Use of spurious pesticides on cotton crop rampant

In Pakistan the pesticide business has an annual turnover of round Rs 12 billions to Rs 14 billions and all the insecticides are being imported since the nation has but to growth on this necessary field. Out of the total import, about 80 consistent with cent of insecticides are used on cotton which is Pakistan’s most dear cash crop and also the main foreign currency echange earner for the rustic.

Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance

In 1971, an ordinance called Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance was promulgated by the government to control the import, manufacture, formulation, sale, distribution and use of insecticides in agriculture. The Rules thereunder were framed and notified in 1973. The main goals of the Ordinance and Rules are:

  • Control the import, manufacture, formula, sale and distribution of pesticides.
  • Verify good packing and correct labelling of packing containers;
  • Verify safe dealing with and garage and
  • Verify high quality keep watch over of pesticides.

Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee (APTAC)

Under the ordinance the government has constituted an Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee (APTAC) composed of 18 participants. The committee is answerable for advising the federal government on legal, administrative and technical implications of Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance / Rules, registration of pesticides and drawing up of specification of pesticides.

Packing and Lable requirements

So far packing and lable requirements are concerned the lable signifies identify of the product, active ingredient, identify and cope with of registrant, web content material, retail worth, registration bumber, date of check, batch number, date of expiry anti dote, warning and so on. So far because the enforcement of the mentioned ordinance is anxious, at the federal degree the dept of plant coverage, and at the provincial levels departments of agriculture extension in every provinces is responsible.

In the province of Sindh the enforcement of the said ordinance within the field is performed solely by way of the inspectors designate who are district officers, agriculture, Deputy District deputy district officer agriculture and agriculture officials at Taluka degree. No doubt, these district officers are under the executive district officials (EDO), agriculture however having no power of an inspector the EDO looks useless in respect of enforcement of the Pesticide Ordinance 1971.

Substandard Insecticides Samples

In the higher Sindh area to stay checks on the sale of spurious or substandard insecticides samples of insecticides are accrued by means of the pesticide inspector designate and despatched to Sukkur the place an authorised officer despatched it onward to A pesticide laboratory at Rohri after vital coding, which is meant to be secret. Testing results of each and every pesticide is then sent to the chief chemist at Hyderabad where the result’s compiled and sent either to The involved DDO’s or the dealers directly (as informed) from the DG workplace. Apparently the device look excellent and transparent however in actual sense it is not so.

Lab Assessments Of Pesticide Samples

Allegations abound that pesticide samples taken for lab assessments are replaced or desired result of tests are at various levels – involved in consideration. During the present cotton season I had an opprotynity to seek advice from cotton fields in Kingri taluka in Khairpur district where haris confirmed me empty bottles of pesticides they had used i Used To Be surprised to look that all of the insecticides have been faux.They have been: Danital 10 EC, Permasact 25EC. Mecon Top 20 EC, and Pepto Kill 10 EC.

Danital 30 EC

Here it could be correct to say that Danital sold out there beneath this logo name is “Danital 30 EC” of which importer is M/s Arrysta Agro Pakistan (Private) Ltd. Its litre pack MRP: Price is Rs 930.00 and in keeping with acre dose for noticed bollworm is 250 ml. On the opposite fake logo of Danital is of 10 EC and MRP Rs 1200.00 and recommended dose is only 300-350 ml in keeping with acre. Here it will be relevant to say that with 10 EC active ingredient exact dose will have to were 750 ml per acre and MRP Rs 400 in keeping with litre.

Mecontop and Hepto

The irony is that because of corruption, which is rampant , within the enforcement of Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance now not only the poor innocent growers is struggling but the very agriculture sector of Sindh province is the sufferer. So some distance different fake logo of pesticides viz: Permasact (which precise used to be Permasect of R B Awari Pesticide company), Mecontop and Hepto Kill are concerned its laboratory, as imprinted on the lable, are M/s Pak China Chemicals Lahore and Distributor M/s Rehbar Agro Chemicals (No address) as might be noticed in the photograph. Besides labels on those merchandise shows many errors, such as no registration number, improper active ingredient, mistakes of spelling of many words, and so on.

Growers Of Sindh towards pesticide purchase and application strategy

However, when the very landlord of Pirjogoth used to be apprised of the entire pretend insecticides provided by means of his relied on local pesticide broker it was once discovered difficult to just accept via him. However, once I asked him in nationwide passion to lend a hand me in apprehending the very unscrupulous pesticide dealer he declined pronouncing that the very pesticide broker use to provide him complete inputs for his land. What a pityAction in opposition to the dealer approach discontinuation of future assist (credit score on top interest) which is vital for the survival for majority of the growers of Sindh regardless of small or large.

