Organic farming in Pakistan

Organic farming is an art of producing herbs, vegetables and crops without using of any chemical fertilizers and harmful pesticides. Peoples believed yield drastically deceased in organic farming but real situation is totally different; during conversion period (first three years) yield decrease but gradually yield and produce value increase many folds as compare to conventional farming. Organic farming eliminate complete use of chemical fertilizers and pesticide that cuts a major cost of production, due to high sale return of organic produce give an extra advantage over conventional production.

Organic agriculture in the beginnings presentations decrease yields than standard cropping but as its input are not up to typical agriculture and labour in Pakistan is cheap

Why organic farming is vital

In Pakistan maximum of large farms are run by absentee land lords, on this case land is cared by way of the workers, who don’t have any feeling of ownership quantity of production, margin of profit. On other hand small land house owners, who’re provide at the farms have constraints of buying great amount of inputs associated with possibility are pressured to diversify their investments. To duvet dangers they in most cases reduce farm inputs but are not able to scale back environmental degradation like soil erosion, pollution, excess water input, water logging drainage, regulate of perennial weeds etc. Organic farmer pays more to the labours additionally controls his farm in addition to off farm environmental costs. They reduce manufacturing money costs by hanging family labour eliminate inorganic fertilisers, pesticide and herbicides and reduce soil erosion. Conventional meals would possibly comprise cancer causing agents, chemical substances that purpose sicknesses including cancer.

Organic farmer pays more to the labours additionally controls his farm in addition to off farm environmental costs.

Additive in processing might further turn on cancer causing agents. This meals may comprise nitrates and different preservative or nitrosamine which are potent carcinogen. Conventional farmer spent more on input of fertilisers, pesticide and those wastes is going to the surroundings specifically ground water.

This type of farming enters into commercial manufacturing processing and distribution device the entire chain of which adds some more chemicals. The cost of this business model for agriculture are exceptional and very broad attaining, but unrecognised as business manufacturing applying more chemical compounds and system produces food inexpensive, higher in beauty glance and but poisoned via chemicals. Organic farming has doable of area of interest markets for native prime valued, non-conventional, indigenous and local agricultural products like medicinal herbs, conventional agriculture and non-timber tree merchandise. Farmers developments to switch to organic farming is correlated intently with the scale of conversion grants. The subsides for conventionally produced food these days restrict the expansion of natural agriculture to the size of market this is keen to pay higher price to the patron. Although organic merchandise and its market outlet are restricted but premium prices may boost the market.

World image of organic farming

In 1989, subsidies were introduced in numerous European countries, like Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, to inspire conversion to natural farming, which changed 376,000 hectares of land by way of 10,000 farmers into organic farming. In Germany the place subsidies are available for 2 years so 7.nine% of farm of farm and three.6% land modified to natural farming.

In 1989 Europe is able to build up 200,000 hectares to 900,000 hectares natural farming. In Iran total 20,000 ha with manufacturing of 107,000 kg in line with 12 months well adopted to social structure of family oriented process. It is in keeping with guide paintings, production and processing in accordance with indigenous methods and animal manure is the primary supply of plant nutrition. In EU nations the selection of natural farmer have build up from 6,000 in 1985 to 48,000 these days. Italy have 30,000 qualified natural farmers. In Scandinavian countries eight% are qualified organic farmers. Australia has 10%, U.K five% natural farmer. The general farm space in Pakistan 19.7 million hectares, which is 28% of the full house of the rustic. The average size farms in 1972 used to be five.2 hectares. In Pakistan best few farmers are organic farmers. Ministry of Agriculture, fisheries and meals in U.ok pay strengthen of 50 in keeping with ha in step with yr for five years to convert to organic farming.

In 1989 Europe is able to build up 200,000 hectares to 900,000 hectares natural farming. In Iran total 20,000 ha with manufacturing of 107,000 kg in line with 12 months well adopted to social structure of family oriented process.

Expected expansion price of natural farming in the World is 20-30% however natural agriculture won’t ever have the ability to feed the swiftly rising world population due to low labour out put inspite of prime yields. Due to over use of chemical compounds, land is depleted of organic subject and moderate manufacturing in line with ha decreases. Food produced in excess to demand serves to cut back commodity prices, won by farmer’s however hungry other people ill come up with the money for high priced natural meals.

Organic agriculture

Organic approach is to minimise the hostile affects on the environments, via warding off the use of materials from non-renewable resources, recycling where conceivable, use minimum amount of pesticides, fending off the use of sources which reason air pollution, relying on crop rotation, using crop residue recycling animal manure, legumes, and inexperienced manure, biological pest keep an eye on, minimal tilth to be used to deal with soil productivity, to minimise the power costs of production and transportation fabrics, to stay soil extra fertile.

    Organic methods strengthen soil well being, increase population of healthy worms, fungi and other soil organisms. Organic agriculture saves the land from losses due to erosion and soil degradation, reinforce soil fertility and complements moisture conservation. Diverse types only be used below negative prerequisites.

