Mango the king of fruits: Pakistan world's favorite

The summer time is in full glide. Arguably, probably the most awaited season of the yr brings with probably the most desirable fruit, which is called as mango. Mangoes are labelled because the “super fruit” within the fruit international. Mangos are being cultivated everywhere the sector in surplus quantities to meet the ever expanding demands of the folk for this fruit. According to a survey executed via the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations in 2012, an estimated 42 million metric lots of mango production used to be recorded.

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The local weather which suits the mango cultivation is the tropical local weather. Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand all benefit from the mango in its natural shape as particular measures are taken for his or her growth.

Pakistan cultivates mangos in prime amounts. As in line with the survey of UN accomplished in 2012, Pakistan produced nearly 2 million metric tons value of mangos. As we’re going forward, the will for mango is also expanding. The city of Multan is renowned for its manufacturing of mangoes. The quality being produced on this a part of Pakistan is 2d to none. Different kinds of this illustrious culmination are observed being bought on other carts, fruit markets, supermarkets. As quickly as the summers hit, you notice the vibrant yellow colour in all places.

Types of Mangoes In Pakistan


Pakistan produces other sorts of mangoes. The differing kinds include:-

Almaas, Alphonso, Anmol, Anwar Rataul, Baganpali, Chaunsa (the most preferred), Chok anan, Collector, Dusehri, Desi Ada Pamato, Desi Badam, Desi Gola, Desi Badshah, Dilkash, Fajri, Gulab Janhu, Gulab Khas, Lahoti, Lal Badshah, Langra, Maldah, Muhammad Wole, Nawab Puri, Neelum, Rani Phool, Sindhri, Saroli, Sawaranika, Saleh Bhai, Saib, Shan-e-Khuda, Taimuria, Toofan, Wanghi, Zafran. Some of probably the most well-known mangos are:-

Anwar Rataul

Anwar Rataul is likely one of the maximum consumed form of mango in Pakistan. It is known as after Rataul, a village near Baghpat district in Uttar Pradesh. It has an overly candy, distinct taste. Having a fibreless flesh, this type is greatly loved by means of the folks in Pakistan. It is instantly available in the months of June and July. Mostly found within the province of Punjab.

Chaunsa

The most sought after within the checklist of mangoes is Chaunsa. Chaunsa mangoes are cultivated mainly within the areas of Multan and Sahiwal in Pakistan. Its wealthy perfume, sweet taste, juicy taste and fibreless flesh makes it the best of the lot within the mango global. The Chaunsa season begins at the finish of June and goes on until the mid of August.

Sindhri

The Sindhri mango is originated from the areas of Mirpur Khas, Sindh. It has a positive, fibreless texture, with an oval form. Its top season is between the mid of June-July.

Langra

Another type of mango which could be very famous is the Langra. Originated close to Benares, it has a pores and skin which is reasonably green in color, with a skinny texture. It’s mostly seen within the month of July. Its measurement levels from medium to huge.

Ways Of Consuming Mangoes

In Pakistan, mangos are being consumed in multiple techniques. The love affair between the folk of Pakistan and this fruit is sky top and it doesn’t appear to be it’ll prevent any time quickly. The techniques of intake are other from every other, which presentations the range.

People both slice the whole fruit down and simply pick out it up and begin to suck the juice out of the mango with none hesitation.

The more conventional tactics of eating mangoes are:

Cubicles:-

In this technique, the flesh of the mango is reduce into a number of cubes with the help of a knife. Although this can be a bit time eating, but relating to eating mango, this is without doubt one of the most used.

Milk Shakes:-

Arguably the best way to enjoy the dietary goodness of the mango is by blitzing it with milk to shape a milkshake. Kids (bache) and adults both love the drink and may be a great beverage to overcome the heat.

Chutneys:-

Yes, the pulp of the mango is used for the formation of chutneys.

Salads:-

They are used broadly in salads so as to add slightly tanginess and candy tinge to the vegetables.

Meagre resources allocated to tackle climate change

ISLAMABAD: Climatic variation over the past few days reinforced the unpredictability and uncertainty of climate in the age of climate change.

Climate change has two basic elements – one is related to control or mitigation and the other pertains to adapting to changes. Mitigation has limited relevance for Pakistan, but adaptation is a key area of alarm.

It does not mean Pakistan should not concentrate on mitigation, but the challenge on hand is adaptation. The changes, which have occurred in the climatic system, need to be tackled by proper planning, policy and execution of plans and policies.

Pakistan started to develop its first policy quite late, but now we have a climate change policy. Besides, it also developed an implementation framework. However, the story beyond this is not satisfactory.

The policy and framework are quite comprehensive and encompass almost all areas of concern which require urgent attention. Unfortunately, the policy and implementation plan could not get the attention of policy circles.

The budget for 2018-19 clearly spells out the priority of the government to deal with climate change. It has allocated just Rs803 million for the Ministry of Climate Change, which seems to be nothing in the context of mounting challenge.

Pakistan is among top 10 countries that are most vulnerable to climate change. Spending the allocated fund is another area of concern. A review of budget 2017-18 exhibits the government earmarked around Rs341 billion for climate-related initiatives and projects. Of that, only Rs182 billion was spent.

It is interesting to note that most of the allocation was spent by three ministries including the Ministry of Finance (49%), Ministry of Defence (20%) and Cabinet Secretariat (14%). They were followed by the Ministry of Water Resources (4%) and Ministry of Railways (3%). The Ministry of Climate Change could not find a place in this ranking.

Though the government is focusing on taking climate change-related initiatives in other ministries as well, it is weakening the status of climate change ministry as major burden to tackle climate change rests on its shoulders.

Challenges

Climate change-related matters face many problems, but the most important are poor decision-making, poor governance and victimisation.

First of all, decision-making mechanisms do not reflect the importance and urgency to cope with climate change. It is considered business as usual and a matter of least concern.

Second, governance mechanisms for implementation and accountability are very weak. This is because of deficient human resources and low technological levels.

The climate change ministry is one of the least populated ministries. It has multiple tasks ranging from local to global and should be present at all important forums to present the case of Pakistan. In doing so, they are exhausted and have very limited time to focus at the national level.

Therefore, the governance structure of the ministry does not allow it to function at maximum efficiency levels. In addition to this, the staff at the ministry is very bureaucratic and leaves less room for technical and expert staff.

Recently, the government has introduced the Climate Act 2017. It has expressed the will to revitalise the spirit and structure of the ministry but it will take time. Third, the political economy does not give much importance to climate change. Business and industrial development is the top priority, but environment and climate change stands at a very low level.