Out of curiosity to grasp whether or not samples of those pretend manufacturers of pesticides had been drawn via the insecticides inspector of the agriculture extension when I visited the place of work of the agriculture, Khairpur, it was once observed that majority of the samples drawn all over the month of July, August and September 2004 cotton season were of firm or reputed corporations or vendors which used to be reflective of the information got from the pesticide dealers and my very own observations.

Suggestions:

  1. Since the present system of enforcement of the pesticide ordinance is corruption ridden a revolutionary alternate through native our bodies gadget is unavoidable.
  2. Powers of Executive District Officer Agriculture will have to be enhanced in order that unbridal pesticide inspectors could be brought under the regulate of the district management (District Nazim).
  3. Among the regulatory tasks since enforcement of Agricultural Pesticide Ordinance 1971 could also be the duty of Federal Plant Protection Department, in stead of acting as a silent spectator, the DPP also will have to come forward in the field the usage of services of its Regional Entomologists based totally at Khairpur in Sindh, Multan and Lahore in Punjab, Quetta in Balochistan and Peshawar in NWFP, solely for strict watch on labels requirements.
  4. Pesticide containers must contain importers guarantee against the pesticides bought in the market via dealers.

EU Just Banned this Popular Fungicide Over Safety Concerns

The EU has banned the United Kingdom’s most-used fungicide after mavens had been not able to rule out the likelihood that it would harm animal lifestyles.The fungicide, known as chlorothalonil, prevents mildew and mold on crops comparable to wheat, barley, tomatoes and potatoes. Like many other pesticides, reassuring safety checks at small scale have wrongly been assumed to hold true at better scale.

[woo_product_slider id=”64262″]

The EU is now combing through the information on insecticides to see what affects, if any, they find when farms use insecticides at the massive scale we see as of late in factory farming.

In one such fresh evaluation, mavens on the European Food Safety Authority (Efsa) dug into the research surrounding what results chlorothalonil has on animal existence. It discovered that for higher mammals the risk was low, however for small mammals (like mice) who would possibly feed on tomatoes the chance was upper—regardless that nonetheless underneath the so-called “trigger” for additional motion. The document identified a data gap in this, then again, that it says needs to be stuffed.

More regarding used to be the information on chlorothalonil’s results on aquatic life. The review found that “a high risk to aquatic organisms (with the exception of aquatic plants for all uses) was concluded for all the representative uses and for most of the FOCUS scenarios at Step 3 level” for use of chlorothalonil and the chemicals it breaks down into.

Further refinements of the data concluded that the chance to fish was if truth be told low. However, amphibians have been discovered to be much more delicate to exposure than fish, and the acute possibility remained high. The file identifies a data hole here, as smartly. They aren’t sure exactly how prime the danger is to amphibians, best that further research research have not ruled it out in some instances, as an example where the fungicide is used on cereal and tomato crops.

The record further found that chance tests for the have an effect on on bees—a particular species of outrage on account of bee declines related partly to our use of neonicotinoids—confirmed broadly that there was low possibility but that there were gaps in the knowledge, reminiscent of honey bee exposure through ground water.

Perhaps more regarding, the file found that there was once no data for the cumulative risk—multi-generation publicity over years—to wild bees. Scientists prior to now connected chlorothalonil exposure to bumble bee declines, so this knowledge gap within the protection profile of chlorothalonil is still a purple flag.

The Efsa concluded that it was once not able to rule out that the breakdown of this fungicide in our surroundings will not purpose harm to the DNA of small animals, in particular amphibians and some insects. That doesn’t mean that the Efsa has discovered an instantaneous link between things like, declining bee numbers and this fungicide. Rather, it’s announcing that it may well’t rule out the chance that this fungicide is harmful when used on the scale we now see in places like the United Kingdom, Europe and america.

As a outcome, Europe’s member states overwhelmingly voted not to continue approval for the fungicide’s use until the knowledge gaps have been stuffed.

“The [chlorothalonil ban] is based on Efsa’s scientific assessment which concluded that the approval criteria do not seem to be satisfied for a wide range of reasons,” a European commission spokeswoman told the Guardian. “Great concerns are raised in relation to contamination of groundwater by metabolites of the substance.”

