوار 64317ٹن ہے ۔ پاکستان میں سب سے زیادہ انگور بلوچستان میں 15153ہیکٹر رقبے پر کاشت کیاجاتا ہے جس سے مجموعی پیداوار کا 63150 ٹن پھل حاصل ہوتا ہے ۔ اس کے علاوہ اب یہ تقریباً پنجاب کے تمام اضلاع میں بھی کاشت کیا جا رہا ہے اور جنوبی پنجاب میں باقاعدہ طور پر “چولستان گر یپس ویلی “کا اعلان کر دیا گیا ہے جہاں گورنمنٹ آف پنجاب کی مدد سے زمینداروں کو سبسڈی دے کر انگور کی کاشت کی جارہی ہے ۔

Heath benefits of Fig (Anjeer)

Fig carica L. is an important member of the genus Ficus. It is ordinarily deciduous and frequently referred to as fig.

The not unusual fig is a tree native to southwest Asia and the jap Mediterranean and it is one of the first crops that were cultivated by way of humans. The fig is the most important harvest international for its dry and recent intake. Its common edible section is the fruit which is fleshy, hole, and receptacle . There aren’t any Ficus species native to Hawai’i. F. carica is certainly one of about 60 species of Ficus this is cultivated in Hawai’i. Each Ficus species needs a particular pollinating wasp with a view to reproduce and unfold.

The pollinator wasp for F. carica, Blastophaga psenses (L.), was presented to Hawai’i in 1909. The genus Ficus is made up of about 1,000 species from pan tropical and subtropical origins. Plants in the genus are all woody ranging from timber and shrubs to climbers. The Latin identify carica is known as for the location Caria in Asia Minor which is supposedly the house of the fig. Several varieties of F. carica are grown in Hawai’i, including the Smyrna fig the brown or Turkey fig and the white and golden fig. About 60 species of Ficus were presented to Hawai’i for cultivation and reforestation.

Fig carica L. is an important member of the genus Ficus. It is ordinarily deciduous and frequently referred to as fig.

Shrubs or small bushes deciduous to five meter its top. Roots aren’t adventitious. Bark grayish reasonably roughened. Branch shall we pubescent. Leaves: stipules 1-1.2 cm petiole eight-20 cm. Leaf blade obovate nearly orbiculate or ovate palmately 3-five lobed, 15-30 x 15-30 cm base cordate, margins undulate or irregularly dentate apex acute to obtuse surfaces abaxially and adaxially scabrous pubescent basal veins 5 pairs lateral veins irregularly spaced. Syconia solitary, sessile, green, yellow, or red-purple pyriform five-8 cm pubescent peduncle ca. 1 cm subtending bracts ovate 1-2 mm ostiole with three subtending bracts umbonate.

    Carica are normally propagated via cuttings. The fruit (syconium or fig) and reproduction systems of species within the genus Ficus are unique. Each species of Ficus has an associated species of agaonid wasp (Hymenoptera: Chalcoidea: Agaonidae). Ficus species can best be pollinated by their related agaonid wasps and in flip the wasps can handiest lay eggs inside their related Ficus fruit. For successful pollination and copy of Ficus species to happen its Beside its fit for human consumption uses the fig fruit has been used in conventional medication as a laxative due to the prime content of sugars and mucilages. The pulp has emollient and ant inflammatory houses. Leaves are regarded as a standard treatment for diabetes in Spain and Southwestern Europe.

    In India the plant frequently known as Anjir has been used as chewed leaves to regard jaundice and likewise liver and spleen issues. The latex acquired from leaves has been used topically to regard warts, insect bites and thorn pricks.
    Fig is harvested at totally ripened degree Fruit is picked through hand. It is the vital workout to get the wholesome fruit as a result of fruit skin may be very refined and simply damaged via mishandling of fruits. Fig mosaic and fig stem borer are main problems.