Business and industrial communities are very strong and have negotiation skills for the protection of their interests. Environment and climate change community is highly educated and has the expertise but their influence is limited on policy circles.

In reality, the economic and industrial development and environment and climate change have to go hand in hand. First and foremost thing to note is that no development intervention is free of impact on environment and climate.

However, the impact can be minimised without compromising the development work. Here comes the concept of “Climate Compatible Development” to tackle climate change and its impact.

Shirking responsibility

The government clears itself by criticising the West for its role in changing climate. No doubt the West is responsible for climate change, but it is also essential to realise we cannot divert the impact of climate change by just criticising the West.

We need to devise and develop plans to combat through proper mitigation and adaptation.

Lastly, the climate change ministry has been a victim of experiments. Before devolution, it was the ministry of environment. It was devolved to provinces, then brought back to the federal level, but with the name of Ministry of NDMA.

After continuous efforts by the civil society and experts, it was renamed as the Ministry of Climate Change.

Now, the introduction of Climate Act 2017 has led to confusion. There is no clarity of roles for federal and provincial ministries. The federal government has its own national Climate Change Policy whereas  the provinces are developing their own such policies.

It needs to be understood climate change is not a provincial problem, it is a national issue and we need a national policy and action plan. Provinces must be independent to implement their policies but within the limits defined by the federal government.

The writer is the Head of Centre for Future Policy and Head of Research Coordination Unit, Sustainable Development Policy Institute

Mango growers feel the heat as Pakistan tackles climate change

KARACHI: Pakistan may be among the top five producers of mango in the world, but its production was 50% of its capacity last year, according to industry players, who are now concerned over future yield as climate change and other factors play their role in squeezing produce.

While there are expectations that this year’s production may be higher, issues facing the industry will continue to haunt mango growers.

“I haven’t seen a yield so low since I started working in 1995,” Pakistan Fruit & Vegetable Exporters, Importers & Merchants Association (PFVA) Patron-in-Chief Waheed Ahmed told The Express Tribune.

His comments came after Pakistan registered its lowest production in history last year, amounting to 0.9 million tons, according to industry players.

“Other veterans of the industry tell me it was the worst in Pakistan’s history.” India, China, Thailand, Mexico and Pakistan are the top producers of mangoes in the world.

However, Pakistan could see itself drop out of the list as climate change and water scarcity hinder production.

“Winters have been longer for a few years now due to climate change, which has been impacting yield. Moreover, there were frequent hailstorms and strong winds, which forced production of mangoes to drop.

“There’s water shortage as well. All these have adversely affected not only mango production but also agriculture as a whole,” he added.

According to Germanwatch’s Global Climate Risk Index 2018 report, Pakistan is the seventh most vulnerable country to global warming and subsequently, climate change.

The export target of 100,000 tons was also not achieved as shipments amounted to 81,000 tons.

“Along with low production, the smaller size of mango is also of great concern to exporters. Due to increase in demand and shortage of supply this year, the wholesale price of mango is expected to increase from Rs2,400 to Rs3,000 per 40kg approximately,” said Ahmed.

He said that there was an urgent need for research and policymaking to deal with the issue of climate change.

“Other countries have already started dealing with the global warming issue. But unfortunately, Pakistan has lagged behind that could imperil the country’s food security.”

Ahmed said the industry has been facing a higher air freight expense compared to neighbouring India and that too, in disagreeable conditions. He remarked that last year the air freight was Rs178 per kg for Pakistan, while it was Rs95 per kg for Indian produce to European countries in Pakistani rupee terms.

“Airlines from the Middle East take an undertaking from Pakistan exporters that they won’t be responsible for late delivery or even in case the number of boxes are less when the shipment reaches its destination.

“We have approached the Competition Commission of Pakistan (CCP) to resolve this issue. I have seen many exporters losing a lot of money due to late delivery and sometimes due to mistakes on the part of the airlines,” he said.

Positive news

On a positive note, the much-celebrated China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) route may help the country in exporting mangoes to China this year.

The industry expects that around 500 to 2,000 tons could be exported to the neighbouring country. The Gulf countries, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and European countries could also be major buyers of Pakistani mangoes. The export of mango is set to begin from May 20.

Foreign exchange of $95-100 million is expected to be generated by attaining the export target of 100,000 tons. Rupee devaluation and Ramazan have made Pakistani exporters hopeful of attaining the target this year. Mango promotion events will also be held in China, and European countries this year to further enhance the export of mango.

By Bilal Hussain, Express Tribune

Summer mango fruit fly incursions lead to tougher SA import restrictions

South Australia has strengthened its import requirements, following the discovery of fruit fly larvae in four consignments of Queensland mangoes sent to South Australia during the summer harvest, which threatened its fruit fly-free status.

The reforms include a ban on fruit that has been heat-treated as well as stronger conditions for the use of a fumigation chemical treatment.

One of the infested mango consignments had been subjected to a hot-water treatment and another to methyl-bromide fumigation.

Geoff Raven, the manager for plant and food standards at Biosecurity South Australia, said investigations found both treatments had met existing protocols for interstate certification.

“They found that the chemical fumigators actually complied with the protocols and with the heat treatment, again there was no non-conformance.

“So the protocols were followed to the letter, which tells us that there’s a problem with the protocols,” he said.

The resulting suspension of heat treatments has virtually banned the trade of organic fruit to South Australia.

Fruit treated by methyl-bromide must now have a temperature of 16 degrees Celsius, up from 12 degrees, during the fumigation process.

The higher temperature causes the larvae to become more active, which makes the pest more likely to ingest the chemical and die.

Supply chain takes biosecurity out of growers’ hands

Biosecurity Queensland has revealed the consignment of infested mangoes treated by methyl-bromide had not originally been destined for South Australia but Victoria.

Its general manager for plant biosecurity, Mike Ashton, said fruit fly treatment rules did not apply to mangoes sent to Victoria, because the pest was already in abundance in that state.

The Victorian fumigation facility involved was also under investigation this year over the detection of live fruit fly in nectarines sent to Tasmania, which also enjoys fruit fly-free status.

Quarantine standards breached

Mr Ashton said dipping and flood spraying, rather than methyl-bromide fumigation, was used during on-farm treatments for mangoes destined for South Australia and Tasmania.

Investigations by Biosecurity Queensland have revealed two of the growers whose infested mango consignments were rejected by South Australia had breached quality assurance standards.

“With the second business, the non-conformance was in relation to the post-treatment inspection for freedom from fruit fly and the business was found to be not undertaking those inspections in the way it’s required,” Mr Ashton said.

