(Haris Latif, Saeed Ullah, M. Modassar Ali)

(IFSN, University of Sargodha)

Farmer Field Schools


Farmer Field School (FFS) is an educational approach in the form of group, which has been used to support Integrated Pests Management (IPM) by multiple governments, NGOs, and international organizations.


Farmers’ field schools (FFS) contain teams of farmers who encounter on regular basis throughout the developing periods to perform research group-wise by means of innovative options for production. Generally, FFS groups have 25-30 farmers. Issues discussed in schools in the fields of farmers include protection, organic agriculture, animal and soil management, and other income-generating activities like handicrafts.A Farmer Field School is a Group extension method which is based on adult education methods. The FFS approach provides opportunities to the farmers for their education based on their performance. This approach enables farmers to improve their basic agricultural and administrative skills to make farmers’ specialists in their personal farms. It empowers the competencies of farmers with expertise, information, and talents as well as sharpens their competencies to assist them in making crucial selections. Because of this perspective, farmers start thinking in new ways and learn how to manage themselves as well as their community. Basically, the FFS is such an opportunity where farmers and instructors discuss new or current facts and figures after opinions, experiences and disseminate new and current information from outside of their community.


For the first time, Farmers’ field schools designed and completed the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization in Indonesia in 1989. At present, above two million farmers have joined in such sort of education.Initially, in the 1980s, farmers’ field schools used FAO experts and specialist experts in Indonesia. Participants were chosen regarding their skills to read and compose and to take part in conferences and investigation. Finally, a 12-year program for rice was held in the 12 countries and developed to grow tubers, potatoes, cotton and additional yields. The process is more promoted so that in order to adopt the fields of farmers in more than 90 countries at the institutional level. Approach

FFS is a participatory approach so that a lot of mangoes, citrus and vegetable cultivators are being trained under Fruit and Vegetable Development Project through FFS system.

FFS is a combination of two approaches:

  • Training of facilitators
  • Selection of field of a farmer


Training of facilitators:

In this approach, extension field staff act as facilitators. Master trainers are specialized and professional trainers who train the extension agents to carry on FFS approach.

Selection of the field of the farmer:

Under this approach, any field of the farmer is selected. This field is called the center of activity. Farmers observe insect pests and disease problems in that field by themselves. Facilitators just facilitate and tell mode of attack and give awareness of particular insect pest. In future, farmers identify problems by themselves.

The FFS approach is an advanced, participating and cooperative education method. It highlights solutions of difficulties and underscores innovation-built education. FFS aims to form capability of farmers to evaluate their manufacture schemes, categorize complications, examine potential results, and ultimately boost up members to adopt those practices which are best fit for their rural structures. FFS delivers an opportunity for farmers for rehearsal and for the evaluation of workable acreage use machinery, and present innovative tools by relating their traditional skills established by means of their own belief, custom, and values.

Components and Principles

The components and principles of farmer field school approach are as follows:

Field as the learning place:

Learning takes place in the field of the host farmer. Farm practices must be improved and suitable for local background, which is generally inclined by local ecological and socio-economic conditions as well as the preferences of farmers.

The farmer as an expert:

The FFS approach distinguishes the members of the community as the experts within their individual contexts and reflects intrinsic and native knowledge as a source of information to be used within the FFS learning process. As a result, FFS participants begin to learn how they can enhance their specific capacities to perceive and explore difficulties and to develop realistic and appropriate solutions.

Facilitation, not teaching:

Facilitator plays a crucial role in effective learning and authorization because FFS does not emphasize on teaching but on guiding the members of FFS through the learning process. Attentive listening, asking questions and motivating participants to discover more in the field for presenting their ideas fastens the learning process.

Hands-on and discovery-based learning:

This learning process follows the principles of adult education and “learning by doing”. Adults have a tendency to learn through their experience. So through learning by doing in a discovery-based manner, group members cherish grip over their knowledge and gain confidence in their learning.

Equity and no hierarchy:

A farmer field school is designed for all to take part on the equal basis. There is no hierarchy between farmers and facilitators, group leaders and common members, diploma holders and illiterate persons. All have equal importance in FFS learning experience.

Team building and social animation:

These aspects are important components of learning sessions. People share their knowledge and culture, learn communication and leadership skills by means of dance, song, and drama.

Participatory monitoring and evaluation:

During the preparation of FFS curriculum, members create a plan for monitoring and evaluating progress to later assess whether they are fulfilling the fixed objectives.

Integrated and learner-defined curriculum:

The learners define the FFS curriculum and that is unique for each group. The basic principle is that all topics are needed to be relevant to what is used for the group members.

Comparative experiments:

Knowledge is increased by doing experiments where various possibilities are compared with each other. This feature of the approach commands the period of an “FFS cycle” that has to tie the life cycle of the originality being studied i.e. from “(planted) seed to (harvested) seed”.                             