    Organic farming is in response to much less inputs, higher marketplace call for because of having environmental and social considerations. It additionally in accordance with native sources and applied sciences that offer farmer better independence and more regulate over their method of manufacturing. Environmental affects of natural farming are:

    1. Improvement of soil biological job.
    2. Improvement of physical characteristics of soil.
    3. Reducing nitrate leaching.
    4. Increasing and making improvements to wild existence habitant.

    Organic farming in Pakistan.

    Its function are to expand low capital much less labour in depth, prime yielding, better quality and healthy natural farming. Reducing the cost of production to minimum to achieve self sufficiency in all inputs. It is recognised as a long-term option to the problem caused through nitrate pollution. Organic agriculture in the beginnings presentations decrease yields than standard cropping but as its input are not up to typical agriculture and labour in Pakistan is cheap, in lengthy when natural agricultural strategies have stepped forward soil characteristics, soil fauna and established trojan horse job and large manufacturing of vermicasts, the yields will surpass the conventional strategies.

    Nutritional criteria of organic products

    People’s number of meals is primarily based now not handiest on prices, style, but additionally takes in to account, ethical, religious and dietary causes. Some even suppose on the subject of exploitation of human and natural resources and degradation of environments. The natural food at the entire is vitamin and meets anatomical and physiological requirements of human. It also helps in interplay of food clean like production, processing, packaging and buying and selling inside the surroundings and the social structures.

    Organic practising

    The natural farmers used garlic pyrethrum and neem to regulate pest and sicknesses, also use predators like Encarsia Formosa used to keep an eye on inexperienced house, white fly and phytoseinlus persimilis a predator mite used for two-spotted mite regulate also get composts are a wonder producing by means of recycling garden and kitchen wastes. Mulch is magic and now not assist in suppressing weed however provides crops raised all macro and micro-nutrients, in chelated forms and vermicasts wealthy in vitamins and antibiotics.

    Biomass use as organic topic and also does the similar. Crop rotations and inter cropping is designed to toughen soil fertility. Organic subject composts and manures strengthen the soil health and thereby plant health to the level that pests attack on crop is diminished and injury is negligible.

    Animals and organic farming

    The organic farmer will have to paintings arduous to combine animals in to the farming system:

    The non-agricultural public should understand that natural animal husbandry is basically better the kind of animal manufacturing they continuously criticise.

    The natural farmers used garlic pyrethrum and neem to regulate pest and sicknesses, also use predators like Encarsia Formosa used to keep an eye on inexperienced house, white fly and phytoseinlus persimilis a predator mite used for two-spotted mite regulate also get composts are a wonder producing by means of recycling garden and kitchen wastes.

    Some farm animals farmers also find problem to justify conversion to organic production, due to prime restructuring price and loss of top rate prices to compensate for yield relief and in addition decreasing in the house for organic production rotational constraints.

    Market tendencies

    Organic merchandise have premium market which make no longer available to the entire inhabitants because of costs constraints. The costs of organic merchandise is larger via factor such as: small scale manufacturing, broadly dispersed farm, separate packing amenities costlier recycled packaging and pricing insurance policies of retail outlets.

    Seasonal production and regional markets stay an important objective in organic farming. We need to deal with National Organic Standards Board to come to a decision the criteria of what’s natural?

    Some shoppers are ready to pay extra for food that has awesome high quality. Consumer demand for natural products is progressively expanding due to concern in regards to the environments and health implications of business agriculture even though there’s no relation between shopper and manufacturer however the poor financial efficiency of organic farming displays the monetary problems of small farmers in some instances due to loss of access to premium marketplace helps. Such difficulties have compelled out from the business the small natural farmers. It is imaginable that organic farmers marketplace their products immediately but it requires more labour and organisation. Organic food are equipped to supermarket additionally provide house supply. Seasonal production and regional markets stay an important objective in organic farming. We need to deal with National Organic Standards Board to come to a decision the criteria of what’s natural? International actions (IFOAM) has formulated elementary requirements to outline natural production. Food containing products of gene generation will have to be labelled, so consumer have an choice, Bioethics influences the marketability of goods derived from biotechnology. It is the consumers who come to a decision on the prospects of biotechnological markets. Organic food will have to be labelled that consumer merchandise no longer derived from genetically engineered types. Organic product must boost-out agribusiness, chemical-biotech corporation and massive grocery store chain. The maximum developed markets for natural food are Northern World.

    There are 300 natural industry marks available on the market. Organic label is not unusual in 15 nations. Organic business must strengthening the native communities for higher social and environmental accountability, meals security, holding natural sources, control biological and cultural range.

    Fair industry/Trade

    Healthy food and honest industry organisations accept the important of exterior tracking via labelling. Organisation are awarded label of approval. The Fair Trade in accordance with equal partnership between the Southern producers, Northern importers, labelling organisation, honest trade retail outlets and consumers those organisation work with the producer organisation. They produce to strengthen the ecological sustainability of manufacturing. It additionally provide coverage to the brand new comers in this field, this might be helpful to the farmer’s organisation to safe working capital, long run mortgage for investments, marketplace knowledge, conversation, control, and technical support and help, but it also required make it possible for labelled products meet fair business criteria. Fair trade can result in environmental benefits.