All fruit fly host produce subject to new requirements

South Australia’s new import requirements affect all produce that are host to either Queensland fruit fly or Mediterranean fruit fly, which is found in Western Australia.

Recently, fruit fly larvae was also discovered in trays of strawberries sent from Queensland to South Australia.

Fruit flies can also infect citrus fruits, bananas, tomatoes, papayas, berries, grapes, apples, pears, apricots, olives and almonds.

Article Source: ABC News

Mango Varieties

The Indo-Pakistan mangoes are monoembryonic and seedlings differ invariably from each other. The wide variations among the seedling progeny have been responsible for the evolution of several choice varieties in both the countries which have been further multiplied by vegetative means and grown on large scale. These varieties have thus been called as “Horticulture Varieties”. That is how a large number of standard varieties have come onto being and is cultivated in the different parts of Indo-Pakistan. The varietal nomenclature is so much confusing that one variety carries many names at various places and some cases on name is applied to several varieties.

Pakistan produces over 150 varieties of mango and among these Chaunsa and Sindhri have great potential for finding buyers in the international markets.

Talking to APP on Monday Secretary Agriculture Punjab Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed said Punjab holds 67 percent of the total area and produces 80 percent of country’s  Mango.

He said total production of mangoes in Punjab during 2011-12 was 1.304 tons and Pakistan is of high quality with good aroma, excellent appearance, special taste and flavor along with sufficient quantity of fiber content thus enjoying a prominent position in the international market.

To a question, he said Pakistan produces over 1.75 million tons of mangoes out of which 127 tons are exported, currently only 5 percent of the total mango produce is processed in to value added items like pulp for use in drinks and ice cream, canned mangoes and dried mangoes.

He said Pakistan exported mangoes worth $ 29 million to the Middle East and EU in 2009 and Malaysia, China and Hong Kong are other valuable trading partners.

Pakistan Mango Varities: Chaunsa, Chok anan, Dusehri, Langra, Desi, Anwar Rataul, Sindhri, Fajri, Saroli, BaganPali, Alphonso, Muhammad Wole, Neelum,Shan e Khuda

Chaunsa

Flesh firm, fibreless with pleasant flavour and sweet taste. Juice moderately adundant. Fruit quality good, keeping good quality. Ripening season in August.

Season: July – September
Origin: Rahim Yar Khan & Multan
Color: Gold
Flavor: Slight perfume
Fiber: 17.2 – 27.3%
Sugar Content: 18 – 22%
Pulp Gravity: Heavy
Moisture Content: 78% after ripening; 81% before ripening
Weight: 1-2.3 Pounds
Relative Humidity: 85%

LANGRA  

It has originated as a superior chance seedling near Benares. Size medium to large, ovate, base round to slightly flatten, shoulders equal. Beak minute but distinct, sinus slight to absence, skin green and thin, flesh fibreless, yellowish brown in color, scented, highly melting, very sweet. Stone very small, flattened, oval. Weight of an average fruit is about ¼ kg. Fruit quality very good, bearing heavy. Season (Early to mid Season). 1st to 3rd week of July. Heavy yielder.

AMAN DUSEHRI

It derives its name form village between Lucknow and Malihabad where it was originated as a superior chance seedling. Size small to medium, oblong, ventral, shoulder higher than dorsal, beak and sinus absent, color yellow when ripe, skin thin, pulp fibreless, flesh firm, very sweet, flavor nice. Stone very small, oblong, variety good to very best, bearing heavy, mid season (July), keeping and peeling quality good.

ALPHANSO, BOMBAY                                                                                    

This is a leading commercial variety of Bombay State and is one of the best in India. Because of its better adaptability to humid climate it has not been able to maintain its esteemed position in the dry districts of Pakistan. The Alphanso is successful in some districts of Sindh. Size medium, ovate, oblique, base obliquely flattened, Ventral structure boarder and much higher than dorsal, beak just a point, sinus not prominent, color of the ripe fruit yellow or brownish yellow, skin thin, pulp yellowish brown, flesh firm, taste very sweet, flavor excellent, almost fibreless. Fruit quality is good. Mid season variety harvested in July.

SAMMAR BAHISHT

It has originated as a superior chance seedling in Muzaffernager U.P. It got its name because of its pleasant flavor. Fruit medium, base slightly flattened, shoulders equal, sinus very light, beak point prominent, skin greenish yellow, thin, pulp yellow, very sweet, sparsely fibrous, flavor pleasant to delicious. Stone medium and oblong, oval. Quality of the fruit is very good, keeping and peeling qualities well. Ripening season July-August.

FAJRI KALAN  

It has originated as superior chance seedling in Bihar and gor its name after the name of lady Fajri who selected and brought up its trees. Size big, oblong, obliquely oval, base rounded, shoulder unequal, with ventral higher than the dorsal, beak distinct, sinus very shallow with rounded apex. Skin thin, pulp color pale, fibreless, taste sweet with pleasant flavor. Juice moderate to abundant. Stone large, oblong. Fruit quality good to very good bearing late season August, Keeping quality good.

MUHAMMADWALA

Size small to medium, skin thick, yellow brown, pulp sweet, juicy, stone medium sized, fiber very little. Very hard variety. Season early August.

SAMMAR BAHISHT CHAUSA 

It is originated as choicest seedling in a village Chausa in Malihabad, Tehsil of Lucknow. It is also known as “Kajri” or “Khajri”. There is resemblance between the foliage of Fajri and this variety but there are marked difference in fruit shape and quality. Fruit medium to large ovate to oval, base obliquely flattened, ventral shoulder raised than the dorsal, beak distinct, sinus shallow, apex round, skin medium in thickness, smooth, flesh firm, fibreless with pleasant flavor and sweet taste. Juice moderately abundant. Stone somewhat large oblong. Fruit quality good, bearing heavy, keeping quality medium to good. Ripening season in August (late).

RATAUL (ANWA R) 

It has originated as a chance seedling in “Shohra-e-Afaq” Garden in Rataul. Now is has become popular in mango growing areas of Punjab because of its high flavor. Fruit medium, ovate, base flattened with equal shoulders, which are rounded, beak not prominent, absent in some cases, sinus absent, and apex round. Skin medium thick. Flesh firm, fibreless, flavor very pleasant, with very sweet taste. Juice moderately abundant. Some medium oval. Fruit quality very good. Ripening season in July (Mid-Season). Keeps well in storage.