Agro-ecosystem analysis:

The agroecosystem analysis (AESA) is one of the basics of the FFS approach. The members of FFS perform the practice of AESA through all stages of FFS cycle. This activity improves analyzing skills, presentation and knowledge-based decision-making abilities of the participants in addition to their communication skills.

Special topics:

The whole group concentrates on special topics and this plays a central role in FFS. Special topics can comprise of multiple topics. Such special topics should be selected that they would address a variety of livelihood issues.


  • Farmer field school enhances knowledge of farmers.
  • It helps and encourages farmers in learning by action.
  • It dismays the application of pesticides and sprays.
  • It helps in the native plant protection ways.
  • It may be responsible for systematic training and learning process.
  • It guides farmers in the identification of their problems by themselves.
  • It allows the use of fertilizers in stable amount.
  • It decreases the production cost.
  • FFS stimulates community association and union.
  • It improves supremacy, communication and management skills of farmers.
  • FFS provides a suitable and appropriate environment for making a linkage of farmer-


  • FFS justifies gaps of local knowledge.
  • It helps farmers in applying their decisions.
  • It provides an organized assessment of various tools.
  • FFS alters the attitude of farmers.
  • It increases the overall socio-economic conditions.
  • Farmer field school builds confidence in the farming community.
  • FFS rises per capita income of farming community.
  • FFS increases the skills of farmers in crop and pest management.



Lack of classrooms:

There are no appropriate classrooms in farmer field schools.

Heavy expenses:

Heavy expenses are required on the implementation of FFS approach.

Time consuming process:

FFS approach is a time taking and long-lasting process.

Less marketing facilities:

There are less marketing and management services in FFS.

Weekly routine:

There is weekly routine to attend farmer field schools, so it seems to be difficult to attend the school.

Less use of mass media:

There is less use and implementation of mass media and mass communication in FFS.

Low-ranked and inappropriate curriculum:

There is poor and inadequate curriculum included in FFS approach so that it misleads the achievement of this approach.

Inexperienced facilitators:

In various farmer field schools, facilitators are not so much trained. Ultimately, training is not successful.

Cultural norms:

Cultural norms also hinder the working of farmer field schools.

Low level participation of farmers:

There is low level participation and contribution of most farmers in FFS approach which causes obstruction in the progression of this approach.

Limited budget:

Lack of funds and budget minimizes the chances of growth and development of this approach.

Competitive environment:

Sometimes, an environment of competition is developed between farmers and EFS during learning process. As a result, farmers do not coordinate and cooperate with each other so that agricultural information is not disseminated among farming communities.

Discrepancy with other participants:

Sometimes, participants are not agreed with each other. As a result, it is difficult for them to come at a common point and to finalize their decision. So, problems in FFS approach occurs.                               


Generally, FFS contains 8-12 weeks of hands-on farmer experimentation and non-formal training

Within a specific period of an emergent crop. During a growing season, farmers take part in weekly classes. Meetings can be held fortnightly.

There are different primary phases which lead up to the application of FFS:

Detecting the emphasis of the FFS:

This is the supreme precarious phase in organizing for a FFS movement. It is necessary to devote plenty of time to prevent farmers from those actions in which they are unresponsive. The needs of farmers, their interests and problems determine the selection of FFS activity.

Training of facilitators:

Facilitator plays a vital role in the FFS process. A facilitator is essential for each FFS because he receipts members over a succession of practical trainings. Facilitators must go through an extraordinary 2-3 weeks training program. Facilitators can be extension staff of government or non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private enterprises, or graduates of a prior Farmer field school.

Recognizing contributors and establishing the learning group:

The FFS movement focuses and categorizes about 30 to 40 farmers who share a mutual interest.

They have to be capable to attend all sessions, and enthusiastic to work collectively in the form

of groups and share their ideas with each other. Firstly, more numbers of farmers are selected to form a group, later on this group gets shrink after a first few sessions. The significant elements in the selection process are familiarity of facilitator with the history of the community, sexual characteristics and relations, and its cultural practices. Groups may comprise of men, women or both genders which depend in regard to their beliefs and theme.

Identification of the learning place:

FFS needs a site to conduct seminars and a learning item such as a field. The location must be fit for FFS activity and need to be demonstrative of the complications in the region. The site must be easily available and must be present for most of the time.

Developing the curriculum:

After formation of FFS group, the organizer improves the program which is founded on the complications. Within a set, facilitator decides which activities are taken up to give rise to further investigation of problems, conclusion of solutions and detect which sources are required.  The main activities which are included in the curriculum are agro-ecosystem study, discussion as a group, and comparative trials on the field or learning trainings. Occasionally, field calls to new FFS sites may also be included. Each activity is full planned, i.e. consists of method for action, belief, exploration, and decision-making. This provides support to cover total phases of the topic and associates to what will occur in the field of farmer so that the knowledgeable training can be applied directly.