    The fair trade regulations exist for coffee, cocoa, banana, honey, sugar however royalties are imposed to cover operating value when one makes use of these truthful commerce label.

    Fair trade need fair and real price overlaying prices for farmers everywhere the arena however its merchandise will have to be upto global standards in terms of high quality and quality and should be accountable to the labelling organisation. International fair-trades lend a hand strengthening local economics. National fair-trades designed their own label and define the condition underneath which producers, trade and industry achieve the appropriate to make use of the fair commerce label in their business promotion. The honest trade regulations exist for coffee, cocoa, banana, honey, sugar however royalties are imposed to cover operating value when one makes use of these truthful commerce label. Certification both from fair-trade or organic Agriculture Movement produce self belief and trust. This protects the patron’s rights. Fair trade will have to provide social fairness, ecological tasks as pre-conditions, for sustainable production. It contribute to make stronger the residing usual of economically deprived small farmers to strengthening their self-governing organisation. Certifying organisation has devised particular standards for quality assurance, in-co-operaiton with the inspection organisation IMO (Institute for Market Ecology) and in line with IFOAM’s accreditation programme.

    Fair trade could have downside due to loss of management talent, non-public pastime might be greater than co-operative interest, market diversification into typical, truthful commerce and organic marketplace. Organic certification is gradual, laborious and dear process and is a challenge to small producers. The price premium above the marketplace value is insufficient, whilst inflexibilities inherent in truthful trade style eroded a substantial part of the cost top class. Fair commerce movement is able to significantly problem the social dumping that involves the exploitation of inexpensive labour and kid labour.

    Constraints

    The barrier in commerce are: restrictive commerce insurance policies perverse subsidies and bureaucratic regulations, integrating environmental elements are used to design higher export methods.

    Farmer’s rights and coverage of traditional plant sorts. Also trade related sides of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) below aegis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATI), will have to come with farmer privilege. Small farmer have little get right of entry to to data on World marketplace costs, lack of transparency and politically inspired distortion, small farmer generally receive low costs for their produce. Farmer have inadequate knowledge on progressed applied sciences and scientific understanding of the process concerned about their farming device, in environment friendly extension carrier. Under present risky marketplace conditions, process isn’t followed in step with the need of farmer’s organisation.

    The factor liable for market construction are government fair and the only real of primary super markets.

    1. Government worth insurance policies, monopolies on market of agriculture produce, inflicting low agricultural source of revenue.
    2. Organic agriculture calls for time and neatly skilled extension workers. Since organic farming is a new practice it wishes competent and dependable control.
    3. Major drawback is loss of public consciousness of organic meals.
    4. Development of viable manufacturer and shopper linkages.
    5. Poverty alleviation, sustainable development, meals security, agrarian reforms and suitable technologies higher farm management is wanted.
    6. Due to lack of advertising and marketing construction, organic merchandise are sold at the market rate of typical produce. Artificial value structure deliver drawback to client in addition to manufacturer.
    7. Organic farms spent more on labour for spreading manure. Organic farmer suffers due to high labour cost and labour scarcity.

    Future

    In long run we have to take a look at the commercial marketplace and policies during which organic merchandise produce and advertised and take a look at within the financial results which range through the sources, farm trade, higher management, labour availability.

    1. In future Government design higher Trade regulation which can be socially fair, ecologically sound and higher standards for inexperienced and honest commerce.
    2. Future we need to identify promotion and coaching programmes to foster export alternatives for organic merchandise.
    3. Future consideration will have to be given to fulfill the ensure device that may be sure organic quality and allow client to broaden their preferences for natural products with feeling of accept as true with.
    4. In future we have to develop a realistic and sophisticated tracking procedure that is applicable to different farming buildings and handle world requirements.
    5. In long run want right kind organic standards, laws and legislation.

    What is Organic Farming

    Organic farming is an art of producing herbs, vegetables and crops without using of any chemical fertilizers and harmful pesticides. Peoples believed yield drastically deceased in organic farming but real situation is totally different; during conversion period (first three years) yield decrease but gradually yield and produce value increase many folds as compare to conventional farming. Organic farming eliminate complete use of chemical fertilizers and pesticide that cuts a major cost of production, due to high sale return of organic produce give an extra advantage over conventional production.

    This video briefly explain basic information regarding organic farming, if you need detail information please contact us info@agrinfobank.com.pk or WhatsApp: +923005381177

    Basic Organic Gardening Skills for Beginners

    If you love the theory of having your individual natural lawn but haven’t begun to give it a try, or if you’re a gardener just trying to determine what the organic hype is all about, following is a listing of elementary abilities for the new natural gardener to be told and why they are important. The ways related to planting will vary for each crop, and whether or not the crop is sown immediately into the garden or began indoors and transplanted to the garden.

    Making Compost

    Planting intensity, spacing and all requirements for temperature, soil, sun, water and vitamins are all elementary elements for the survival and good fortune of the crop.