SINDHRI

Season: Mid-May to mid-July
Origin: Mir Pur Khas
Color: Gold
Flavor: Slight Perfume
Pulp Gravity: Medium
Fiber: 3 – 5%
Moisture Content (average): 79% after ripening; 18% before ripening
Weight: Average 1 – 3.5 pounds
Relative Humidity: 85%

It is a leading variety of Sindh. Fruit shape ovalish long. Size big, length 15 cm, breadth 8 cm. Thickness 7.4 cm. Weight 14.0 oz. Base obliquely rounded, cavity absent, Ventral shoulder rising and round, dorsal ending in a curve. Skin color lemon yellow when ripe. Surface smooth. Pulp color Yellowish cadium. Texture fine and firm fibreless. Stone medium size. Flavor pleasantly aromatic, taste sweet. Heavy yielder, early season.

BANGANPALI

Another variety of Sindh. Fruit shape is obliquely oval, Size is big, length about 14 cm. Breadth 9.1 cm Thickness 8.2 cm. Weight 22.0 oz. Base obliquely flattened. Cavity not prominent. Stalk inserted obliquely. Shoulders ventral typically razed, broader and much more higher than dorsal. Back almost rounded. Skin color dark green and glazy when unripe. Yellowish light green with very light crimson patches when ripe. Surface smooth, shining. Dots small distinct. Glands small, crowded.

NEELUM   http://www.agrinfobank.com

Quality variety of Sindh. Fruit shape ovate, size small, length 7.7cm breath 5.9cm thickness 5.6cm weight 5.0oz. The base is rounded. Stalk inserted squarely. Cavity slight to absent, Shoulders unequal. Ventral is higher than dorsal, back rounded. Sinus slight to shallow, Beak acute to obtuse. Apex rounded, Skin color sea green when unripe & yellow with reddish tinge when ripe. Surface smooth. Small dots with numerous small glands. http://www.agrinfobank.com

References:

East or west, Pakistani mangoes are the best

Muzammil Ferozi 

KARACHI: Mango is called “The King of Fruit,” one of the most nutritious, not to mention delicious as Pakistani Mangoes are high in fiber, low in calories and contain a small amount of carbohydrates, calcium, iron, potassium and a little protein and are rich in vitamins, A, B and C containing other antioxidant vitamins as well. It is one of the sweetest fruit in the world.

Sub-continent is the habitat of mango, where it has been growing for over 4,000 years and subsequently has spread to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mangoes have been produced in Pakistan for well over two thousand years, and the country is now the forth largest producer in the world

Among 1595 varieties of mangoes known, only 25 to 30 are being grown on commercial scale. The varieties of the king of the fruit are producing in Pakistan include Chaunsa, Sindhri, Langra, Dasehri, Anwar Ratool, Saroli, Samar Bahisht, Toota Pari, Fajri, Neelum, Alphanso, Almas, Sanwal, Surkha, Sunera and Desi.

Chaunsa mango of Pakistan is one of the worlds’ top available varieties. Chaunsa is a variety of mango grown in different parts of the world, but originally from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan in Punjab. It is an exceptionally sweet mango with a wonderful fragrance and delicious soft, succulent flesh with only the minimum of fibre. it is not a fruit of beauty, usually being of a pale, matt yellow appearance, but one inside the thin peel it is a delight. Chausna has quite a thick stone and the flesh is a fairly light yellow in colour. It’s origin from Rahim Yar Khan and Multan Punjab.

Sindhri is a Leading variety of Sindh. Its shape ovalish long, size large, skin colour lemon yellow when ripe, pulp colour yellowish cadium, texture fine and firm fibreless, stone medium sized, flavour pleasantly aromatic and taste sweet. It’s origin from Mir Pur Khas. It is also the national fruit of Pakistan because this variety is top in Pakistan. Sindhri is very famous mango variety from Pakistan and Among the Best Mangoes of the World.

Langra mango’s flesh is fiber-less, yellowish brown in color and has a strong smell when it ripens. As compared to other varieties of mangoes, it is naturally verysugary and soft. The size of the seed is small and oval in shape. Langra maintains it green color after it gets ripe, while other mangoes change into yellow-reddish color.

Dasheri mango is long and oval shaped, with a light green or yellow-green skin when mature, becoming golden yellow when ripe. Dasheri mangoes have a fiberless, peach-colored flesh with a medium-sized stone. The flavor is very sweet and aromatic. Dasheri mangoes are high in vitamin C and fiber. Mangoes naturally contain enzymes beneficial for digestion as well as many other valuable vitamins and minerals.

Anwar Ratool, mango is said to have been cultivated by Anwar-ul-haq in a garden in the Ratol area in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. But now it is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Anwar Ratole Mango is recognized for its rich flavor all around the globe. Owing to its superb taste it has gained most popularity in recent times. It has an exceptional sweet taste that makes the tasting buds so refreshing. It is the best variety of mango in terms of sweetness and flavor that distinguishes it from all the other mangoes. Its peak season starts from the mid of July and ends in August. This mango is fully loaded with nutritional values that provides sufficient amount of energy. It is extensively grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Its peak season is from mid-July to August.

Saroli, A popular variety in North India and Pakistan. It’s one of the first mangoes to appear during the season. Sweet green mangos are aromatic and rich in fragrance. It is a rich source of vitamins, potassium, phenol and iron, and looks so tempting and tastes so yummy.

Samar Bahisht is a local selection; a change seedling in Fajri plantation in village “Chaunsa” by a farmer Mir Khan Bahadur Altaf Rasul very popular late season mango. It is planted in Multan, Mirpurkhas, Tarnab (DIK) Foliage medium dense, shape ovate to oval oblong, color light green at maturity, yellow at ripening, sinus weak, conspicuous, flesh pale yellow,medium juicy, sweet, flavor rich, distinctive, aromatic, fibers medium.

The Totapuri mango is a cultivar that is widely grown in South India and is partially cultivated in Sri Lanka. … Totapuri is one of the main cultivars grown in India for mango pulp, along with ‘Alphonso’ and ‘Kesar’. The tree is medium size with greenish yellow fruits.

Fajri , it is origion from Behar, it was created by a woman the name is after her, the skin is pale and the pulp is fibreless, Fajri is also known for its sweet taste and exceptional texture.

Neelam mango grows in many areas of Pakistan. The more famous Pakistani varieties are from the Sindh region, it is also very famous in Indian mangoes varieties. Noticeable with its distinctive lovely fragrance, Neelam is available throughout the season but the tastiest ones come in only by June with the monsoons. They are tiny in comparison to other varieties and have yellow-orange skin.

Alphanso, it is very sweet and different from others. This type of mango does not grow out of seed. It is planted through artificial propagation. It is a mid season variety and is harvested in July.