Role of Media in Agricultural Development

(By Muhammad Modassar Ali, Dr. Shahid Mehmood)

(Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, UOS)

Agricultural extension is a vital information transferring system organized to disseminate the latest methodology of agricultural research to farmers. Effective communication is therefore the backbone of the system. Communication therefore is the prime requirement in Agricultural extension work. The success of Agri. development programs in western world is largely confined to the nature and extent uses of media in its any form. The Extension workers at western world have realized the improvement of agriculture sector will be accelerated with the operative use of media in its any form. T.V. and Radio are claimed to be the greatest operative way for disseminating the agricultural technology and information to the farmers. In a republic like Pakistan the literateness level is very low so the optimal of media is of vibrant position. Considering such things T.V. and radio are significantly of vital importance. T.V. and Radio are the quickest way to transmission up-to-date agrarian techniques to well-educated and uneducated farmers similar even if they are in inner areas of Pakistan, more effectively and in a very short time. The illiterate agriculturalists can simply perceive technology processes, and teaching by radio and T.V. Newspapers and magazines play vital role in Agricultural Extension, technology and info among the well-educated farmers. The literacy of Pakistan is increasing day by day, it offers some new promises to the Mass Media and The Print Media.  The print media in Pakistan has broadened the latitude of Agricultural Extension. It is the most reliable inexpensive and convenient source of Agricultural Extensional Communication among the farmers. The quite large proportion of inhabitants of Pakistan about 67.3% belongs to rural habitat and is mostly involved to agriculture. Agriculture sector in Pakistan share almost 23% of the GDP of Pakistan (Govt. of Pak., 2006-07). This sector can do much better as it is going, this is an unfortunate condition. The production on average per hectare in Pakistan is much lower as comparing to the other countries (FAO, 2004), this is a very poor picture of Pakistan. This low yield may be ascribed to the no-using of the modern agricultural technology and techniques and may be due to mismanagement of the farm by the farmers and a big reason may be the poor communication between the extension agents and the farmers. The main objective of the agriculture extension agent is the skill development and the training of the farmers, taking in concept the modern equipment, techniques and technology. As by the definition of Education “It is the aggregate of all the processes responsible for bringing about desirable changes in human behavior” and then defining it with aspect of agriculture “It is the aggregate of all the process, methods and techniques adopted by the Agriculture Extension Agent to bring a desirable change in Farmer’s behavior. Concerning the education of the farmers (especially in Pakistan), the Agriculture Extension Agent should focus on giving the farmers the latest knowledge of modern agricultural techniques, technology and methods, and then training them with necessary skills and the at the last developing their mind toward modern and latest agriculture. The mass media is the most effective and the most powerful tool for dissemination of information within the village masses. On the basis of their working methods the mass media is mainly classified to electronic media and then comes the print media. Agricultural Extension Services and the use of Electronic media were found to be a good and reliable source for dissemination of Agricultural Technology and Information. T.V. is the most reliable source for a farmer in Pakistan. The government of Pakistan have used is for the dissemination of Information regarding “American Sundi” and “Red Cotton Bug” threats. The advertisement of modern agricultural technology and information was also assured. Print media uses the ways of Nonverbal communication to transfer messages to the farmers, it mainly uses diagrams, pictures and words to disseminate accurate and clear information to a large mass of farmers. The form and content of the Print media should be  designed and confined to the needs and interest of the farmers, there should be broad ways that encourage decision making, invigorate the transformation of the modern agriculture technology, it should furnish a more forthright and candid  cure of sustainability with respect to the practical content, and it should also stretch the latest knowledge on the financial and monetary entanglement of any sanctioned agricultural knowledge, counting ambiguity and contingency complex. The printed material can be used by the farmers for long period of time and it is also work as a reminder and the most important thing of it is that it can be used again and again. The demand of print media will advance repute and appeal the diligence of farmers when they speech the actual difficulties confronted by them and then deliver possible resolutions to them. Agricultural Extension employee can get benefit of the printed material sideways with additional communication frequencies to emphasize the education progression of farmers especially in Pakistan. Oakley (1985) suspected print media as permanent communicational method in Agricultural Extension. Although they both acknowledge the limitation of print media for illiterate population of Pakistan. Summing up, the print media could largely be valuable for well-educated farmers, but it doesn’t mean that it is useless for illiterate farmers. As per the passageway of period the literateness level has improved in Pakistan and seems to make its place for transfer of information and the modern agricultural technology, 67% of the inhabitants is knowledgeable. Summarizing the discussion ends with the result that the media plays a vital role in dissemination of information in agricultural sector.