    Average yield of a fig plant fruit is eight-16 kilo grams But yield depend upon other climatic stipulations and cultivations. An average manufacturing of fig is 25 lots in step with hectare. Shelf life of fig isn’t much it near 2-three but offering therapies it’ll be increased.

    Reviving Drought Stressed Plants

    Reviving Drought Stressed Plants

    Inadequate amounts of water can stress vegetation and motive a large number of issues. Usually, the oldest leaves are the first to turn symptoms, yellowing, drying and falling off the plant. During prolonged classes of drought, twigs and branches of bushes and shrubs can endure dieback. There will even be root injury from drought, which generally ends up in the eventual dying of the plant.

    Of route the longer the drought lasts, the more harm is finished to the plants. Drought all through the start of the growing season could cause essentially the most harm of all since the plants are actively growing and making ready themselves for the summer.

    Most vegetation need 1 inch of water every week or about 1 gallon in keeping with square foot.

    When drought and water restrictions come, all we will do is wait it out. Hopefully, our plants had been healthy, energetic and mulched beforehand. Once the drought is over, it’s time to get admission to the wear and tear and take those steps to get our vegetation back into form.​

    Don’t Over Water

    Certainly, we want to resume common watering of our vegetation. It’s tempting to need to give drought-stressed vegetation as a lot water as they may be able to take care of, but it’s possible to overdo it. You wish to ease your vegetation again into health. Keep the soil wet, but not rainy. Roots need oxygen up to they want water and maintaining the soil saturated will suffocate the roots and result in more pressure.

    [su_box title=”Advice” style=”bubbles”]Don’t fertilize right through the drought. Without ok water, fertilizer would both be wasted or would just purpose more stress[/su_box]

    There’s no longer much we will do about too much rain, however we will control the hose and sprinkler. Most vegetation need 1 inch of water every week or about 1 gallon in keeping with square foot. If the plants are rising in sandy, quick-draining soil, had been lately planted and have unestablished root techniques or have damaged roots, they’re going to want to be watered a couple of instances a week, to ensure they’re taking over enough water.

    Note to tomato growers: Two not unusual problems of tomatoes are brought about through them receiving abnormal amounts of water. Both cracking and blossom end rot are led to through the crops being left dry for per week or two, adopted by excess watering.

    Prune Judiciously

    During a protracted drought, it may on occasion lend a hand to prune another way healthy plants again by way of about third, to minimize the plant’s want for water. Use your judgment as to which vegetation need this extra lend a hand and avoid chopping again bushes and shrubs. They want their canopies to stop scorching and burning and pruning them back would simply reason extra tension. After the drought, if the tops of your vegetation have suffered critical browning and dieback, move forward and prune them back to about 6 inches from the bottom. In many cases, you’re going to see new enlargement starting on the base of the plant already. Plants appear to grasp when they’re threatened and need to reinvigorate.

      Remove any lifeless or dying branches. They won’t recover and they make excellent hiding puts for pests and access issues for disease.

      Fertilize With Discretion

      Don’t fertilize right through the drought. Without ok water, fertilizer would both be wasted or would just purpose more stress. Once the drought ends, a sluggish unencumber fertilizer is the most suitable option. It will probably be available because the plant recovers and will help ease it back into vigor. Choose one with a high phosphorous proportion, reasonably than one prime in nitrogen. The phosphorous will assist in repairing the basis machine, the place the nitrogen would inspire fast leaf expansion that could compound issues

      Synthetic fertilizers that contain salt are the worst choice after drought and will have to be avoided completely all through drought. The salt within the soil can injury the plant’s roots and accentuate drought damage.

      Scout for Secondary Problems

      Drought-stressed plants are targets for pests and sicknesses, which will further weaken your crops. While we must be searching for issues all the way through the season, keep an especially willing eye all through drought. Catch problems early. In some circumstances, you could wish to do some pruning out and even perhaps remove the plant totally.

