10 Homemade Organic Pesticides

10 Homemade Organic Pesticides

Ever wonder what farmers did hundreds of years ago to fight off crop pests? Long before the invention of harmful chemical pesticides (yes, the kind that is linked to cancerous cellular activity), farmers and householders came up with multiple remedies for removing insect infestations from their garden plants.

The following list will offer some of our favorite, all-natural, inexpensive, organic methods for making bug-busting pesticides for your home garden.

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1.     Neem

Ancient Indians extremely respected neem oil as a formidable, all-natural plant for keeping off pests. Neem juice is even one probably the most powerful pure insecticides in the world, preserving over 50 pure insecticides. You can use this extremely sour tree leaf to make a natural pesticidal spray.

To make neem oil spray, upload part an ounce of fine quality organic neem oil and part a teaspoon of a light natural liquid soap (i Take Advantage Of Dr. Bronners Peppermint) to two quarts of warm water. Stir slowly. Add to a twig bottle and use straight away.

2.     Salt Spray

For treating crops infested with spider mites, combine two tablespoons of Himalayan Crystal Salt into one gallon of heat water and spray on inflamed spaces.

3.     Mineral Oil

Mix 10-30 ml of high-grade oil with one liter of water. Stir and upload to spray bottle. This organic pesticide works neatly for dehydrating insects and their eggs.

4.     Citrus Oil & Cayenne Pepper

This organic pesticide works well on ants. Mix ten drops of citrus crucial oil with one teaspoon cayenne pepper and 1 cup of warm water. Shake neatly and spray on the affected spaces.

5.     Soap, Orange Citrus Oil, & Water

To make this natural pesticide, merely mix 3 tablespoons of liquid Organic Castile soap with 1 ounce of Orange oil to one gallon of water. Shake neatly. This is a particularly effective treatment in opposition to slugs and can also be sprayed at once on ants and roaches.

6.     Eucalyptus Oil

A Really Perfect natural pesticide for flies, bees, and wasps. Simply sprinkle a few drops of eucalyptus oil the place the bugs are discovered. They will all be long past prior to you know it.

7.     Onion & Garlic Spray

Mince one organic clove of garlic and one medium-sized natural onion. Add to a quart of water. Wait one hour and then add one teaspoon of cayenne pepper and one tablespoon of liquid cleaning soap to the mix. This organic spray will cling its efficiency for one week if stored in the refrigerator.

8.     Chrysanthemum Flower Tea

These plants hang a powerful plant chemical element referred to as pyrethrum. This substance invades the worried system of bugs, rendering them motionless. You could make your own spray by boiling 100 grams of dried plant life into 1 liter of water. Boil dried flowers in water for twenty minutes. Strain, cool, and pour into a spray bottle. Can be saved for up to two months. You can also add some organic neem oil to give a boost to the effectiveness.

9.     Tobacco Spray

Just as tobacco is hazardous to humans, tobacco spray was once a often used pesticide for killing pests, caterpillars, and aphids. Mix one cup of natural tobacco (preferably a logo this is natural and all-natural) into one gallon of water. Allow the mix to set in a single day. After 24-hours, the mix will have to have a light brown color. If it is rather darkish, add more water. This mix can be utilized on most plants, excluding those in the solanaceous circle of relatives (tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and so forth.)

10.                       Chile Pepper & Diatomaceous Earth

Grind two handfuls of dry chiles right into a wonderful powder and blend with one cup of diatomaceous earth. Add to two liters of water and let sit overnight. Shake neatly earlier than applying.

If you realize some simple recipes for making your personal organic insecticides, we would really like to listen to them.

Results might range. Information and statements made are for education functions and are not meant to switch the recommendation of your physician. Global Healing Center does no longer dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. The perspectives and dietary recommendation expressed by way of Global Healing Center don’t seem to be intended to be an alternative choice to typical scientific provider. If you have a serious clinical condition or well being worry, see your physician.

Organic management of pest insects in stored wheat

FOOD safety has always been the most strategic purpose of the countries, worldwide. Food security is a complementary module due to losses persevered by a number of biotic and abiotic components throughout production, handling and garage. The extent of such losses relies on post-harvest management machine and pest regulate measures.

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Among destructive brokers, pest insects play a significant role in post-harvest system of perishable and semi-perishable agricultural products. Wheat is a staple meals of the folks and meals security-cum-safety plans include its manufacturing and coverage.

Wheat manufacturing fluctuates round 20 million tons which is enough to accomplish our meals, feed, and seed requirements for few years. By 2010, our wheat requirement will be about 25.five million tons. Presently, any deficit in home production is compensated with imports.

According to scientists, post-harvest wheat losses range from 2.5 to 15.three according to cent depending upon the dealing with and storage prerequisites as those are top in non-public sector because of the unawareness about pest control protocols and uncertain garage and advertising gadget.

Presently, food grains are secure from pest insects by the usage of artificial insecticides and fumigants. In early 90’s, the Punjab Food Department controlled insect pests of stored-wheat with one pill of Aluminum Phosphide consistent with cubic meter volume which now is being carried out with three drugs for controlling the resistant lines of insects.

a Large Amount Of foreign currency is spent on the import of insecticides which can be have shyed away from via utilising our domestic herbal resources. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission of the WTO beneficial natural regulate of insect pests to make food merchandise consistent with the International Standards Organization. Keeping in view the demands, it was decided to orientate the analysis towards natural control of pest insects in saved wheat and decided on native botanicals.