    In organic gardening, the process begins and ends with the soil. Instead of relying on synthetic fertilizers to provide nutrient releases for crops, organic gardeners continually paintings to build the fertility of the soil via additions of organic matter. Making compost out of vegetable scraps, crop residue, weeds, manure and other sources ensures the formation of humus, a long-term builder of soil fertility, a lot better than simply tilling these things at once into the soil.

    Starting Plants From Seeds

    To keep totally away from the use and residues of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, as well as to open up the full selection of crop varietal choices, the ability to begin vegetation from seeds is essential. This ability gives gardeners the option to choose organic qualified seed, to choose or make an natural seed starting mix, and keep watch over all fertilizer and pest regulate inputs related to the crop.

    Proper Planting Techniques

    The ways related to planting will vary for each crop, and whether or not the crop is sown immediately into the garden or began indoors and transplanted to the garden. Planting intensity, spacing and all requirements for temperature, soil, sun, water and vitamins are all elementary elements for the survival and good fortune of the crop. Most plants can have some margin for error, however too many rigidity factors may end up in crop failure. The easiest strategy to decrease issues here is to start small. Get ok with a couple of vegetation at first, after which make bigger as you be informed more.

    Proper Irrigation Techniques

    If you can’t water it, don’t trouble planting it. An inch of precipitation (or irrigation) a week is the standard for summer vegetable gardens. Newly seeded spaces might need a bit of water every day, whilst established plants will carry out better with extra water every time but much less ceaselessly. Some vegetation will require extra water as the fruit develops. Drip irrigation, overhead irrigation and watering via hand all offer their distinctive attributes for the gardener to choose. Again, get ok with a few plants’ wishes ahead of increasing too much.

    Planning a Crop Rotation

    Crop rotation is going hand-in-hand with each soil fertility and pest control. A good crop rotation could have crops with differing nutrient needs and pest threats succeeding one every other on particular lawn rows/beds. For example, beans-corn-potatoes would be a just right succession of plants because those are 3 unrelated crops that take different nutrients from the soil. Crop rotation should be practiced every time a new crop is planted whether in successive years or inside of the same rising season.

    Pest Management

      All of the above knowledge will move some distance in combating insect and disease issues. A well-chosen, planted, and maintained plant could have minimal rigidity elements permitting infestation to happen. However, there are occasions when insect populations or fungal spores are more robust than the garden. Knowing the variations between indicators and symptoms of insect harm and illness injury is important in determining an efficient plan of action. Also, understanding the biology of the extra not unusual destructive bugs, and who their predators are, will also be very useful. Over time, you will develop into more familiar with the threats to particular plants and those choices will become second nature.

      Post-Harvest Plan

      As the season comes into complete swing, the general skill to obtain is that of the use of up the harvest. Most new gardeners are pleasantly surprised at the sudden deluge of produce that turns out to look all of sudden. Share with neighbors and pals. Learn to can, freeze or dry your personal veggies for storage. Donate to a meals bank or soup kitchen. You can feel the satisfaction of self-sufficiency while sharing your abundance with others.

      In a nutshell

      These are skills that all organic growers will frequently strengthen upon. Jump in with both toes, get started small and stay your eyes open. You will be informed so much and you’re going to be amazed at your development from year to year. Most of all, have amusing!

      Spinosad as Organic Pesticide

      Some microbes can be fermented to produce an insecticide such as abermectins, a fermented product of Streptomyces avermitilis (Dybas 1989) used in baits for household insect pests. The best known home gardening product of this type is spinosad. Metabolites of Saccharopolyspora spinosa, a soil-inhabiting bacteria that is fermented, are the basis for this new class of insecticide. The fermentation process has been industrialized to produce commercial insecticides.

      Spinosad can act on a susceptible insect’s stomach and nervous system.

      Spinosad. Spinosad is composed of spinosyns A and D. The fermented product is very toxic to caterpillar pests such as cabbageworm, cabbage looper, diamondback moth, armyworm, and cutworm, as well as fruit flies such as spotted wing drosophila. Spinosad can act on a susceptible insect’s stomach and nervous system.

      It is primarily ingested by feeding insects but can have some efficacy when sprayed directly on insects. Affected pests cease feeding and undergo partial paralysis within minutes upon exposure to spinosad, but it may take up to two days for the insects to die (Salgado et al. 1998).

      Spinosad is selectively toxic for many pest species and relatively safe to nontarget species, spinosad has become highly desirable as an organic insecticide

      Spinosad is systemic in some plants.  Depending on the fermentation process and formulation, some spinosad insecticides are considered organic. Spinosad has low toxicity to many beneficial insects that prey on pests, and is nontoxic to mammals and other vertebrates, with the exception of some fish (e.g., slightly toxic to trout). Spinosad is toxic to bees for three hours after application, so do not apply to blooming plants during the day.

        Because it is selectively toxic for many pest species and relatively safe to nontarget species, spinosad has become highly desirable as an organic insecticide. However, its popularity raises concerns about the development of pest resistance. Therefore, alternate the use of spinosad with other products.