      Replace Mulch

      Once your vegetation were smartly watered and in all probability fed, ensure they’ve a 3 to 4-inch layer of mulch across the drip line. Organic mulches decompose all the way through the growing season and by way of mid-summer, they will have almost disappeared. Keep those stressed roots cool and moist by means of replacing the mulch as soon as you’ll.

      Protecting Your Landscape From Drought Damage

      Drought tolerant vegetation: Some vegetation handle drought higher than others. Choose drought-tolerant crops and create a xeric lawn with decrease water needs. If you should have crops with high water needs, crew them in combination, so you’ll be able to water simply that small space.

      Organic topic

      Continually upload compost and different organic matter to your soil, to support its skill to retain moisture.

      Weed

      Weeds competed with garden plants for water and nutrients and weeds typically win that fight. Take steps to prevent weeds from taking grasp.

      Rain barrels

      Now is the time to attach a rain barrel—or two—to your downspout. It’s amazing how a lot water will also be collected after only one rain and the way happy you’ll be to have it all over the following dry spell.

      Orchids: Exotic plants

      For thousands and thousands of years the most important circle of relatives in the kingdom of plants, the orchids, abounded in the world of tropical rain forests. Orchids belong to the monocotyledon category of crops along side palms, bananas or araceae, the variation being that orchids have absolutely advanced flowers that are perennial and capable of lengthy life.

      Plato and a disciple of Aristotle, used the word “orchi” in his e book, Investigation of Plants, which later developed into “orchid.” Even in early times in China the orchid flower was held in such high esteem that the good Chinese sage Confucius in comparison the orchid flower to the “perfect and superior man” and the odor of the bloom to the “joys of friendship.”


      Theophrastus (c.372-c.287 BC)

      There are four classes of orchids Epiphytes — air vegetation which hang to branches of timber by way of their roots; Terrestrials — that grow within the floor and are discovered mostly in cooler climates; Saprophytes — that grow in decaying vegetation on the wooded area floor; Lithophytes — that grasp to rock faces or crevices.
      Orchids are unique plants, the results of nature performing at its highest. The orchid family known as Orchidaceae has 750 genera, 25,000-30,000 species and more than 125,000 hybrids of which the quantity assists in keeping expanding yearly. Hybrids are created by cross-breeding species. They also are created through combining two or extra genera which can be referred to as inter-generic hybrids. All new hybrids have to be recognised and named by way of The International Orchid Commission in collaboration with the Royal Horticultural Society of Great Britain. It additionally acts as a global registration authority for orchids. Some 3,000 to 4,000 hybrids are produced every year but most effective the easiest get reputation which are then produced commercially.

      Greek philosopher, Theophrastus (c.372-c.287 BC), who used to be a student of Plato and a disciple of Aristotle, used the word “orchi” in his e book, Investigation of Plants, which later developed into “orchid.” Even in early times in China the orchid flower was held in such high esteem that the good Chinese sage Confucius in comparison the orchid flower to the “perfect and superior man” and the odor of the bloom to the “joys of friendship.”

      History additionally tells us that vanilla essence, used international as of late, is a manufactured from the orchid flower named ‘Vanilla Planifolia’. It used to be identified for centuries to the Aztecs and attracted the eye of the Western global in 1520 when Bernard Diaz, a Spanish conqueror, whilst in Mexico observed the Emperor Montezuma consuming chocolate flavoured with ground vanilla pods. The Spanish took the vanilla back with them to Spain from the place it was presented into Europe.

      There is a false impression that growing orchids is hard and that they need a lawn and a big space. Nothing will also be farther from fact. In fact, they may be able to be grown even on a balcony making it an ideal plant for apartment dwellers.

      The best section is that no soil is wanted which makes it a blank grower. It is grown in media consisting of coconut husk or coco chip, ground charcoal and a couple of broken crocks. As a long way as watering is concerned the plant just wishes a cup an afternoon.