In the new previous, insecticidal properties including toxicity, feeding-repellence, floor protection and oviposition deterrence had been confirmed by means of other researchers in opposition to the insect pests of stored grains in laboratory studies. Accordingly, oils of those botanicals had been used in the natural control of pest-insects with the mixing of asepsis, disinfestations, and other packing fabrics below herbal prerequisites within the warehouses. This used to be achieved to increase an IPM protocol for protected storage system at farm level by means of replacing the artificial pesticides.

Insect-free jute and cotton luggage made from the material of various densities (mesh sizes) had been sprayed-over with 4 other concentrations from each of the botanical oils and combinations in 3 sets for three garage classes (30, 60 and 90 days) every, with 3 replications.

Infestation unfastened wheat of recent crop was packed in the luggage, handled with other concentrations of take a look at materials to evaluate their antixenosis and antibiosis. The experimental units were placed in ventilated warehouses of flourmills beneath beneficial conditions for the multiplication of stored product bugs.

The concentrations appearing considerable efficacy have been attempted as mixtures to note their effects. Absolute knowledge, regarding mortality, penetration into the treated bags and insect inhabitants construct had been gathered at specified intervals. After finishing touch of the experiment, rheological exams were applied to the flour constructed from the treated and untreated wheat to note adjustments in dough-development and sensory analysis of chapatti.

On the research of knowledge, other concentrations, storage periods and packing fabrics showed an important effect upon penetration of insects into the baggage and mortality of insects because of their frame touch with botanical oils. The stage of antixenosis and antibiosis confirmed a favorable correlation with the focus of the botanicals however adverse with the garage periods.

Penetration into bags was once inversely proportional and bug mortality directly proportional to the density of packing fabrics. Mixture of 3 botanical oils with 10 in step with cent concentration of each and every gave effective regulate of the objective bugs for 2 months with a superb cotton material packing which diminished gradually in the 3rd month.

Farinographic studies confirmed no important changes in dough development houses of the flour made out of the wheat saved in bags handled with the botanicals. Moreover, sensory evaluation proved that there used to be no distinguishable style or taint present in chapatti made out of the flour of the wheat packed in the handled luggage.

Recommendations: Farmers can save grain, environment and capital through the usage of the oil of castor seeds, neem seeds and rhizomes of candy flag plant to control insect pests. Oils will have to be jumbled together equivalent percentage and sprayed over jute/cotton luggage for use for packing of wiped clean/insect free wheat.

The mixture could also be sprayed with the help of a fine sprayer. New crop wheat will have to be unfold on steel sheets or cemented flooring in the sun as much as the temperatures at 55ºC for approximately 4 hours.

These sun-heated wheat grains having moisture contents not more than 8 in line with cent may be packed in treated baggage to get a protected garage for 2 to 3 months best. If wheat is to be stored for more than 3 months then repeat the botanical software after each two months. Insect loose new crop wheat with new handled baggage and proper sealing may give better effects.

Moreover, appropriate restore, cleansing and treatment of godowns/packing containers are also a supplement for the good fortune of the steered insect pests control measure.

Common Pests and Disease

Pests and Disease


Aphids
These are small brown colored insects. They suck the sap from the leaves and branches and cause great damage to trees and reduction of yield. Aphid attack is severe during Feb and April. Use Dizenon 40% or Eldrine 20%, 1 kg in 450 litres of water. Insecticides should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the fruit.

Citrus Leaf Minor:
This attacks the leaves. the attacked leaves become curled and deformed. If causes great losses in growth and yield. Use Malathion 57 or Matasystox 50% at the rate of 500 grams in 450 litres of water per acre for its control.

Lemon Butterfly
This also attacks fresh leaves. It can be controlled effectively by using Malathion and Metasystox.

Citrus Whitefly:
This attacks the fruits and causes great losses in yield and quality. This pest can also be controlled by using Malathion 57%. This should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the fruit.

Red Scales:
These are sucking types of insects and cause great damage to Kinnow and sweet oranges in Punjab. They can survive throughout the year. Use Parathion or Malathion at the rate of 752 grams in 450 litres of water per acre for its effective control.

Root Rot:
This is a fungus which attacks the root of the trees. Its attack is severe in poorly drained soils. The affected tree gradually dries up. Remove the soil from around the affected trees without damaging the roots and improve on farm drainage for its effective control.

Withertip:
This disease is caused by nutritional deficiencies. The branches and fruits of the affected trees start drying and the tree becomes uneconomical to maintain. Apply a balanced dose of Bordeaux Mixture 450 after cutting affected branches from the trees.

Citrus Canker:
This is a bacterial disease. It attacks leads and the fruits. It forms canker like spots on the leaves and stems of the fruit causing great reduction in yield and quality of the fruit. There is no effective treatment for this disease except to cut and remove the affected trees and spray Formaldehyde at the spots from where the diseased trees have been removed.

Harvesting:
Picking of citrus fruits is done almost throughout the year. The fruit should be picked when it is fully ripe. It will not develop taste or sugar in storage after picking. The best method is to pick the individual fruit by holding it in one hand and cutting the stalk with a knife and collecting it into boxes or baskets to avoid injury to the stem. The average yield expected from different types of fruits in various species are 500 to 1000 fruit per tree.

Pakistan is blessed with a climate ideally suited to the farming of all kinds of fruits – rich in taste and juicy. Farmers have been developing new varieties of fruit by grafting one exotic variety with other.

Season of Kino in Pakistan starts from December and last till April. Kinnow is very delicious in taste and if treated with proper fungicide and wax and careful handing and storage of Kinnow at about 4 Degree Centigrade can retain it’s freshness until 2 months.

Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world where some of the varieties of fruits grown in cool temperate climate such as apples, pears, plums and cherries while in warm temperate climate such as apricots, grapes, pomegranates and melon and in tropical and subtropical climate such as bananas, mangoes, dates, guava and citrus so the fruits are usually available throughout the year.