        Use of Mineral for Pest Management in Organic Gardening

        Mineral

        Insecticides developed from elemental (mineral) sources mined from the  earth are classified as natural products and often cost  less than other processed or harvested insecticides. The toxicity of mineral-based insecticides depends on  the  chemical properties of the  mined ele- ments. Some  mineral insecticides such as sulfur are regis- tered for organic use and have relatively low toxic effects on  people and nontarget organisms. In contrast, lead arsenate is a natural mineral product that was cancelled as a pesticide in 1988  due  to its toxicity and persistence in the  environment.

        Diatomaceous Earth

        Diatomaceous earth is a fine particle  dust comprised of fossilized diatoms that is effective against slugs and soil-dwelling insects. Diatoms are small, usually single-celled phytoplankton commonly found in aquatic or moist environments. Diatoms are encased in- side a cell wall made of silica,  the  same  compound used  to make glass. Diatomaceous earth works  as a fine abrasive that disrupts the  exoskeleton cuticle of a slug or insect and causes  it to desiccate (dry out).

        Insecticides developed from elemental (mineral) sources mined from the  earth are classified as natural products and often cost  less than other processed or harvested insecticides.

        Use diatomaceous earth only in landscape areas  that do not contain edible plants (e.g., ornamental gardens) ;To create an effective barrier for slugs,  apply diatomaceous earth in a 3-inch wide,1-inch thick band around the  habitats that slugs use. Repeat applications after  periods of rain. Note, however, that diatomaceous earth can  also be toxic to beneficial insects such as predatory ground beetles and is highly toxic to bees if applied to blooms.

        Elemental Sulfur

        Elemental sulfur is a finely ground powder that can  be applied either as a dust or a spray. This mineral is one  of the  oldest pesticides known, and reported pest  resistance is rare.  Sulfur  acts as a metabolic disruptor (interferes with a chemical reaction, digestion, or the  transport of substances into or between cells) to in- sects such as aphids, thrips, and spider mites. Most  sulfur formulations have low toxicity to people but  can  be an eye and skin  irritant. Sulfur  is highly toxic to fish, so it is important to keep  it away  from water (ExToxNet n.d.).

        Do not use sulfur on  a crop  just  before harvest if you plan to preserve it; sulfur can  produce off-flavors in canned products, and sulfur dioxide can  form, which may  cause  containers to explode. In addition, sulfur is phytotoxic to most crops if applied two  weeks  before or after  the  application of a horticultural oil.

        Iron Phosphate

        Iron phosphate is very effective at managing slugs and snails when combined with bait. Baited  iron phosphate usually comes in pellet form. Scatter the  product around the  crop  in need of protection and areas  where slugs seek refuge, such as garden bed  borders and rocks.  Liquid formulations are also available. Follow  label  suggestions for subsequent applications.

        Insecticidal soaps  are very effec- tive  for managing soft-bodied insects like aphids, scales, whitefly, mealybugs, thrips, and spider mites.

        Slugs that feed on  iron phosphate will stop  eating, usu- ally seek a hiding place, and then die of starvation. Iron phosphate is considered relatively nontoxic and does not affect  insects, birds, or mammals when applied in the recommended amount. Avoid  over-application, as there is some evidence that iron phosphate baits  can negatively affect  earthworms (Edwards et al. 2009). Because  iron phosphate is nontoxic only in the  labeled ap- plication amounts, be sure  to store  it in a safe place  away from pets  and children. Most  brands of iron phosphate are approved for organic production by the  National Organic Program.

        Kaolin

        Kaolin is a fine  clay that is sprayed on  plant foliage or fruit  to deter feeding and egg laying of insect pests  such as apple maggot, codling moth, and leafhop- pers.  It can  also have some repellant properties that cause  irritation to insects upon contact (Stanley 1998).

        The effectiveness only lasts as long as the  clay film cov- ers the  fruit  or foliage to mask  its chemical, visual, and tactile cues.  Reapplication is necessary if rain  washes the  product off. Kaolin’s  toxicity to pests  is additionally dependent on  the  insect being on  the  fruit  or foliage during the  entire time of pest  susceptibility. You will need to monitor insect activity to be sure  that plants are protected during the  required times. Kaolin is an  organi- cally-approved material.

        Soap

        Natural soaps  are derived from plants (coconut, olive, palm, cotton) or animal fat (whale oil, fish oil, or lard) and have been used  since  the  1700s to control certain soft-bodied insects such as aphids (Olkowski et al. 1993). Soaps  are fatty acids  that can  degrade or dissolve the protective layers  of the  insect cuticle, causing the  insect to desiccate. Insecticidal soaps  are considered nontoxic to humans and many beneficial insects, but  selectively kill certain pest  insects. Some  soaps  are approved for use in organic agriculture.

        Insecticidal Soaps

        Insecticidal soaps  are very effec- tive  for managing soft-bodied insects like aphids, scales, whitefly, mealybugs, thrips, and spider mites. The soap must contact the  insect’s outer skeleton to be effective. Leaf-feeding insects are often found on  the  undersides of leaves, so be sure  to fully  cover  plant foliage. Results from the  application of soap  are usually seen  in 1–3 days. Multiple applications are often needed to be effective. Insecticidal soaps  are usually diluted with water before applying.