      Karachi’s weather is ideal for growing this glamorous plant. Dendrobiums, Cattleyas, Phalaenopsis, Oncidiums, Ascocendas, Vandas, Miltonias, Epidendrums, Rhyncostylis, Bulbophyllums, Ludisias, Liparis, Laeliocattleyas, Brassias, Tolumnias, Coelogyne, Paphiopedilums or The Lady Slipper Orchid, Cymbidiums and Angraecums are just a few which do rather well here. They bloom at other occasions of the 12 months because of this your garden will have color all over the yr. Certain sorts just like the Phalaenopsis, also referred to as The Moon Flower, blooms for three months at a time. Dendrobium plants ultimate for over a month, however Cattleyas ultimate for 2 weeks handiest.

      During summer time most orchids must be evaded direct midday sun except Dendrobiums. Ideally they need early morning or overdue afternoon solar in this period and virtually complete solar in winter. But Phals, Paphiopedilums, and Ludisia always want filtered solar (shade). Roughly six to seven hours of shiny mild is wanted by means of orchids to bloom neatly.

      This article would be incomplete if no mention is fabricated from the super paintings that the Karachi University is doing relating to tissue culture of orchids. It is a pleasure visiting their greenhouses with thousands of those beauties on display. The division of tissue culture and biotechnology must be congratulated on the great research they are doing on this box.

      I Hope that this article would transfer numerous people residing in high-rise buildings to grow and revel in this exotic plant which is bound to complement everyone’s existence as it has enriched mine with its amazingly diverse good looks, colours, shapes and aromas. It is value stating that orchids are available at most nurseries at very reasonable prices which must be encouraging to fanatics.

      Fig cultivation in Pakistan

      Fig cultivation in Pakistan

      a) Fig is a very powerful fruit crop in many nations on account of its more than a few uses.

      b) According to respectable companies, fig is now being grown within the NWFP, Punjab and Sindh on a small scale.

      c) Fig has now not only interior demand but also has export price. Pakistan at present is making do with its imports simplest, and has not paid consideration to its cultivation to be able to cut down its import which is a drain on our meagre foreign exchange.

      d) The fig drying trade may give employment to folks and in addition scale back regular imports.

      A fruit crop that has a demand at home, in addition to has an export worth, needs having a look into to make Pakistan a fig-growing and exporting country.

      Varieties of Grapes in Pakistan

      Grapes farming in Pakistan is very standard in now a days. Farmer can earn lot of income from grapes farming. The supplied sorts of grapes are appropriate in Punjab. Farmer can earn 16 Lakh to 20 Lakh consistent with Acre from Grapes farming. Agrinfobank Pakistan providing grapes farming consultancy in Pakistan and likewise provide different types of Grapes in Pakistan. We have a grapes nursery to sell our attainable shoppers. Different sorts of Varieties available in Pakistan

      • Narc black (Seeded)
      • Crimson (Seedless)
      • Flame (Seedless)
      • Sultana (Seedless)
      • Muscatil (Seeded)
      • Thompson (Seedless)
      • Perlette (Seedless)
      • Red Globe (Seeded)
      • Cardinal (Seeded)
      • Kings ruby (Seedless)

      Production of Grapes in paksitan

      Production technology of grapes

      Introduction

      Urdu Name Angoor

      English Name Grapes

      Botanical Name : Vitis vinifera cultivars

      Plant Type: Deciduous

      Growth Habit: Upright, requires support

      Growth Rate: Fast

      Its crop require long, heat, dry summers and cool winters for easiest development, required temprature is 15 to 42 centigrad

      Selection of soil

      Gravelly sands to heavy clays, from shallow to deep . However,poorly or mild tired or extremely alkaline soils will have to be have shyed away from.

      PROPAGATION

      Grapes Prouning to cuttings

      In iciness prouning of grapes season has staered. We can made the chopping of this grapes wain. One-year outdated wood will have to be pruned and made the cutting

      Cutting step are given bellow

      First of all when cutting season has began Grapes wain remove put in water tank for 2 to a few houres (for this purpes the skin of wine remains save another way wines can dry particularly damegs of node)
      During winter season when wines are pruned chopping size shuld be 30 -40 cm long . A reducing should be spherical cut at proximal finish (root side) and a slanting cut on the distal finish (shoot aspect) . vine age shuld be three hundred and sixty five days for reducing. Thickness Cuttin of grapes wine like determine to thumb
      3.These cuttings are bundled. There are 50 to 70 cuttings in a single package. These chopping bundles have installed fertile soil for two to a few weaks. After that cultivate it in the black polythen bages.