Desi mangoes, Since indigenous desi mangoes varieties are not as popular as the commercial ones like Chaunsa and Dussehri, growers are fast switching over to economically profitable varieties. This does not bode well for already threatened ‘desi’ varieties. It’s the cheapest mango and hardly known in the market, even though some of them are much easier to grow as compared to the commercial varieties. Most of the times, they grow out of discarded seeds. But, most of these mangoes remain confined to orchards as they are not popular.

The main mango growing districts in the Punjab province are Multan, Bahawalpur, Muzzaffargarh and Rahim yar Khan. In the province of Sindh it mainly grows in Mir pur Khas, Hyderabad and Thatta and in the province of NWFP D.I Khan, Peshawar and Mardan are known for it.

Mango is the second most exported fruit from Pakistan mainly to Middle East, Iran, Germany, Japan, China and Hong Kong making its valuable contribution as an important foreign currency earning fruit crop. Pakistan is now the 4th largest producer in the world behind India, China, Mexico and Thailand.

Mango is the second largest fruit crop of Pakistan. At present it has grown on an area of 170.1000 thousand hectares with production of 1.8 million tones. Only in Punjab province, there are mango gardens on 271,700 acres of land and they are producing 70% mangoes of total production, Sindh produces 24% and KPK produces 1% of total production, which seems to be reducing this year, the second major fruit crop of Pakistan produces 8.5% of world’s Mango. The climate earlier than that of Punjab has given the province the privilege to grow early varieties of Mango.

According to Waheed Ahmed Chairman All Pakistan Fruit and Vegetable Exporters Importers and Merchant Association (PFVA) that in the past few years the production of quality Mangoes is on the decrease due to global warming and government is not taking any imitative to tackle the problem.

Moreover he told that Pakistan’s horticulture has been badly hit by global warming and extreme weather, and a major casualty this season has been the Mango crop in Punjab. Mango output has also been affected in south Punjab where fruit plants are in Rahim Yar Khan, Muzaffargarh and Multan. However, the crop in Sindh is comparatively less affected and only a 10% reduction is likely in its share of 35% in the country’s total Mango output. In southern Sindh, Mango production has not been a viable business over the years due to harsh weather.

According to a senior official of the Agriculture Department, this year March surprisingly turned to be cold like January or February. Later the dust storms and sudden increase in temperature affected the fruit. “Farmers are worried, as they will hardly be able to recover cost,” he feared.

In addition he told that the Soil and climatic environment in Pakistan support Mango production in terms of capitulate and quality. Number of factors contributes towards low production of Mango. Unchecked use of unhealthy seeds forming diseased seedlings, Insect attack (Mango mealy bug, fruit fly, Mango weevil, scales, mites), improper management practices during budding or grafting, time of irrigation, pruning and time of application of fertilizers are contributing substantially to the downfall of the industry. Adding to the ever increasing problems are the post harvest losses contributing almost 40% to 50%.

. Pakistan is riding on the wave of taking more than 2 lakh mangoes to different parts of the world this year due to negligence mangoes shipment have been cancelled last year.

Since Pakistan’s last year mango production was reported to be 1.7 million tonne with two-third and one-third share of Punjab and Sindh respectively.

In addition to major crop losses, bad luck awaited Pakistan at another front. A Pakistani Mango consignment of 4.5 tonnes was rejected last year in Amsterdam after discovering fruit fly in the fruit, making the first such instance last year. The EU had already made it clear last year that more than five rejections will mean a complete ban on Pakistani fruit and vegetable imports in the European markets.

To promote and introduce mangoes Three-day annual mango show is arranged by Agriculture Department in RAHIM YAR KHAN and besides this National Mango and Summer Fruits Festival is also arranged every year at the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Exhibition Hall in Mirpurkhas.

Approximately 1% of Mango production is utilized for processing for juice, nectars, preserves, fruit leather, dried fruit slices, frozen pulp, and as flavoring for baked goods, ice cream, yoghurt, etc.

Mango Fruit-An Overview

Ubaid ur Rehman, Mujahid Ali, Dr. Rashad M. Balal

(Horticulture, College of Agriculture, UOS)

Man or woman, child or old, each an everyone waits anxiously mangoes as summer season starts. Mango is the national fruit of subcontinent, that’s why it is also known as the king of fruits. Due to its sweetness and unique fragrance people like it heartily. The famous poet “Ameer Khusroo” gives the title of “Fakhr-e-Gulistan” to mango. Once Mughal king Bahadur Shah Zafar with Mirza Ghalib visited the mango orchard and Mirza Ghalib was looking strangely. King asked: Mirza, why are you looking so to the trees. On this Mirza said I hear from the descendant, that if the thing is yours! Then its grains will be stumped by your name. I am seeing that which one of them is stumped by my name or none. By listening this King smiled and send a gift of mango basket to Mirza Ghalib. That all reveals how much Mirza Ghalib like mango. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was also like mangoes very much. According to Mirza Ghalib mango should have two characteristics. Firstly it should be sweet and secondly in plenty. Mango like citrus rich in Vitamin C. By eating only, a bowl of mango, 100% deficiency of Vitamin C completed. Mango also has Vitamin A Which is best for skin and eyes.

There are more than 30 fruits grown in Pakistan. Mango is a major fruit of Pakistan after citrus. It is called King of Fruits. Mango Industry in many parts of the world mango requires optimal conditions like soil, climate, irrigation, cultural practices for maximum yield. Mango is a tropical fruit. The current article will provide an overview all about it and its botany, origin, verities and its average yield in Pakistan. During Multan Mango Festival more than 216 varieties were presented in 2017. In Pakistan during Ramzan, its consumption become more. Its shake is liked by all people.

Mango’s botanical name is Mangifera indica and belongs to family Anacardiaceous according to scientist its origin is continental region and sometimes called its originated from Southeast Asia. It’s than introduce time by time to the other part of the world. Its known as the king of fruits. Its national tree of Bangladesh. Mango fruit has certain benefits. Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compound. Mando fruit protects from colon, leukemia, prostate and breast cancer. Mango peel is rich in phytonutrients. Its grown in Faisalabad, Rahim Yar Khan, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Bahawal Naggar, Mirpur Khas, Bahawal Pur, Shuja Abad, Jhang, Hyderabad, Murdan and Kalam in Pakistan. It can be grown on a wide range of soils but well-drained, deep and fertile soil most suitable. Salt-affected soil is not good. Rainfall affects the quality of the fruit. For growing, its soil pH range should be 5.5-8.5. The hot and humid climate is suitable for mango with low rainfall. The mango tree is large with spreading branches 6-15 m. Leaves are alternate along the branches sepals are small, concave and yellowish green. Petals are oblong, yellowish green with a touch of purple at base and sides. Its flowers are small 6-8mm, stamen 4-5. Fruit is drupe mean fleshy fruit with the large stone in the middle.