          Do not use household soaps  as insecticides. Household soaps  vary  tremendously in composition, purity, and effectiveness, and thus have the  potential to harm crops.

          For example, household soaps  can  be phytotoxic to some plants, resulting in leaf burn. Only use soaps  that are specifically registered and sold  for use as insecticides. Be sure  to read  the product label  for known phytotoxic effects  and always test  the  product on  a small portion of the  plant to see if leaf burn occurs. Leaf burn symptoms usually develop within two  days.

          Organic agriculture and the law

          Organic agriculture and the law
          This publication seeks to identify and explain the different legal issues related to organic production, including a comparative analysis of selected public and private legal sources of international relevance, as well as recommendations on the issues to consider in the design of national organic agriculture legislation. It is a first step in unravelling the complex and highly technical issues related to drafting national legislation on organic agriculture, and it is hoped that comments from readers will contribute to refining and enriching the preliminary findings presented in this volume.

          Author: Elisa Morgera
          Other authors: Carmen Bullón Caro, Gracia Marín Durán
          Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
          Year: 2012
          Country/ies: Argentina, Canada, India, Japan, Tunisia, United States of America
          Geographical coverage: European Union (European Union)
          Type: Case study

          [embeddoc url=”http://agrinfobank.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Organic-Laws-USDA.pdf” download=”all”]

          How to use compost

          HOW TO USE COMPOST

          FINISHED COMPOST


          Finished compost should look like darkish, crumbly topsoil and not like the original materials.
          Compost should have a nice, earthy scent to it. Using “unfinished” or immature subject material that
          comprises food scraps can attract pests and will reason harm to young crops, so be sure that your
          compost has fully decomposed earlier than adding it to your garden beds.


          HOW TO TELL IF YOUR COMPOST IS FINISHED


          The simplest option to tell in case your compost is mature and able to make use of is by doing the “bag test.” Put a handful of moist compost right into a zip-lock
          bag and press out the air prior to sealing. Leave it for three days, then open the bag. If you detect an ammonia or bitter smell, the microorganisms
          are nonetheless at work and you wish to have to let your compost end curing. Test some other pattern of compost again in per week.


          USING FINISHED COMPOST


          There are quite a lot of techniques to use your completed compost. You can sprinkle compost on best or mix it into your flower and vegetable beds, gently rake
          compost into tree beds, blend it with potting soil to revitalize indoor vegetation, or unfold it on top of the soil to your garden as a soil amendment.


          COMPOST IN THE HOME GARDEN

          Adding compost in your garden helps toughen the construction and total health of your soil. Compost will assist the soil retain moisture and can
          building up your total earthworm and microbial population, which function organic controls in opposition to undesirable pests. In addition, compost
          will provide a sluggish unlock of macronutrients, which means that that your plantings will get a steady provide of nutrients as wanted.

          Amending Soil

          A soil amendment is any subject material added to a soil to make stronger its bodily houses, reminiscent of water retention, permeability, water infiltration, drainage, aeration and construction. The purpose is to offer a better environment for roots. To do its work, an amendment will have to be completely blended into the soil.

          Growing Vegetables

          Give your vegetable garden a lot of compost in the fall. Spread a number of inches of compost on top of the existing mattress, then until it into the soil in the springtime. Put a handful of compost in each hollow whilst you’re planting. Once plants start to develop briefly, you can upload a half-inch layer of compost across the base of the crops. Provide “heavy feeder” vegetation comparable to tomatoes, corn, and squash with half inch of compost per thirty days—this may occasionally result in great produce!

          Growing Flowers

          In the spring, loosen the top few inches of annual and perennial beds and blend in a 1-inch layer of compost. Or in the fall, observe a 1-inch layer of compost as a mulch to protect plant roots from freezing and preserve moisture.

          Replenishing Soil In Potted Plants & Window Boxes

          Even the most efficient potting soil will get depleted of its vitamins as plants develop. To refill vitamins, add an inch of compost to potted crops and window bins two times a 12 months. Or, make your personal potting soil using two portions screened compost to at least one part sand or perlite.

          Rejuvenating Lawn or Turf

          When organising new turf, incorporate as much as three inches of compost into the existing soil base. If conceivable, until to a intensity of five–8 inches sooner than seeding. Otherwise, seed directly over the compost. On current turf, you can treat bald spots through incorporating an inch of compost into the soil and then reseeding. This will battle compaction and lend a hand suppress soil-borne diseases. You can also topdress existing turf with up to 1\/2 inch finely screened compost. This is perfect with a spreader, however you’ll use a shovel for small areas where you need to add compost. Rake the compost lightly throughout the grass house to enable the compost to readily sift all the way down to the soil. The compost will relax into the soil, improving its construction and offering vitamins. Over time, this may occasionally imply much less compaction, fewer bald spots, and a discounted need for synthetic fertilizers.