      Others strategies of propagation are layering and grafting. But slicing propegation methed is seccessfull than layering and grafting.

      Meathod of plating

      Whole measurement = Length 1.five toes to 2feet

      =wedth 1.5feet

      After dig the whole left it for 4 to six days for the passing of daylight

      After 6 days sprouting grapes can transplnt. Fill this entire 1:1:1 FYM, sand, complete soil respectvally and irrigate it

      Mostly graps are cultivate in early spring season

      Row to Row distance = nine toes

      Plant to Plant distance = 8 ft

      No of plant in keeping with acre = 260 to 435

      Fertilizers

      In business orchards of grapes five kg of FYM consistent with plants for excellent manufacturing and Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizer should be applied all the way through iciness or early spring to maintain the plants.

      Irrigation

      Irrigation during flowering and ripening is not advised as it will extend ripening, reduces berry dimension and increases shedding. Recmanded water 2 time every week in summer, in wintry weather one time per week.

      Culturel practices

      Weed control

      Weed control via manually, chamically, machanically

      Training and Pruning

      Pruning provides the vines correct shape and a dimension which facilitates insect and illness keep watch over.

      Method of coaching , pruning given bellow

      1.Head System(major stem is skilled immediately upward) this system is doing seccessfully in pakistan.
      2. Cane System(4-6 fruit trunks are raised)
      3. Cordon System (main trunk is two.5 – 3.five m long and educated horizontally)

      Varities in pakistan

      Important varities of grapes are given below.

      These 10 varities of grapes can develop mostly all pakistan area excluding balochistan.

      a Variety Of kinds of grapes are grown Balochistan given bellow

      The most renowned are, Haita,Kishmishi. Shundokhani, Sahibi and Shekhali are often grown well-liked business types in Quetta, Pishin,Killa Abdullah, Mastung, Kalat, Loralai and Zhob districts.

      Potohar region

      In Potohar area was once one of the most decided on areas where scientists recommended sorts like ‘flame seedless’, King’s Ruby’, Perlett and NARC black.

      Insects Pest And Diseases:

      The grape leaf hopper: It is the typical insect pest feed on the vines from the time leaves apear within the spring until they drop in the fall. Spray of pesticide

      Powdery mildew is a fungul disease prevalent on grapes. Any portion of plant comparable to leaves, blossom, fruit and younger shoots could also be affected. White patches look could also be famous on leaves young shoots; blossom fail to set fruit. Control fungicid spray as metalyxal and mencozeb 100gm in 50 liter water

      Root knot caused by a gall-forming nematode might develop into a problem in sandy and sandy loam soil, resulting in adecline in vine vigor and aid in yields To control it use resistant rootstocks and fumigate the soil.

       Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre input

      Sr noAtom nameCost of atomTotal Atom  Total input
      1No of plants50 Rs per plant400×5020000
      2No of road300 per150×40056000
      3Iron cable180 per kg80 Kg ×18014400
      4Laboring220000×240000
      5watring5000Rs5000Rs5000Rs
      6spraying2500Rs2500Rs2500Rs
      7fertilizer4000Rs4000Rs4000Rs
      8total106300

      Analysis Of Grapes Orchard Per Acre out put

      Mature grapes prodectionTotal grapes plantTotal weight in kgCost per kg  Total
      15to20kg per plant400×20400×15800060008000×1006000×100800000max600000mni

      Profitability of summer vegetables

      WITH continuous building up in inhabitants, Pakistan is dealing with meals safety downside since its independence since the primary focal point of coverage makers has remained on staple meals plants. On the other hand, such supplies don’t meet the nutritional requirement of folks, in particular those dwelling in rural areas.