Its propagated both by sexually and asexually. Sexually through seed and asexually by grafting (side, inarching, veneer, tongue, and cleft). For asexual propagation, rootstock should be 18-20 inches. Scion should be 2-3.5 inches. Suitable age of nursery transplanting 1.5-2 years. Time of nursery transplant in spring (Feb-March), autumn (Sep-Oct). Time of flowering in Feb-March mango start bearing after 4-5 years. Mango full start bearing after 6-7 years. Normal bearing life of mango is 30-50 years.

Mango has different varieties; Fajri, Chaunsa, Black Chaunsa, White Chunsa, Sindhri, Gulab Khasa, Saleh Bhai, Al-Phanso, Anwar Rotal, Langra, Dusheri, Sensation, Fajri, Sarooly etc. Young plant of mango requires weekly irrigation. Mature tree in winter 15-20 days interval. Mature tree in summer 8-10 days interval and when we talk about fertilizer rate young mango tree require 10-30 kg per plant. Farmyard manure and full tree require 100kg farmyard manure. NPK 3-4 kg SSP, 2-3 kg Potassium Sulphate, and 2-3 kg urea.

In cultural practices no pruning requires. However, after harvest diseased, dry and broken branches are removed and those touching the ground. Natural fruit drop is the main indication that fruit is ready for harvest. “or” after 90-20 days. Fruit is ready for harvest. Harvesting time different in different areas. In Sindh May-June and in Punjab is mid-August. The average yield of mango in Pakistan is 40-100 kg per tree.

For mango fruit commonly used packing materials are paper wood, wood wool, polythene, paper etc. The polythene wrapping gives the excellent result. By using polythene material, fruit weight losses are less and storage life extended. Due to less exchange of air and moisture, respiration of mango fruit also reduced. Single layer tray package should be used for export. To avoid the rubbing and vibration, double layer of bulk packaging is used. By using hot water treatment natural wax of mango is reduced and light wax can be applied. Waxing reduced the ripening process by reducing respiration. Waxing is applied along with a piece of cloth. The spray of merinos in wax emulsion reduces, loss of weight and spoilage of mango. Wax emulsion containing 0-4% SOP increases the storage life of mango by 2-3 days only fruit dip in hot water and waiting with wax delay fruit rotting. For waxing fruit can be treated at 52℃ for 5 mints in 0.5g per liter fungicide and dipped in 5% concentration of wax and stored waxed fruit takes a long time to ripe to eating stage and extension of shelf life reduces the eating quality of fruit thus waxed. VHT (Vapor Heat Treatment) plants are there where there is the export of mango.

Due to hydrolysis sugar contents increases, starch respiration also increases, and acid depletes readily, high temperature causes biochemical losses. The ethylene production also rises in the mango after harvesting. To come over all above problems we do the same treatment after harvesting the mango fruit. By using low-temperature ripe mangoes can be kept at 2℃ for several weeks without appreciable further deterioration. By using modified atmosphere has resulted in the formation of off-flavor in the fruit. Although fruit can be stored at ambient temperature for three weeks in low oxygen. By using low pressure about 4-16 per square inch mango ripening can be delayed.

The insect pests of mango are fruit-fly, mango borer, caterpillar, mango scales, mango milli-bug, leave gall maker, shoat gall maker. Diseases of mango are mango malformation, mango blight, mango anthracnose, powdery mildew, stem and rot and pink disease. The main problem of the mango is the alternate bearing and fruit drop which can be managed by using regular varieties. Main reason of fruit dropping are insufficient soil moisture and soil fertility. If at the time of blooming temperature is very low 4.4℃ but above freezing 0℃ its growth cease. Development of abscission layer is another reason of fruit dropping. Pollination takes place but fertilization is incomplete and fruit are embryo less. Pest like scab and scales weaken panicle by sucking and fruit drop occur. Too much summer heat with temperature 45-49℃ in some year causea heavy drop. Deficiency of micro-nutrients also cause the frui tot drop in mango.

This is all-over about the mango plant. How we can establish it and where we should have to raise it. For the maximum production, if one can keep in mind all above information he can easily establish and managed the mango orchard and can attain the maximum yield in the Pakistan. Pakistan mangoes are unique in taste and aromas they represent more than one thousand varieties, a diversity of un matched by any other national fruit.

Medicinal Importance of Mango

(By Haris Latif*, Mujahid Ali**, Dr. Zahoor Hussain**)

(*Food Science, UOS: **Horticulture, UOS)

Health is wealth. Health is a great blessing of Allah. The people who enjoy good health, only those people can enjoy a good life. Good health depends on a balanced diet including all fruits, vegetables, meat, cereals etc. in appropriate quantities. Mango is one of the healthful and nourishing fruits for us. Mango is considered as the most appetizing and delicious fruit in all over the world. Mango is called the king of all fruits. It is considered the heart and soul of summer season’s cuisine. There are around 400 varieties of mangoes in the world today. There were 216 varieties of mango in the Multan Mango Festival. Mango is a vital component of our lunch and dinner in the summer season. Mostly, after eating mango, we drink milk because mango has heating effect internally. If we will not drink milk after eating mangoes, then it becomes our eyes yellowish and thus affects our eyes adversely.

In mango 250 kJ (60 kcal) is the energy per 100 g (3.5 oz.) and is slightly higher than Apple (330 kJ (79 kcal) per 100 g). Fresh mango holds a range of nutrients, but only Vitamin C and folate are in major quantities of the daily value as 44% and 11% respectively. Mangoes are helpful for proper digestion because of the existence of fiber that stops constipation. Mangoes have several digestive enzymes that break down proteins and support digestion. Mangoes contain abundant amounts of iron and vitamins A, C, and B6 – these all are advantageous for pregnant females. Mangoes consist of fiber, which plays role in a great contribution towards weight reduction. Mangoes are the tremendous source of vitamin C which has valuable impacts on Asthma cases. The vitamin A and beta-carotene in mangoes enable lift to eye wellbeing. The human eye has two significant carotenoids which are lutein and zeaxanthin. Mangoes are a reliable source of zeaxanthin and consistently help in the recovery of eye health. Mango, being a major source of iron and vitamin B6, is an ideal food for retaining an upright brain health. Iron assists the regular working of your brain and vitamin B6 provisions its intellectual growth. Mangoes are rich in potassium, a vital mineral that helps lower blood pressure and inhibits hypertension. Mangoes contain a large amount of beta-carotene and vitamin A which is proved to be beneficial to enrich skin health. Mangoes are rich sources of vitamin C, and hence stimulate the formation of collagen for making hair healthy and strong. Furthermore, mangoes are known to be responsible for the provision of nourishment to hair and treat dandruff. This credit goes to the manifestation of beta-carotene.