Farming groups have reacted negatively to the inside track, saying that this will affect yields, specifically of wheat.

“We feel the Commission has been overly precautionary in making this decision and has failed to consider the particular importance of this active in the control of critical fungal diseases and in managing disease resistance.” Dr Chris Hartfield, NFU senior regulatory affairs adviser, told Farmers Guardian. “As a result, we believe sectors of UK agricultural and horticultural production will be put at significant risk.”

Defra has not mentioned whether it’s going to believe reinstating the fungicide’s use after Brexit. However, as the use of fungicides may just impact business with the EU it’s unclear whether the United Kingdom would need to flout this rule although technically can.

In protection of the farming sector, environmental campaigners indicate that if the EU had carried out its safety pointers uniformly to start with, chlorothalonil may not have grow to be as ubiquitous in fashionable farming as it is today and swathes of vegetation would now not hinge on its use.

As it stands, there are some bright spots. farmers may just potentially find plants that are already immune to the fungal diseases for which chlorothalonil presented protection. That isn’t a whole remedy, even though, as resistance does no longer equal eradication of the danger. Farming groups are now likely to look to other pesticides to assist bridge the gap in coverage—one thing which carries its own drawbacks.

While nearly all of insecticides within the EU are most likely safe, we are actually having to comb again via previous information to look at the potential impact of insecticides that are meant to were correctly examined at large scale to begin with. It is not just procedurally sound to halt using chlorothalonil until we now have the ones assurances. It is the most ethical thing to do.

Fungicides and Vegetable Disease Control

Fungicides can be a great help in preventing diseases when properly applied to the plant foliage. Since fungicides are preventive, they should be applied before the disease occurs, or as soon as the first symptoms of disease appear. Some vegetable diseases require specific fungi- cides for their control. An outline of diseases of specific vegetables, disease description, suggested cultural and chemical control and comments follows this section.
Fungicides are available primarily as wet- table powders, dry flowables and dusts, but a few are sold as emulsifiable concentrates, flowables and liquids. Wettable powders (WP) and dry flowable (DF) are formulated in such a manner as to be readily suspendable in water. Dusts (D) should not be mixed in water, but applied directly to the plant. Emulsifiable con- centrate (EC) fungicides contain an emulsifying agent that makes them readily suspendable in
water. Flowable (F) fungicides are finely ground wettable powders that are suspended in a liquid.
Some soil fungicides are available as gran- ules and are applied in the furrow at planting. Dust and spray fungicides may also be used as in-furrow treatments for seedling disease control.
Table II gives trade names and rates of broad spectrum fungicides for controlling foliar dis- eases of vegetables. Applying foliar fungicides to vegetables is best done by spraying, because it provides coverage of all plant surfaces. Foliar fungicides are available in dust formulations, but dusts are usually not as effective as sprays.

Never attempt to use dust formulations of fungi- cides in spray solutions. Dusts will not suspend in the spray solution. Wettable powder formula- tions may appear similar to dusts, but they are formulated to be suspended in spray solutions.
Foliar sprays will aid in controlling leaf spots, rusts, mildews, anthracnose and fruit rots. Foliar sprays are not effective against vascular wilts or root rots. Foliar sprays are protectants, because they form a protective layer of fungicide over the surface of the fruit and foliage. Disease agents (bacteria and fungi) that land on these fungicide-coated surfaces are killed or prevented from infecting the plant.
Most fungicides are not effective in inhibit- ing disease organisms once they have infected a plant. It is imperative that foliar fungicides be applied prior to infection of the plant. A spray schedule should be followed that maintains a protective fungicide layer on the foliage and fruit during favorable infection periods. By carefully monitoring their vegetables, some gardeners can usually delay the first fungicide
application until the first sign of disease. Then a 7-14 day spray schedule should be followed. During rainy or humid weather, spray applica- tion intervals should be shortened.
Proper pesticide mixing and spraying plays a very important part in achieving disease control. Most home gardeners will find a 1-2 gallon compressed-air sprayer adequate for applying foliar sprays. A nozzle with a cone pattern will provide the most effective coverage of plant foliage. Keep the pressure up to insure small spray particle size and good coverage.
Sprayers should be cleaned and rinsed after each use. Hose-end sprayers are not very effec- tive in applying fungicides to vegetables. Never use the same sprayer for fungicides and insecti- cides that has been used for herbicides. Residues of certain types of herbicides are very difficult to remove from sprayers. These residues may cause crop injury if a herbicide-contaminated sprayer is used in applying fungicides or insecticides.
Homeowners should protect themselves when mixing or applying pesticides. Always read the label for use directions and precaution statements.