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      In this kind of scenario, there’s a need to diversify our cropping development from mono-cropping to enterprises which offer crucial vitamins in a brief length of time. Such enterprises providing dietary nutrients at a inexpensive rate are vegetables. But the adoption of vegetables at business stage isn’t enough due to lack of expertise of various stakeholders and small percentage of cropped space beneath vegetable cultivation.

      Therefore, the in keeping with capita, in line with day intake of vegetable is sort of half of the really useful degree of 200 grams according to individual per day. Besides providing the most important nutritional nutrients, greens generate some distance higher income than other plants similar to wheat, cotton, and many others. and low-micronutrient staple food and so they help to fortify the productiveness and sustainability of the cereal-based production machine.

      So, there is a great demand of labour for various agronomic practices and thus, vegetable cultivation generates higher employment at the farm stage than cereals.

      Vegetable production could also be influenced through the positioning of farms because of the fact that farms as regards to enter market are in a greater place to buy other inputs similar to seed, fertilizer, and so on. at the appropriate time. On the opposite hand, most of the greens are perishable in nature and be afflicted by much less loss if produced close to the marketplace.

      Keeping in view all such factors, the present find out about have been designed to decide the profitability of summer greens at the foundation of farm location and its impact on vegetable yield. This learn about will lend a hand the stakeholders, particularly coverage makers to make the neatly managed selections in regards to the formulation of long run strategies for the improvement of the livelihood of vegetable growers.

      Methods: Vegetables are usually grown in two seasons i.e. summer time and winter. Selection of summer vegetables is performed depending upon their focus in several areas of the Punjab. The find out about used to be confined to the Punjab province just for three summer time greens (bitter gourd, muskmelon and tinda gourd) that are present in Faisalabad, Rahim Yar Khan, Leiah, Khanawal, and Bahawalpur.

      The primary function of the study was once to estimeate the price of production and to determine the profitability of selected vegetables. The cost incurred on land preparation via farmers just about marketplace used to be considerably upper as compared to that of some distance from market, since worth in keeping with tractor hour was once top as regards to town in all three greens. In cases where sour gourd, tinda gourd and muskmelon had been planted on raised beds, the time ate up to prepare the beds was once additionally included in the tractor hours.

      The selection and amount of seed used to be a very powerful factor for achieving prime yield of greens. The costs concerned with the usage of the seed amongst each categories were different. In case of on the subject of market the cost of seed was Rs984.85, Rs167.13 and Rs335.64 for bitter gourd, tinda gourd and muskmelon, respectively. While in case of a long way from market, the price of seed involved was Rs890.30, Rs171.44 and Rs361.08 for the respective vegetables.

      Costs involved within the purchase utility of farmyard manure have been Rs369.54, Rs111.98 and Rs182.71 for sour gourd, tinda gourd and muskmelon, respectively on the basis of with reference to market, while in case of some distance from marketplace the prices serious about applying the farmyard manure have been Rs389.54, 249.28 and 98.68 for the respective vegetables. Most of the sampled farmers used somewhat huge quantity of nitrogenous fertilizers. It indicated the lack of information of the farmers about various nutrients required by means of the crop.

      The price desirous about making use of fertilizer through just about marketplace was once Rs1830.88, Rs524.92 and Rs2569.82 for tinda gourd bitter gourd and muskmelon respectively. While in case of a ways from market the above value was once Rs2190.26, Rs594.24 and Rs2110.26 for those 3 greens. Sufficient and timely irrigating a crop improves the yield in step with acre of any crop. Because greens wanted extra irrigation that was why the costs serious about making use of the irrigation was once high relatively than different plants.