Nature has blessed Pakistan with ideal climate for growing a wide range of delicious fruits and large varieties of vegetables. Over the years, Pakistani experts have developed unique stains of exotic fruit varieties unmatched for their rich flavor and taste. From the selection of the finest fruits grown, a reasonable quantity is processed and properly packed for sales and consumption in local market and exporting abroad.

Pakistan exported 268,741 tones of fruits worth US$ 79.83 million during 2000-01, while the export of vegetables stood at $22.50 million. Out of the total exports of fruits and vegetables the share of mangoes was 53,443 tonnes valuing $16.54 million, showing an increase of 43 per cent over the 1999-00.

Agriculture is the main contributor to GDP either directly or indirectly in the form of agro-based industries. The production of fruits and vegetables is not fully utilized and after their domestic consumption a major part is wasted due to lack of infrastructure, storage and processing facilities. The wastage quantity can be utilized by just streamlining and regulating the system from grower to export markets.

Pakistan produces large varieties of mangoes, its production has increased from 908 thousand tonnes in 1995-96 to 937 thousand tonnes in 1999-00. World production of mangoes stood at 19 million tons in 1995, which rose to 23.8 million tonnes in 1999, registering an increase of 24.75 per cent over the five years. Philippines and China have achieved much over 100 per cent increase in mango production during that period. Thailand is another country, which has also registered a significant increase. Rise in Pakistan’s annual mango production during 1995-99 is only 3.4 per cent. Our share in global mango production in 1999 is 3.8 per cent.

Beside mangoes, Pakistani kinoos and apples are also in great demand in the international market. Balochistan produces about 480,000 tones of apples annually but only 3,000 tones were exported last year. About 30 per cent apples wasted every year in Balochistan only. Recently the government has given approval for the establishment of treatment plant in Quetta. While two plants are about to start working in Karachi. It is estimated that after starting of these treatment plants export of apples would be increased to about 20,000 tons per annum. There are good investment opportunities for the private sector to establish processing units near the fruits and vegetable growing areas. This would not only prevent wastage but would also help to earn foreign exchange.

There are also bright prospects for exporting fruit juices and pulps. By establishing modern plants, Pakistan can earn foreign exchange three times more than that being earned by export of fresh fruits and vegetables.

Kinnosw: 
Sunny winters in Pakistan yield a large variety of citrus fruits. The juicy kinno is a unique hybrid of two varieties of California Oranges. It has a soft skin which is easy to peel and has a lovely fragrance.

Pakistan is fortunate in having great diversity in its soil and in its ecological and climatic conditions, ranging from extremely warm to temperate, to very cold. This enables the country to grow many kinds of trees, plants, shrubs, vines and creepers which yield a large variety of fruits and vegetables.

Cotton Pests: Symptoms, Season and Control

Plant protection strategy and activities have significant importance in the overall crop production programmes for sustainable agriculture. Variation of Bt gene expression in different cultivars over time and efficacy to bollworms are the main concern now a days, studies undertaken on Earias spp proved the concerned. Similarly the efficacy of Bt cotton in the field is losing efficacy against the pink bollworm, survey conducted revealed high infestations in green bolls. Monitoring of lepidopterous pest population viz sex pheromone and light traps was carried out and forecast the increasing trend in all bollworms population. Studies on red and dusky cotton bugs continued and efforts are made to find bio agents for long term solutions. Seed treatment effect and development of natural on early and normal planting studies revealed that the population of jassid was more on early sown field than normal sowing also the natural fauna was recorded higher in the early sown.
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The distinct efforts of researchers of the section have proved meaningful in devising pest management strategies against common and new emerging insect pests through application of IPM. Studies are continued on host plant tolerance of CCRI, Multan and National Coordinated Bt. & non-Bt. Strains. The section also studied effect of different IPM strategies on insect pest for transgenic cotton. Screening of new insecticides was also conducted against major insect pests of cotton.

Important pests of cotton:

Name of pest Scientific Name Family Order
Thrips Thrips tabaci Thripidae Thysanoptera
Jassid Amrascadevastans Jassidae Hemiptera
Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Aleyrodidae Homoptera
Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Psuedococcidae Hemiptera
Red Cotton Bug Dysdercus cingulatus Pyrrhocoridae Hemiptera
Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus hyalipennis Lygaeidae Hemiptera
Mites Tetranychustelarius Tetranychidae Acarina
Pink bollworm Pectinophoragossypiella Gelechiidae Lepidoptera
Spotted Bollworm Eariasvittella Noctuidae Lepidoptera
spiny bollworm Eariasinsulana Noctuidae Lepidoptera
American Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera Noctuidae Lepidoptera
Armyworm Spodopteralitura Noctuidae Lepidoptera

 

Symptoms of damage:

Name of pest Symptoms of damage
Thrips Leaves of seedlings become wrinkled and distorted with white shiny patches, older crop presents rusty appearance from a distance.
Jassid Affected leaves curl downwards, turn yellowish, then to brownish before drying and shedding, “hopper burn” stunts young plants.
Whitefly Upward curling of leaves, reduced plant vigour, lint contamination with honey dew and associated fungi, transmission of leaf curl virus disease.
Mealybug The extraction of sap by the mealybug results in the leaves of the plant turning yellow and becoming crinkled or malformed, which leads to loss of plant vigour, foliage and fruit-drop, and potential death of the plant.
Red Cotton Bug Feed on developing and mature seeds, stain the lint to typical yellow colour, reddish nymphs seen in aggregations around developing and open bolls.
Dusky Cotton Bug Associated with ripe seeds, all stages characterized by a powerful smell, discolour the lint if crushed.
Mites The first sign of damage is bronzing of the upper leaf surface near the petiole or leaf fold. As numbers increase, the leaves turn red and become covered in fine webbing, and affected leaves may dry and fall off.
Pink bollworm “Rosetted” bloom pink larvae inside developing bolls with interloculi movement .
Spotted Bollworm Bore mark in main shoot, dried and withered away shoot, twining of main stem due to auxillary monopodia, feeding holes in flower buds and bolls blocked by excrement.
spiny bollworm Bore mark in main shoot, dried and withered away shoot, twining of main stem due to auxillary monopodia, feeding holes in flower buds and bolls blocked by excrement.
American Bollworm Small amount of webbing on small squares injured by young larvae, squares have around hole near the base,larval frass and flaring of bracts on larger squares, clean feeding of internal contents of bolls, excessive shedding of buds and bolls.
Armyworm Young larvae in groups skeletinise leaves and older larvae voraciously defoliate leaves .