Because of plenty of vitamin C in this fruit, mangoes play a remarkable role in fortifying one’s immunity. Aside from vitamin C, mangoes are a reliable source of zinc as well, which is essential for sustaining the overall health of the immune system. Mangoes are rich in vitamin B6 and potassium which are useful for the treatment of kidney stones. Mangoes are proved to be great aphrodisiacs. The fruit is rich in vitamin E, which is well-known to boost sex initiative. Mangoes could help decrease body fat and control blood sugar. Beta-carotene is a vital component present in mango, which is an antioxidant that helps fight heart disease-causing free radicals. The pulp of the mango fruit contains carotenoids, ascorbic acid, terpenoids, and polyphenols – all of these are liable for the cancer-preventing properties of this fruit. Mangiferin is also a great contributor to the anticancer properties of mango. This compound is predominately found in mangoes. It has also been found that mangiferin hinders the growth of colon, liver cancer cells and other tumor cells too. Mangoes help in reduction of body fat and control blood sugar. Mangoes contain pectin that losses the serum cholesterol levels. The extract of a mango peel has antidiabetic characteristics. Fully developed mangoes are considered energizing. The juice of the mango may be used as a recuperative tonic to combat heat stroke. Raw mangoes have also been found to be energizing, permitting us to cool off the heat. Mangoes also retain the body in good health, this is the best reason that these are favorite in hot summers. Since mangoes are a rich source of potassium, they help to maintain the intensity of sodium in the body. This adjusts the fluid level in the body and avoids heat stroke. The leaves of mangoes are a rich source of tannins and can be desiccated and used up for handling diarrhea. Mangoes exhibit anti-ulcer activity, given the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. The peel of mango is helpful to cure hangovers. Mangoes can recover liver health as well. Mango also keeps appropriate functioning of your thyroid gland.

During harvesting as the temperatures of mangoes are high, so that it is compulsory for the mangoes to keep them cold at their optimum storage temperature. The storage temperature for mangoes ranges from 8 to 13°C, varying with their varieties and ripeness. Ripening of mangoes is suppressed by Controlled Atmosphere storage of them. CA storage declines the respiration rate as well as ethylene production in them. The optimum CA storage for mango ranges from 3 to 7% O2 and 5 to 8% CO2. Mangoes can be stored for 3-6 weeks in Cold Atmosphere (CA) Storage at 13°C. This duration and temperature vary with variety and stage of ripeness of mango. Mangoes must be packed in a single layer in fruit crates and cardboard boxes. As mangoes are so sensitive to pressure, these are sometimes wrapped in paper or padded with wood wool, straw or hay. The shelf life of mango can be enhanced by storing it at 15 to 18°C temperature and 85 to 90% relative humidity for 35 days. Pakistani mango is famous all over the world. But our storage conditions are poor. We should focus to improve its storage conditions and quality aspects.

Holistic Health Benefits of Mango

(By Sidra Bashir*, Mujahid Ali**, Tehseen Ashraf**)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Mango is called “King of Fruits” because of it is most delicious fruit in the world. All kind and age of people like it. It is much sweet in taste. Pakistan is also a big producer and exporter of mango. The mango is an oval-shaped, creamy, juicy and fleshy tropical fruit, a drupe or stone fruit, which has a characteristic outer fleshy part surrounding a shell (pit or stone) with a seed inside. Coconuts, cherries, plums, peaches, olives, and dates are also drupes. The mango is the fruit of a large evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and sub evergreen that grows almost exclusively in the tropics and subtropics. Mangoes can vary in skin color from green to red or yellow to orange, but the inner flesh of the mango is typically golden yellow. Mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines, as well as the national tree of Bangladesh, the mango fruit, and its leaves, are used ritually to decorate religious ceremonies, community festivals and celebrations as well as weddings. Mango is known as the king of fruits. The mango tree can grow to great height anywhere from sixty-five to hundred feet tall. They can also live for extended periods of time. There are lots of recopies that are made by mango. There are lots of varieties of mangoes and each variety has its own taste. Pakistan’s mangoes are the best and tasty mangoes, but their export is not so high due sap burn injury. But a lot of efforts are done to manage or to control that injury. Mango’s tree is erect and evergreen.

Mangoes popularity grew and grew so that, today, mangoes presently hold the honor of being named the most commonly consumed fruit in the world. In India, giving someone a basket of mangoes is considered an act of friendship. In short, mangoes are beloved fruits that are also nutritional powerhouses as containing a lot of energy. Mango Nutrition Facts Belonging to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae and known by the scientific name Mangifera indica L., mangoes are filled with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and antioxidants. One cup of diced mango contains the 100 calories 28 grams of carbohydrates 3 grams of fiber 0.8 grams of protein, vitamins A, E, K, B6, and Potassium. It has also a fair amount of Vitamin C, also provide calcium; iron; magnesium; and powerful antioxidants such as zeaxanthin, quercetin, astragalin, and beta-carotene. Following is a list of some salient benefits of mango fruit. Mango juices and shake is very famous in Pakistan.

  1. More recently, mango consumption has been connected for lessening of blood sugar among obese adults. Although it did not produce weight loss, regular consumption of mango did have a positive effect on their blood glucose. Meanwhile, other studies indicate blood sugar management with mango consumption as a well glycemic control.
  2. Mangoes are a food rich in magnesium and potassium as well as low in sodium, they are another natural way to lower blood pressure which is “the silent killer,” high blood pressure affects approximately 70 million of American adults, which is nearly one in every three adults, while only about half of those have their blood pressure under control.
  3. One of the great brain foods, mangoes are packed with vitamin B6, which is essential for maintaining the health of the human brain. “Vitamin B6” and other “B vitamins” are crucial for preserving healthy brain neurotransmitters and help in supporting a healthy mood as well as healthy sleep patterns.
  4. Mangoes contain the antioxidant “zeaxanthin”. “Zeaxanthin” works to filter out harmful blue light rays, thereby playing a vital role in eye health as well as probably protecting against age-related macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in the United States.
  5. Mangoes contain good levels of bone-building vitamin K, and a vitamin K deficiency has been linked to a higher risk of bone fracture. Vitamin K is also important for proper calcium absorption. Mangoes also provide calcium, which is a major bone nutrient.
  6. Mangoes contain high amounts of pectin, a soluble fiber that can help naturally lower cholesterol level in the blood. Add that to the low sodium levels as well as high potassium and B vitamins, and together, they can help lower the risk for heart disease. Heart disease is a major killer and leading cause of death for both women and men in the world
  7. Mangoes are high in pectin, which not only helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood but can also guard against prostate cancer. A compound within pectin combines with galectin 3, a protein that plays a strong part in all stages of cancer.