          Tree and Shrub Planting and Maintenance

          When planting a brand new tree, it’s best possible to work 1/2– 1 inch of compost into the highest 2 inches of soil from the trunk of the tree out to the dripline—the outermost parameter of the tree’s cover. Compost used in this manner serves as an alternative to the layer of natural subject that naturally exists at the woodland flooring: it provides natural nutrients, reduces moisture loss, and assists in keeping the soil cool. Don’t add compost to a freshly dug hole when planting a new tree, as making use of compost in this method will discourage tree roots from growing past the opening. Apply compost as mulch to bushes and shrubs to stop weeds and to make vegetation more drought resistant. Spread up to 2 inches of compost beneath the tree or shrub out to the drip line (the outermost leaves on a tree) or fringe of the bed. This will help reduce moisture loss and stabilize soil temperature. You too can incorporate compost into the soil once or twice a 12 months to offer organic vitamins. Before adding compost to compacted soils, gently domesticate the soil with a hand instrument; this may occasionally save you injury to shallow feeder roots whilst making vitamins extra readily obtainable to the bushes or shrubs. Do not place compost or mulch at once in opposition to the bark of the tree

          Maintaining Perennial & Annual Beds

          Spread 1–2 inches of compost on best of perennial and annual beds within the early spring or fall to save you weeds from establishing and to make vegetation more drought-resistant.

          7 Easy Steps to Composting

          1. Choose Your Type of Backyard Compost Bin.

          You can use either an open pile or a compost bin. Bins have the advantage of being neat, preserving animals out and keeping warmth. You can purchase compost containers from a variety of lawn and home shops, or you’ll construct your individual compost bin.The measurement and form of bin you purchase or construct depends upon how a lot compostable material you generate.

          [woo_product_slider id=”64262″]

          2. Choose Your Composter Location.

          You will have to select a location which is flat, well-drained and sunny. Most importantly you will have to discover a handy location. If it’s at the back of your yard will you be keen to trudge through the snow to get to it in the middle of winter?

          3. Alternate Layers.

          Start with a layer in fact fabrics (like twigs) to permit for drainage and aeration. Cover this deposit with leaves. Then simply exchange between layers of vegetables fabrics (nitrogen-rich material) and browns (carbon-rich material).

          BrownsGreensDon’t Compost
          Evergreen needlesGreen leavesInvasive weeds gone to see
          Dried leavesGarden wasteMeat/fish/bones
          Paper egg cartonsFlowersFat/oil/grease
          Paper towels/napkinsVegetablesDairy products
          Dried grass clippingsFruit peelsCooked foods (attracts animals)
          Shredded newsprintScrapsPet waste
          BarkCoffee groundsPlastics
          Coffee filters Tea leaves/bagsMetals
          StrawEgg shellsGlass
          Sawdust (limited amt.)FlowersToxic material
          Dryer/vacuum lint Charcoal
          Cardboard (cut into small pieces) Chemical logs
          Dead house plants  
          Shredded brown paper bags  

          4. Add Kitchen and Yard Waste as They Accumulate.

          Collect your kitchen compostables in a container on your kitchen. Find a to hand place to retailer this container container – on the counter, beneath the sink or in the freezer. When it’s full, empty its contents into the compost bin.

          Whenever you upload meals scraps or yard waste, remember to most sensible it with a layer of browns. If you don’t upload browns, your compost will probably be rainy and smash down extra slowly. If imaginable, collect and retailer dry leaves in an previous rubbish in the fall so you’ll be able to use them to your compost yr spherical.

          Depending on the kind of compost bin or pile you have chosen there is also particular ways of adding and maintaining compost. Most of the composters you buy include directions; apply those instructions for best effects.

          5. Continue to Add Layers Until Your Bin is Full.

          The bin contents/pile will shrink because it begins to decompose.

          6. Maintain Your Compost Bin.

          To get completed compost extra briefly, take a look at your compost bin and make sure the next stipulations are met:

          When you add contemporary subject matter, you should definitely combine it in with the lower layers.
          Materials must be as rainy as a rung-out sponge. Add dry materials or water – whichever is wanted – to achieve this moisture degree.
          Mix or flip the compost as soon as every week to lend a hand the breakdown procedure and eliminate odour.

          7. Harvest Your Compost.

          Finished compost will probably be darkish, crumbly and smell like earth. You will have to be capable of have completed compost inside of 4 to 6 months of starting your bin.

          The finished compost will end up at the most sensible of the bin or compost pile. Remove all the completed compost from the bin, leaving unfinished materials within the bin to continue decomposing. Be positive the decomposition process is whole earlier than you use your compost; another way, microbes within the compost could take nitrogen from the soil and harm plant growth.

          Use Your Compost!

          Sprinkle your garden a couple of occasions a year.
          Use your compost as best dressing for flower beds and at the base of timber and shrubs.
          Mix compost in with garden and flower mattress soil.
          Use as a soil conditioner when planting or transplanting timber, flowers and shrubs by means of filling the opening with half compost and half soil.
          Make ‘compost tea.’ Fill cheesecloth or an old pillowcase with 1 litre of compost. Tie the top and ‘steep’ the bag in a single day in a rubbish can full of water. This ‘tea’ can be used to water plants and gardens.