 

Seasonal occurrence of cotton pest in Pakistan:

Name of pest Month of attack
Thrips June and July
Jassid July
Whitefly July-September
Mealybug October-November
Red Cotton Bug October-November
Dusky Cotton Bug Though our crop
Pink bollworm August-November
Spotted Bollworm July-September
American Bollworm August-October
Armyworm  

 
List of natural enemies of cotton pest:

Predator/Parasitoid Host Attack Stage
Green lace wings, pirate bugs Lady bird
beetle: Coccinella
septempunctataMenochilus
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus
Thrips Nymph and adult
Green lace wings Jassid All stages
Lady bird beetle: Coccinella
septempunctataMenochilus 
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus 
Eretnocerus serius
Whitefly Egg and Numph
Lady bird beetle: Coccinella
septempunctataMenochilus 
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus , 
aenasius bamby wali.
Mealybug Adult and larvae, adult
Lady bird beetle: Coccinella
septempunctataMenochilus 
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus

Shield bug Eucantheconidea furcellata 
Apanteles angaleti 
Elasmus johnstoni
Pink bollworm Larvae
Lady bird beetle: Coccinella 
septempunctataMenochilus 
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus
 
Shield bug Eucantheconidea furcellata 
Mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenius
Spider: Oxyopes sp., Clubionia sp., Thomisus sp.
Brachymeria nephantidis
Spotted Bollworm Larvae
Lady bird beetle: Coccinella
septempunctataMenochilus 
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus

Shield bug Eucantheconidea furcellata 
Spider: Oxyopes sp., Clubionia sp.,
Thomisus sp.
Trichogramma chilonis
American Bollworm Larvae
Aphidius colemani, Lady bird beetle:
Coccinella septempunctataMenochilus
sexmaculatus, Brumodies sp. , Scymnus
Syrphid fly
Aphid Egg, nymph and adults
Anthocorid bug Orius minutus 
Wasp Eumenes petiolata and Delta sp
Mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenius 
Spider: Oxyopes sp., Clubionia sp.,
Thomisus sp.
Armyworm Larvae

 
Pesticides recommended for cotton pests control under different situations:

Sr.# Pest situation recommended insecticide Dose / acre (ml/gm)
1 Seed treatment to control sucking insect pests at an early stage. Imidacloprid 70 WS 
Thiamethoxam 70 WS*
10 gm/kg seed 
5 gm/kg seed
2 Thrips reached ETL, during early stage of crop and clear damage symptoms are visible. Chlorfenpyr 360SC
Spinetoram 120SC
Spinosad 240 SC
Imidacloprid 200SL
Acetamiprid 20 SP
Formathion 25 EC
Etofenprox 30 EC 
Or Any other suitable registered insecticide
100
50
50
80
50
500
200
3 Whitefly population reached ETL, during early stage of crop. Diafenthiuron 500 SC
Spirotetramate 240 SC
Acetamiprid 20SP
Imidacloprid 200 SL
Buprofezin 20SC
Pyriproxyfen 10.8EC
Any other suitable registered insecticide
200
125
150
250
600
400
4 Jassid population reached ETL, during early stage of crop. Dinotefuran 20SC
Dimethoate 40EC
Imidacloprid 200 SL
Nitenpyram 10 SL
Etofenprox 30 EC
Thiamethoxam 25 WG Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
100
350
200
200
200
24
5 Whitefly & Jassid collectively reached ETL during early stage of crop. Dinotefuran 20SC
Dimethoate 40EC
Imidacloprid 200 SL
Nitenpyram 10 SL
Etofenprox 30 EC
Thiamethoxam 25 WG
Mix with IGR
Buprfoezin 20SC
Pyriproxyfen 10.8EC
100
350
200
200
200
24 
600
400
6 Pink bollworm reached ETL. Spinosad 240 SC
Spinetoram 120 SC
Spinetoram 250 WG
Gamma Cyhalothrin
Triazophos 40 EC
Bifenthrin 10 EC
Cypermethrin 10 EC
Deltamethrin2.5 EC
Tralomethrin
Fenvalerate 20 EC 
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
50
100
40
100
1000
275
333 / 365
300
80
250 / 265
7 Spotted bollworm reached ETL Spinosad 240 SC
Spinetoram 120 SC
Cypermethrin 10 EC
Deltamethrin 2.5 EC
Beta-Cyfluthrin 25 EC
Cyhalothrin 2.5 EC
Fenvalerate 20 EC
Alpha cypermethrin 5 EC
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
40
40
300 / 325
333 / 365
250 / 275
333 / 370
400 / 450
440 / 490
8 American bollworm reached ETL at early stage. Spinosad 240 SC
Spinetoram 250 WG
Chlorfenapyr 360 SC
Emamectin Benzoate 1.9 EC
Chlorpyrifos 40 EC
Profenofos 500 EC
Indoxacarb 150 SC
Thiodicarb 80 DF
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
100
60
333
200
1000
1000
175
480
9 Aphids reached ETL in later part of the crop life. Carbosulfan20 EC
Diafenthiuron 500 SC
Chlorpyrifos 40 EC
Quinalphos 25 EC 
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
500
200
750
1250
10 Mites reached ETL. Spiromesifen 240 SC
Fenpyroxymate 5 SC
Azocyclotin 25 WP
Pyridaben 15 EC
Amitraz 20 EC
Diafenthiuron 500 SC
Ethion 46 EC
Triazophos 40 EC
Chlorfenapyr360 EC
Hexythiazox 10 WP 
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
100
200
150
500
1000
200
1000
600
333
220
11 Armyworm attack on cotton.** Methoxyfenozide 240 SC
Lufenuron 50 EC*
Flubendamide 480 SC
Emamectin Benzoate 1.9 EC
Tebufenazide 20
Acephate 75 SP
Indoxacarb 150 SC
Methomyl 42 SP***
Or
Any other suitable registered insecticide
200
200
50
250
350
750
175
500
12 Black headed cricket. Bait
Ingredients:
1. Rice husk (Bhossi) 10 kg/acre
2. Methamidophos½ litre
3. Gur (Molasses) 1 kg
4. Water As per requirement
The formulated material is for one acre.
13 Mealy bug infestation during early stage of crop. Acetamiprid 20 SP
Imidacloprid 200SL
150
250
14 Mealy bug infestation during late stage of crop. Profenofos 50 EC
Methidathion 40 EC
Chlorpyrifos 40 EC
800
400
1000
15 Dusky cotton bug. Fipronil
Clothianidin
Triazophos
Imidacloprid + Fipronil
480
150
660
60
16 Red cotton bug. Fipronil 5 SC
Triazophos 40 EC
Cypermethrin + Chlorpyrifos
Triazophos + Deltamethrin
Imidacloprid + Fipronil
480
660
500
600
60