Additionally, high dietary intakes of beta-carotene of which mangoes contain a lot can help protect against prostate cancer. Mangoes may also be beneficial for fighting breast cancer. Although research is still in the early stages, mangoes may be a helpful part of natural cancer treatment protocol.

  1. Mangoes are also rich in iron and may be part of the answer for the millions of people worldwide who are iron deficient. In fact, an iron deficiency can lead to becoming anemic, since iron deficiency is the most common feature of anemia. If any per suffer from anemia, then he starts eating more mangoes and other iron-packed foods.
  2. No one wants to show signs of aging especially before their time and mangoes can help slow the process of natural aging due to their high amounts of vitamins A and C, which help produce collagen proteins within the body. Collagen is known to help slow down the skin’s natural aging process by protecting blood vessels and bodily connective tissue.
  3. Your immune system is your body’s first line of defense against unwanted invaders and has everything to do with keeping you healthy. It is a rich source of beta-carotene, which also helps bolster a healthy immune system. Likewise, extra beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A inside the body, and vitamin A can help you to fight free radicals that can damage your body and health.
  4. An average-sized mango can have up to 40 percent of your daily requirement for fiber, and fiber offers many health benefits, including acting as a natural remedy for constipation.
  5. People who consume certain nutrients such as beta-carotene can lower their risk of developing asthma. As you’ll recall from the mango nutrition lineup, mangoes are chock full of beta-carotene and thus can act as an asthma natural remedy. But eating too much mango can also be health hazardous, so we should eat mango in balanced amount.

Let’s Look Mango in History

(By *Sidra Bashir, **Mujahid Ali, *Dr. Shahid Mahmood)

(*IFSN, UOS; **Horticulture, UOS)

Mangoes was originated in the South Asia and India. Buddhist monk who are the members of religious committee, grow himself this fruit because mango is considered as sacred fruit and Buddhist also think deeply about the mango tree. Both mango and pistachio belong to same family, and their family is Anacardiacae. Mango seeds transported along human from different countries like mango travel from Asia to Middle East, South Africa to America round about 300-400 AD. Mangoes cultivated near equator in the countries like Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Brazil and Haiti and then sold in US. Only Florida, California Hawaii and Puerto Rico can grow mangoes because mango need tropical climate which is present in these countries. The territory of U.S has been cultivating mango fruit from last 30 years. Mangoes are cultivating for export, but majority of this fruit is go to Europe instead of mainland of U.S. In California a valley Coachella produced mangoes on 200 acres and about of the produced mangoes certified as organic. As mangoes are highly susceptible to frost, the farmers who have their own appropriate land are hesitating to grow mangoes instead of grapes and citrus. Grapes and citrus are tired and true crops. In Hawaii the total estimated space on which mangoes cultivated is about 300 acres and nearly all these fruits are sold locally.

Mangoes was cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years and stretched Southeast Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. By the tenth century BCE, cultivation had begun in East Africa. The fourteenth-century, Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported it at Mogadishu. Then cultivation was started in Brazil and Bermuda, the West Indies, and Mexico, where a proper climate permits its development. South Florida has been also cultivated many varieties of mango and this was initiated by USDA (United States department of agriculture) as a part of seedling program and spearheaded by the founder of USDA section of foreign seed and plant introduction “David Fairchild”. This program was given to introduce the mango varieties to the other region with the goal of produced mangoes and then exported them.

After long time work, there were new many different varieties of mangoes were developed and then introduced to growers in different parts of the world. By this way, many different varieties of mangoes were grown all around the world like Tommy, Malkin, Haden and Kent. Florida is one of the largest state that grow mangoes on large scale round about 7000 acres in the 1900’s. But the mango industry in Florida was finished or diminished due to urbanization, hurricane and competition with the other countries. But today, it is estimated that there is less than 1000 acres of land in Florida is still under

production and most of the mangoes are made for local growers and meet the need of the markets. In addition to this, the backyard tree in Florida continue the way towards success and bring happiness to residents across the southern part of the state. Moreover, despite that backyard, the Fairchild Tropical Garden name after the David Fairchild (founder of USDA) continue to grow many varieties of mangoes and work with the other mango growers all overall the world and bring a lot of profit from this. Florida is at one of the top state in mango producing from the beginning of the mango production. International Mango Festival which is celebrated each year give mango lovers a chance to eat new and different varieties of mangoes and other new things made by mangoes. Spanish explorers brought mangoes to South Africa and Mexico in 1600’s. Mango is one of the most eatable fruit in the world. Mango is the national fruit of Pakistan. Mango is drupe fruit and have evergreen tree. Its scientific name is Mangifera indca. Mango is also called stone fruit. It is divided into three portions, the outer portion is skin called epicarp, fleshy eatable portion is mesocarp and internal stone in close in a seed is called endocarp. Due to presence of stone in mango is called as stone fruit. Mango has many varieties and each variety has its own taste. Different people like different varieties of mangoes. For example, some people like to eat Sindhri while other like Langra and many other varieties of mangoes are liked all over the world. There are about 1000 different varieties of mangoes are grown throughout the world. Some of the varieties of mangoes grown in Pakistan are Sindhri, Gulabkhas, Langra, Malda, Anwar Ratol, Collector, Neelum, Samer Bahashist and Fajri Kalan, Black Chonsa, White Chonsa, Sensation etc. Mango festival has become very popular in Multan. There were 216 varieties of mango in the festival in 2017 in Multan. Pakistani mango is best all over the world for its taste.

Mango is the staple in cuisines in all tropical and subtropical countries where it grown from South Asia to South America. Mangoes can be raised from seeds and propagated by grafting. Mango plantation are in square system with filler in the center of the square (Quincunx system). Plant to plant distance is different for different varieties from 11 m to 15 m. Mango tree live long for about 300 years.

Mango is very beneficial fruit too. Mango has large nutritional value and help to reduce many diseases. There are about so many benefits of mangoes are known. These lower the blood sugar level, Blood pressure management, Boost brain health, possible protection from muscular degeneration, boosting bone health, lower heart disease risk, Combat cancer, alleviate anemia, relive constipation, Anti-aging attributes, increase immunity and avoid asthma. In short, mangoes are beloved fruit and that is also a nutritional powerhouse.