          Organic farming systems as a driver for change

          Since 1980’s, NJF members from Nordic and Baltic countries have been engaged in research, development and extension work in organic farming and food systems. Several NJF seminars have been arranged to highlight organic food and agriculture, bringing together experts from different branches of sience, from ecology to economics. This seminar in Denmark 2013 is part of this chain of seminars, which started in Alnarp, Sweden 2005 and was followed by Tartu, Estonia in 2009. This seminar is organized in collaboration with ICROFS – International Centre for Research in Organic Food Systems and EPOK – Centre for Organic Food and Farming at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
          Organic agriculture has grown to a sector with profound impact on the societal and agricultural development.

            Hence, we want to utilize the upcoming seminar to reveal how organic research has contributed, or may contribute to change the many and serious challenges that we face to protect our environment and to ensure a satisfactory living for all. Concurrently, the needs for improvement in practical farming systems, both to support the farmers and to further develop organic farming in a sustainable direction, must be emphasized.
            The objective of the seminar is to encourage the seminar participants to discuss relevant main challenges and how research and developmental work can be more efficiently directed to solve problems in organic farming systems, based on the overview of work presented during the seminar. The seminar should inspire the participants, and make them better equipped to utilize their work to solve problems in relation to (organic) farming, as they are challenged to reflect the impact of their work in a broader context.
            Topics
            The seminar program is arranged around the following four tracks:

              1. Societal and economic viability
              2. Transition to renewable resources
              3. Nutrient sufficiency and management in farming systems
              4. Productivity and sustainable production levels in animal and crop production
                Download the final programme to see the topics that will be covered in these tracks.
                Keynote speakers
                Opening speech “Organic farming meets future food and environmental challenges” will be given by Elisabeth Gauffin, Sweden, a dairy farmer and the president of KRAV – Swedish Association for Standards in Organic Agriculture and Food.
                There are four track experts and each of them will give an introductory key-note speech about major challenges related to the respective track:
                Track 1: “The organic sector as an innovation system” by Dr. Susanne Padel, Principal socio-economic researcher, The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, UK.
                Track 2: “Energy balance comparisons of organic and conventional farming systems and potentials for the mitigation of fossil resource use” by Dr. Tommy Dalgaard, Head of Agro-Environmental Management MSc Programme, Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Denmark.
                Track 3: “Long-term management of nutrients in organic farming – principles and practice” by Dr. Christine Watson, Leader of the Soils Research Team, Scotland’s Rural College, UK.
                Track 4: “Is agroeclogy the most suitable approach for all organic farming systems? by Prof. Paolo Bàrberi, Professor of Agronomy and Field Crops, Institute of Life Sciences, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Italy.
                The track experts have participated in planning the programme and will contribute to discussions in the sessions and take part in the final plenary session in summing up major conclusions.
              [embeddoc url=”http://agrinfobank.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Organic-farming-systems-as-a-system-to-change.pdf” download=”logged”]

              Nitrogen dynamics of organic farming in a crop rotation based on red clover (Trifolium pratense) leys

              In agricultural systems which rely on organic sources of nitrogen (N), of which the primary source is biological N fixation (BNF), it is extremely important to use N as efficiently as possible with minimal losses to the environment. The amount of N through BNF should be maximised and the availability of the residual N after legumes should be synchronised to the subsequent plant needs in the crop rotation. Six field experiments in three locations in Finland were conducted in 1994-2006 to determine the productivity and amount of BNF in red clover-grass leys of different ages. The residual effects of the leys for subsequent cereals as well as the N leaching risk were studied by field measurements and by simulation using the CoupModel. N use efficiency (NUE) and N balances were also calculated.

              The yields of red clover-grass leys were highest in the two-year-old leys (6700 kg/ha) under study, but the differences between 2- and 3-year old leys were not high in most cases. BNF (90 kg/ha in harvested biomass) correlated strongly with red clover dry matter yield, as the proportion of red clover N derived from the atmosphere (>85%) was high in our conditions of organically farmed field with low soil mineral N. A red clover content of over 40 % in dry matter is targeted to avoid negative N-balances and to gain N for the subsequent crop. Surprisingly, the leys had no significant effect on the yields and N uptake of the two subsequent cereals (winter rye or spring wheat, followed by spring oats).

              On the other hand, yield and C:N of leys, as well as BNF-N and total-N incorporated into the soil influenced on subsequent cereal yields. NUE of cereals from incorporated ley crop residues was rather high, varying from 30 % to 80 % (mean 48 %). The mineral N content of soil in the profile of 0-90 cm was low, mainly 15-30 kg/ha. Simulations of N dynamics by CoupModel functioned satisfactorily and is considered a useful tool to estimate N flows in cropping systems relying on organic N sources. Understanding the long-term influence of cultivation history and soil properties on N dynamics remains to be a challenge to further research.

              [embeddoc url=”http://agrinfobank.com.pk/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/nitrogen-eprints-in-organic-farming.pdf” download=”all”]