 

Thrips: Pest of fruits, vegetables, flowers and fruits

Thrips feed on the lower surface of leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. Both larvae and adults feed by piercing the plant tissue and sucking up the released plant juices. A heavy infestation causes premature wilting, delay in leaf development and distortion of leaves and young shoots. Under heavy infestations, when buds and flowers are attacked, abortion usually occurs. Thrips attack may also result in premature fruit shed. Thrips may also cause cosmetic damage to plants.

Thrips feeding causes scarring of flowers and skin blemishes and distortion of fruits (scarring, russeting, fruit cracking or splitting), which affects fruit quality. In addition, egg-laying spots may be surrounded by slightly raised, light coloured areas, which may lead to rejection of banana, tomato or peas grown for the export market.

Scientific Name:

Ceratothripoides brunneus, Diarthrothrips coffeae, Frankliniella schultzei, Frankliniella occidentalis, Haplothrips spp., Heliothrips haemorrhoidales, Hercinothrips bicinctus, Megalurothrips sjostedti, Scirtothrips aurantii, Scirtothrips kenyensis, Thrips tabaci

Order / Family:

Thysanoptera: Thripidae

Type of Pest:
Insect

Host Plants:

Avocados, Bananas, Beans, Cabbage/Kale, Brassicas, Cashew , Citrus plants, Coffee, Cowpea, Eggplant, Green gram, Groundnut, Mango, Okra, Onion, Passion fruit, Peas, Peppers, Pigeon pea, Pineapple, Tea, Tomato, Wheat

Thrips also cause indirect damage as vectors of disease-causing virus, fungi and bacteria. Several species of thrips are vectors of the tomato spotted wilt virus group in a wide range of crops (bell pepper, lettuce, pea, tobacco, potato, tomato, groundnut and a large number of ornamental plants). In addition, injuries caused by thrips feeding may serve as entry point for bacterial or fungal pathogens. For example infection by Fusarium ear rot on maize is facilitated by the western flower thrips, and purple blotch in onions by the onion thrips.

The stage of growth when an infestation occurs seems to determine the extent of yield loss. Direct feeding damage is most harmful in dry climate and conditions, when heavily attacked plants lose moisture rapidly. Young plants are particularly susceptible, and there may be total losses at the seedling stage in onions, cabbages and cotton.

Major species of thrips attacking crops in Africa:

African bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti)
Coffee thrips (Diarthrothrips coffeae)
Blossom or Cotton bud thrips (Frankliniella schultzei)
Black tea thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidales)
Banana thrips (Hercinothrips bicinctus)
Citrus thrips (Scirtothrips aurantii)
Cacao or red banded thrips (Selenothrips rubrocinctus)
Tomato thrips (Ceratothripoides brunneus)
Cereal thrips (Haplothrips spp)
Tea thrips (Scirtothrips kenyensis)
Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci)
Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)

Host range

Thrips attack a wide number of vegetables, fruit and flower crops and cereals. Some species are specific to particular host plants while other feed on many host plants. Both onion thrips and western flower thrips attack a wide range of plants including cereals and broadleaved crops.

Symptoms

The characteristic symptom of attack is a silvery sheen of the attacked plant tissue, and white or silvery patches and streaks on leaves, fruits and pods. Affected tissue will dry up when the damage is severe. A further indicating of attack by thrips is small black spots of faecal material on the infested parts of the plant. However, small dark spots can also be observed on plants attacked by other insects such as lace bugs. Damaged leaves may become papery and distorted. Infested terminals lose their colour, roll, and drop leaves prematurely. Feeding on fruits leaves a roughened silvery texture on the skin.

Affected plant stages

Flowering stage, post-harvest, seedling stage and vegetative growing stage.