      The price curious about irrigation was also higher at the respondents’ farms with regards to marketplace as compared to that of far from marketplace. Vegetables are extra delicate to insect and illness assaults. Similarly, other costs incurred on plant coverage measure, labour, transportation and land rent were a ways higher on the farms near to market than the ones of a ways from market in all greens

      Gross income from the cultivation of summer time vegetables was upper on farms almost about market as in comparison to those a ways from the market. The net income per kg was Rs2.75, 1.27 and zero.73 for respective greens in case of farmers just about market, while in case of farmers some distance from the market the online income in step with kg used to be Rs2.33, zero.59 and nil.32.

      Fertilizer is every other vital input that enhances vegetable yield substantially when carried out at proper time. Statistically meaningful coefficients were made up our minds for all 3 vegetables. However, proportion effect of fertilizer used to be upper in case of muskmelon as compared to sour gourd and tinda gourd because these vegetables needed fewer quantities of inorganic vitamins as compared to muskmelon.

      Dummy variable for farm measurement had an anticipated unfavorable sign showing that as farm size larger, vegetable yield decreased. This used to be due the fact that vegetable cultivation required an enormous amount of financial assets at various phases of production whereas the vegetable growers may just now not find the money for such expenditures as farm size larger. For sour growing farms, this coefficient was statistically non-significant.

      Suggestions: Following suggestions are made for increasing the yield of summer season vegetables:

      • Summer vegetable cultivation wishes right kind amount of irrigation water at different levels. Results of production serve as indicate that with greater use of irrigation, vegetable yield would increase substantially. Therefore, it is suggested that the farmers will have to make extra and considered use of irrigation water.
      • Vgetable growers use the inorganic vitamins beneath the really useful level because of monetary constraints. The results of manufacturing serve as display that fertilizer is significantly expanding vegetable yield. On the foundation of those effects, the vegetable growing farmers can building up the yield in step with acre through making use of more fertilizer.
      • Vegetables are delicate to illnesses and bugs attacks. Diagnosis of illness and insect attack at the right time is the foremost part in crop control practices. A delay will motive disaster to the crop and in the end the producer will suffer from this disaster. After prognosis, the choice and dose of pesticide required for explicit assault is the next step in crop management. Consulting with extension group of workers or some other specialist would possibly help in the appropriate collection of pesticide.
      • The illness and pest assaults are one of the major constraints in vegetable manufacturing. For chemical control of major sicknesses and insect pest attacks the farmers must observe the recommendation of the Agriculture Department of the Punjab province. Timely, suitable and considered use of pesticide can assist in controlling the above mentioned constraints. Use of resistant or tolerant types of greens can be viable alternative for farmers for controlling bugs or illnesses.
      • Weeds in any crop negatively have an effect on the production. That’s why the vegetable growers the usage of more collection of labour hours for weeding and hoeing were given higher yields. Herbicides the use of for weed regulate is an expensive method. Alternative to weed regulate with herbicides include crop rotation, cautious and well timed cultivation, intercropping to out-compete weeds and many others.
      • The process of data alternate and communication among researchers, extension group of workers and farmers will depend on adequate and well timed actions within the area involved. Critical to the invention, building, and alertness of recent and resource-efficient farming techniques and applied sciences is their characterization and interpretation in phrases which can also be easily understood and implemented by farmers.
      • Marketing as an institution must be established on fashionable strains within the country. Vegetable growers should have get admission to to a large number of customers. In towns, right kind wholesale advertising and marketing gadget will have to be established. The delivery infrastructure is any other restricting issue in the advertising and marketing of greens. As those are perishable commodities, delivery infrastructure should be reinforced.
      • As discussed previous, vegetable cultivation needs extra price range to buy inputs and perform more than a few farm activities. On the other hand, vegetable growers possess small chew of landholding, subsequently, they’ve lack of financial sources. So, these farmers need instant consideration of the involved government.

      Reducing post-harvest vegetable losses

      VEGETABLES, regardless that, handiest 2d to staple when placed on nationwide meals security checklist, are going through enormous problems which are causing fall in production, and their post-harvest losses, already alarmingly top, are increasing.