Affected plant parts

Growing points, inflorescence and leaves.

Symptoms by affected plant part

Growing points: dead heart.
Inflorescence: lesions; abnormal colour; abnormal forms.
Leaves: lesions; abnormal colours; abnormal forms.

Biology and Ecology of Thrips

Eggs are very tiny. A single egg is 0.25 mm long and 0.1 mm wide. They are white when freshly laid and turn pale yellow toward maturation. Eggs are usually laid singly inside the plant tissue, and are therefore not visible. Some thrips (e.g. Haplothrips spp) lay eggs singly or in clusters attached to the plant surface.

Larvae. The first and second instar larvae are very small (0.5 to 1.2 mm), elongated, slender, and vary in colour from pale-yellow, orange or red according to the species. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts. They resemble a miniature version of the adults but do not have wings.

Pre pupa and pupae. These two or three instars are intermediate forms between the nymph and the adult. They have short wing buds but no functional wings. During these stages thrips are inactive and do not feed and therefore they do not do cause any damage to the plant. Pupation may occur on a plant or in the soil beneath, depending on species.

Adult thrips are small (usually 1 to 1.5 mm), slender and usually winged. The wings are long, narrow and fringed with long hairs, and at rest, are tied on the back along the body. Their colour varies according to the species. Most species are black, brown or yellow 

Pest and Disease Management

Pest and disease management: General illustration of the concept of Infonet-biovision

 
 

This illustration shows the methods promoted on infonet-biovision. The methods shown at the top have a long-term effect, while methods shown at the bottom have a short-term effect. In organic farming systems, methods with a long-term effect are the basis of crop production and should be of with preference. On the other hand methods with a short-term effect should be used in emergencies only. On infonet we do not promote synthetic pesticides. 
 

Further below you find concrete preventive and curative methods against Thrips.

Cultural practices

Monitoring and decision-making

Monitor the crop regularly. Early detection of thrips is important to determine an appropriate control strategy. In the case of onions, randomly sample plants and evaluate thrips numbers and damage under leaf folds. Sample at least 5 plants from 4 separate areas of the field. (For more information on monitoring and damage thresholds (click here to see datasheet on onions). In other crops pay particular attention to flower buds and flowers. Thrips can be easily detected by shaking leaves and flowers on a white piece of paper.

Adult thrips can be monitored by mass trapping with coloured (blue, yellow or white) sticky traps or water traps in the nursery or field.

The type of crop damage needs to be taken into consideration when deciding on the need for control measures and the appropriate strategy. This is particularly important in the case of thrips-transmitted virus diseases. The prevention of these diseases is difficult since relatively small numbers of vector thrips can result in high rates of pathogen spread. In general, transmission of the plant pathogen occurs so quickly that the thrips are not killed before they have transmitted the virus to the plants. In these cases, the best strategy is to keep the crop free of thrips at least during the most vulnerable period of the crop (i.e. young growth).

Irrigation

Provide good growing conditions for the plants to ensure rapid growth. Environmental stress that weakens plants makes them more susceptible to thrips attack. In particular, plants under water stress are very susceptible to direct thrips damage. Adequate irrigation is a critical factor in minimising damage.

Tillage

Ploughing and harrowing, and solarisation can kill pupae in the soil from previously infested crops.

Planting date

Well-established crops can withstand attack better than newly planted, therefore early planting is desirable particularly in rain-fed crops. This is especially beneficial in light, dry soils, where it is common for plants to suffer from water shortage as the growing season progresses.

Intercropping

In some cases intercropping has been found to reduce thrips infestation. The effects are probably caused through shading of the lower crop by the taller intercrop, which influences the abundance and activity of the thrips. However, thrips reduction is not necessarily translated in yield increase. The effect of intercropping on thrips numbers and damage depends, among other factors, on the selection of plants. In some cases intercropping does increase the numbers of thrips in susceptible crops. Thus, populations of the onion thrips increase on potatoes when intercropped with shallot and garlic, as does Caliothrips indicus on groundnuts intercropped with pigeon pea and mung bean. A mixed cropping habitat is likely to encourage thrips predators, as has been shown for the minute pirate bugs (Orius tristicolor) (Parella and Lewis, 1997)

In Egypt, intercropping onion and garlic with tomato reduced infestations of the onion thrips by almost 80%, but the yield of both crops declined. In England, infestation of the onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) on onions was halved when intercropped with carrots. The effect was greater with closely alternating single rows of each. Infestation of the onion thrips on cabbage was reduced tenfold by growing clovers (Trifolium repens or T. subterraneum)between rows (Parella and Lewis, 1997).

In Kenya, populations of the African bean flower thrips (Megalurothips sjostedti) and Hydatothrips adolfifriderici on cowpea buds were almost halved by intercropping the cowpea with sorghum and maize (Parella and Lewis, 1997)

Crop rotation

Avoidance of successive planting of susceptible crops helps reduce the impact of thrips. Identification of the thrips involved is important to know the host range of crops adequate for crop rotation. Thus, in the case of onions, they should not be planted near grain fields.

Biological pest control

Natural enemies

Natural enemies, in particular predators are often found feeding on thrips. They include predatory thrips, predatory mites (e.g. Amblyseius spp.) anthocorid bugs or minute pirate bugs (Orius spp.), ground beetles, lacewings, hoverflies, and spiders. They are important in natural control of thrips. The parasitic wasp Ceranisus menes is an important natural enemy. The farmer can increase the number of these natural enemies by providing protective habitats for them. For more information on natural enemies click here.

Pathogens such as the fungi Entomophthora, Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are also important in natural control of thrips. Spray formulations of Beauveria bassiana are used for the control of thrips. Thismicroorganism is most effective when used early before large thrips populations have built up.

The natural enemies Beauveria bassiana, Orius jeanneliand Amblyseius californicus are commercially available in Kenya (reference addresses see below)

Biopesticides and physical methods

Spinosad

Spinosad, a microbial insecticide, is very effective in controlling thrips. This biopesticide is derived from the fermentation of an Actinomyces bacterium, commonly found in the soil. In Kenya, this microbial pesticide is sold as Tracer 480 SC(r).

Neem

Neem-based pesticides are reported to control young nymphs, inhibit growth and development of older nymphs, and reduce egg-laying by adult thrips. Adding 0.1 to 0.5% of soft soap enhances efficacy of neem-based pesticides.
For more information on Neem click here

Other botanicals and measures

Other botanical pesticides that have been recommended for management of thrips include garlic, rotenone, ryania, pyrethrum and sabadilla. A homemade botanical spray of garlic and pepper has been recommended for organic growers in USA (ATTRA, 2004). The garlic/pepper mixture is made by liquifying two bulbs of garlic and two cayenne or habanero (hot) peppers in a blender 1/3 full of water. Solids are strained out, and enough water is added to make one gallon of the concentrate. The spray solution is prepared by mixing 1/4 cup of the concentrate with 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil and enough water to make 1 gallon (about 22 litles) (ATTRA, 2004). For more information on garlic recipe click here.

Sulphur, insecticidal soaps and diatomaceous earth have demonstrated efficacy in suppressing thrips in several crops. Three applications of superfine sulphur at monthly intervals are recommended in fruit crops. Lime sulphur has also been recommended as an alternative. However, care should be taken when using sulphur as it has been reported to harm some predatory mites.

Flour/starch preparations have been recommended for control of thrips. For more information on Flour preparation click here.

Coloured sticky traps (blue, yellow or white) or water traps are useful for monitoring and in some cases reducing thrips by mass trapping them in the nursery or field. Research in California has shown that hot-pink sticky cards attract more thrips than blue-coloured traps. The colour spectrum of the boards is important for the efficacy of the sticky traps. Bright colours attract more thrips than darker ones. For more information on sticky traps click here.

Overhead irrigation and rainfall reduce thrips numbers. Irrigation by flooding fields has been found to reduce thrips damage. It destroys a large proportion of pupae in the soil.

Ultraviolet-absorbing plastics, used to build walk-in field tunnels have proved effective in protecting crops from western flower thrips.

Reflective mulches deter thrips. Aluminium-surfaced mulch (e.g. coated plastic mulch) has considerably decreased thrips and virus infection in tomato, pepper and tobacco. The effectiveness of the mulch decreases with increased shading by lower leaves (Lewis, 1997).

Information Source Links

ATTRA. 2004. Thrips Management Alternatives in the Field. By George Kuepper. NCAT agriculture specialist. ATTRA publication #IP132.https://attra.ncat.org
Crop Protection Compendium, 2005 Edition. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 2005 www.cabi.org
Lewis, T. (1997). Field and Laboratory Techniques. In Thrips as crop pests (1997). Edited by T. Lewis. CAB International. Institute of Arable Crops Research – Rothamsted, Harpenenden, Herts, UK. Pages 435-475. ISBN: 0-85199-178-5.
OISAT: Organisation for Non-Chemical Pest Management in the Tropics. www.oisat.org
Parella, M. P. and Lewis, T. (1997). IPM in Field Crops. In Thrips as crop pests. (1997).. Edited by T. Lewis. CAB International. Institute of Arable Crops Research – Rothamsted, Harpenenden, Herts, UK. Pages 595-614. ISBN: 0-85199-178-5.
UC Pest Management Guidelines: How to Manage Pests. Onion and Garlic Thrips. UC IPM Online. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. University of California. Agriculture and Natural Resources. www.ipm.ucdavis.edu
Varela, A.M., Seif, A.A., and Lohr, B. (2003). A Guide to IPM in Tomato Production in Eastern and Southern Africa. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 92 9064 149 5 www.icipe.org

Wheat insect pest in Pakistan

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop with largest area under cultivation in Pakistan and plays a significant role in economic stability of the country [1]. Low yield of wheat per hectare in Pakistan compared to the other advanced countries is due to several abiotic and biotic factors, such as traditional methods of cultivation, varieties, lack of irrigation facilities, barani areas, soil fertility and incidence of insect pests and diseases. Although many insect pests attack wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Pakistan, severe damage is caused by aphids. Aphids cause yield losses either directly (35-40%) by sucking the sap of the plants or indirectly (20-80%) by transmitting viral and fungal diseases [2]. Population density of aphids also depends on the abiotic factors [3-5]. During spring season (February-March) aphid population increases, at the same time biocontrol agents like coccinellids also increase as natural check on this pest.

1. APHID

Aphids are nearly transparent, soft-bodied sucking insects . When present in sufficient numbers, aphids can cause yellowing and premature death of leaves. They exude drops of sugary liquid known as “honeydew”, which may cause tiny scorch marks on the foliage.

Aphids are important and widespread pests on cereal crops. When feeding in sufficient numbers, they can cause significant damage. In addition, the species listed above may act as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus.

2. Cereal Leaf Beetle

Its scienrtific name is Oulema melanopa . Adult beetles are 4-5 mm long, have a black head, light brown thorax, and a shiny blue-green wing cover with parallel lines of small dots . Larvae are a dull to bright yellow color, but soon take on the appearance of a slimy, globular, black mass due to the mound of fecal material they produce and accumulate on their backs . The most prominent symptom of cereal leaf beetle infestations is the distinct, longitudinal stripes on leaves these stripes are produced the feeding of adult beetles and of larvae. Significant yield losses can occur in winter wheat and fall-sown spring wheat.