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      Value addition trade, which is helping keep an eye on those losses and earns additional money for the sector, is sort of non-existent. Hybrid era is yet to be introduced in the vegetables seed sector.

      There has been no step forward even in conventional seed era or managments pactices, which could lend a hand the sector develop. These are one of the primary issues, otherwise the record can still pass on further.

      All this is going on regardless of increasing population and multiplying nationwide demand for greens yearly. The rising hole between call for and provide keeps emerging.

      The emerging price development is additional fueled through receding writ of the federal government, where each and every vendor is authorized to fix his/her personal costs and fleece the deficient.

      National statistics of greens production tells the tale how the secor is being allowed to sink in the mire. During the Kharif 2005-06, vegetable production stood at 1.2 milion heaps. It dropped to underneath 1,000,000 tons in next 4 years (2009-10).

      Similarly, Rabi (2005-06) manufacturing of vegetable crops, which used to be 2.2 million tons, came down to 2 million lots remaining yr (2009-10). (These figures exclude potato and onion manufacturing). During these four years, population grew and the call for for vegetable increased.

      How the officialdom deals with the sector is obvious from the initiative Punjab took ultimate December, when vegetable costs shot throughout the roof within the province — proud producer of 65 in keeping with cent vegetables within the nation.
      The Punjab chief minister announced a provincial plan to double vegetable production and produce prices down to part within the subsequent three-four months through sowing them on all available land beneath the provincial govt and reinforce provide facet control.

      A media campaign followed, and an preliminary allocation of Rs2.7 million used to be made. The time for the undertaking is already up, but not a unmarried penny has been relased so far. No one in authentic circles even mentions the plan, which received so much attention 4 months in the past.

      The nation wishes to extend production through developing new seeds and applied sciences. The maximum very important step is to make stronger seeds pool of more or less 30 vegetables that are produced in Rabi and Kharif seasons. Most countries on the earth including India, did it long ago, and were reaping the benefit. They no longer simplest progressed their conventional seed inventory, but in addition went into hybrid, which simply multiplied their manufacturing.

      Pakistan, alternatively, remains to be to inspire such a initiative — each on conventional seeds and hybrid. That is why no local corporate has dared into vegetable hybrid seed but. All the so-called greens hybrid seeds, that are nonetheless scant in use, are coming from the Far East and no one is aware of about the parentage and gene strenght of those seeds. The country is risking so-called hybrid seeds despite struggling badly on cotton, because untested hybrid seed import for years. It now appears to be repeating the mistake on other fronts.

      In addition to multiplying yield through hybrid seeds, they also advanced, what is referred to as, ‘stay green’ think about seeds. This issue delays over-maturing process, and vegetable stays inexperienced and usable on the plant for longer period. It gives farmer time to stagger harvesting and sale of the crop. In our nation, with the use of conventional seed, the crop, as soon as matured, very quickly over-matures and rots, generating force on farmers to reap and sell it right away.

      It robs the farmer of any manoeuvrebility in time for harvesting and sale. The stay inexperienced seeds are common on this planet now, and there is not any explanation why we should now not benefit from this leap forward.

      In the country, essential research has stalled on almost all vegetable seeds, leave on my own trying to bring in new factors like keep inexperienced. That is where the government must work.

      The executive can lend a hand the field and farmers a great deal via controlling post-harvest losses, which might be ranging between 35 -40 consistent with cent. If the government can construct cool chain infrastructure, it can deliver losses down to five to 10 consistent with cent, improving national provides by a substantial 30 to 35 per cent. That convey the costs down for city dwellers, alleviate poverty in rural spaces and spice up vegetable exports.

      Luckily, maximum plants are produced right here in geographical clusters. Over 80 per cent potato is produced in one district in Punjab; whole citrus crop is concentrated in Sargodha department, and whole mango is produced in southern Punjab. It makes it more straightforward to broaden infrastructure to keep an eye on post-harvest losses and save the average man from emerging prices, which are now spinning beyond their monetary succeed in.