3. HESSIAN FLY

Its scientific name is Mayetiola destructor. Hessian flies result in stunting of the plants, thin stands, lodging, and reduced yield. Injury is caused entirely by the larvae, which suck juices from plant tissues . If infestation occurs during jointing, infested stems often will break prior to maturity. The Hessian fly is 3-4 mm long, has a black head and thorax, and a pinkish or yellow-brown abdomen. This is one of the most destructive insect pests on cereals. The Hessian fly is mainly a pest of wheat, but it may attack barley, rye, and other grasses. This pest has been reported in most wheat-growing areas of the world.

4. WHEAT STEM MAGGOT

When young tillers are attacked in the fall or early spring, the tillers usually die; infested plants show the “white head” condition typically produced by stem-boring insects. The adult flies are about 6 mm in length, and pale green to yellow with dark stripes. In infested fields, 10-15% of plants may be injured. Damage can be severe in some years, but the insect seldom causes widespread damage. However, heavy infestations of individual wheat stands may kill a significant portion of the tillers. Wheat stem maggot larvae overwinter in cereal plants or grasses.

5. SAWFLY

Its scientific name is Cephus cinctus. Damage by sawflies includes premature yellowing of the head and shrivelling of the grain. The larvae girdle the stem and, later in the crop cycle, lodging is common. Sawflies produce one generation per year. The larvae overwinter in the straw in the spring they pupate. Adult sawflies are small, fly-like wasps and appear from late spring to midsummer. The females deposit small white eggs in the upper nodes of stems just below the heads.

Sawfly can cause significant damage in some years, but infestations are usually discontinuous. Nearly all cultivated cereals and native grasses act as hosts, although wheat is preferred.

6. MITES

Adult mites are usually less than 1 mm long, and most of the plant-inhabiting species have sucking mouth parts. Mites are not insects. Adults typically possess four pairs of legs (83), while larvae have only three pairs.

Some species may produce webs and/or may cause infested plants to be severely stunted, to head poorly, and to turn white. Individual mites are so small they they can scarcely be seen with the unaided eye.

7. WHITE GRUBS

White grubs can partially or completely sever the roots of the host plants. The dying of wheat plants are thwe main symptoms.

When fully grown, the largest of these larvae may be several centimeters long and nearly one centimeter thick. White grubs are the larvae of May or June beetles. Eggs are deposited in the soil and the hatched larvae feed on roots. The duration of the larval stage varies from species to species. When the roots are not completely destroyed, the plants may survive, but are stunted and fail to produce heads. However, the distribution and extent of attack is not uniform.

8. WIREWORMS

Wireworm damage is very similar to that caused by other soil-inhabiting chewing insects . They have three pairs of legs , and their color may vary from a rich cream to shades of brown. Wireworm larvae may attack wheat as soon as the crop is seeded, eating the endosperm of the kernels and leaving only the seed coat. A common sign of woreworm attack is the wilting and/or dying of a number of adjacent plants, either in a row or patch. The stems of affected seedlings will be chewed just above the seed. (Wireworms are the larvae of click beetles) . The adult beetles lay eggs in the soil, usually in the spring, and the larvae may take several years to develop prior to pupating

 

 

War of the roses: Tackling rose pests

I’m not going to lie — other creatures as well as humans adore roses. But here’s the good news: Many modern roses have been bred for resistance to common rose pests and diseases. More improvements show up every year, so roses are definitely a case of where newer is often better.
Just as with humans, if the rose plant is in good health, it’s far less vulnerable. So review and apply the care advice I give in the previous sections. That said, forewarned is forearmed, so here’s some straight talk about the most common potential foes. Take a look at the list of least-wanted insects:
• Aphids:
These critters are tiny, pear-shaped sucking insects that especially relish new growth. They excrete honeydew, a sticky, sweet substance that can turn black as sooty mold grows on it. (Ants may appear to eat this but don’t harm your rosebush otherwise.) Knock aphids off with a stiff blast from the hose, or spray with insecticidal soap. Never spray when the temperature is above 80 degrees.
• Japanese beetles:
These metallic-looking copper and green bugs are really creepy, especially when they appear in great numbers. In small infestations, you can bravely pick them off and drown them in soapy water (don’t squish them — you’ll just releases attractant pheromones!). Japanese beetles are late risers, so if you go out early in the morning, you can shake the sleepy critters into a plastic baggie. If the infestation’s bad, you may have to spray with Sevin (check with your local garden center, and always follow label directions exactly).
• Thrips:
Thrips are tiny yellow or brown bugs that lead to misshapen leaves, deformed buds, and discolored flowers (with brown spots). They especially love light-colored roses and are most common in early summer. You can spray with insecticidal soap or neem oil. Roses are also vulnerable to some pretty unpleasant fungi. Check it out:
• Black spot:
Rose leaves develop small black spots with fringed edges. The fungus that causes black spot is worse in hot, humid weather. To treat, remove and destroy affected leaves (don’t add them to the compost pile). Prune the plant to improve air circulation, and water in the morning. Some sprays that fight this disease include summer oil (a light horticultural oil), neem oil, a baking soda solution, sulfur-based sprays, and strong chemicals — ask at your local garden center.
• Powdery mildew:
This fungus appears in dry weather, creating a white powdery residue, especially on the leaves. You can spray with summer oil, a baking-soda solution, an antidesiccant (which prevents drying out), or a sulfur-based fungicide.
• Rust:
This fungal disease is most common in dry weather. Get rid of affected leaves, and water carefully only at ground level. Spray options include dormant oil, lime-sulfur fungicide, or rusticide (again, check with your garden center and follow label directions exactly).