 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

 

ASPARAGUS

Root Rot

(Fusarium)

Deterioration of root system and poor growth of plants. Mancozeb 75 DF 1 TBSP   Pre-plant root dip.
Rust Numerous small, reddish- yellow spots on spears and ferns. Mancozeb 75 DF 2 TBSP 180 Apply to ferns after harvest of spears. Make applications at 7-10 day intervals, beginning at first appearance of disease.
 

BEAN (SNAP)

Anthracnose Brown spots on leaves, sunken with pinkish ooze. Basic copper sulfate 53WP

 

Chlorothalonil 54 F

mfg directions

 

 

3 tsp

0

 

 

7

Use western-grown seed. If plants become infected, do not work while plants are wet. Spray at weekly intervals. Do not plant beans in

field for at least two years following occurrence of disease. Plow infested bean trash deeply

into soil. Do not graze treated areas or feed treated plants to livestock.

Bacterial Blights Water-soaked spots on leaves and pods. Red margin and sometimes a yellow halo around spot. Fixed Copper mfg directions 0 Same applies as for anthracnose.
Gray Mold (Botrytis) Gray moldy growth on pods and stems. Chlorothalonil 54 F 3 tsp 7 Begin at 25 to 50% bloom. Repeat at peak bloom. Do not graze treated areas or feed treated plants to livestock.
Mosaic Virus (bean yellow mosaic, bean common mosaic, and peanut stunt viruses) Yellowed leaves, with or without crinkling or speckling. Leaves cupped, runners killed.       Use resistant varieties. Half runners are most susceptible, particularly

“  Pink.’   Make successive plantings, as mosaic is more severe at certain times of the year.

Powdery Mildew White, powdery mold on surface of leaves. Sulfur Dust

 

Wettable Sulfur

mfg directions mfg directions 0

 

0

Use resistant varieties. Spray or dust with sulfur when disease first appears and repeat treatment 10 days later.
Root Rot & Seedling

Disease (Rhizoctonia)

Rots of seeds death of seedlings (damping off), and root rots. Terraclor 75 WP mfg directions   Apply Terraclor in-furrow at planting. Rotate crops, avoid double cropping beans and turn under plant debris well in advance of planting. (See Extension factsheet SP277-O)
Rust Reddish brown pustules develop on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F 3 tsp 7 Spray plants when rust appears and repeat at 7-10 day intervals. Do not graze treated areas or feed treated plant parts to livestock.
White Mold

(Sclerotinia)

White moldy growth on pods and stems. Terraclor 75 WP mfg directions   Spray at first appearance of disease.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

 

BEAN (lima) AND BUTTER PEA

Stem Anthracnose Reddish brown spots on leaves and pods. Small black specks sometimes can be seen. Basic copper sulfate 53 W mfg directions 0 Plant disease-free seed and rotate lima beans with other crops. Start applications of fungicide at first bloom and continue at 7-day intervals.
Root-knot Swollen, galled root system.       See section above on nematode control.
Root Rot         See Bean, Snap.
 

BEET

Downy Mildew Leaf

Spots

Various leaf spots. Fixed Copper mfg directions 0 Spray at first appearance and repeat at 7-10 day intervals.
Rust Orange to rust colored spots that will rub off on hands. Sulfur mfg directions 0  
BROCCOLI (SEE CABBAGE)
BRUSSELS SPROUTS (SEE CABBAGE)
CABBAGE
Alternaria Leaf Spot Target spots on older leaves. Small, black spots may also occur. Chlorothalonil 54 F Maneb 80 WP 1.5 tsp

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

7

Start spraying when this disease first appears. Continue spray at 7-

10 day intervals until disease is under control. Remove excess residues by washing.

Downy Mildew Yellow areas on upper side of leaves; downy growth on lower surface.
Bacterial Soft Rot Soft, watery rot occurs, favored by hot, wet conditions. Begin in center of broccoli head.       Control of black rot will also help control bacterial soft rot. Avoid damage to the crop which will provide infection sites for soft rot bacteria.
Black Leg Lower stem turns brown and rots causing a canker.       Use certified disease-free seeds or transplants.
Black Rot Yellow V-shaped spots on edge of leaves. Veins near spots turn black.       Use certified disease-free seeds or transplants. Follow good sanitation practices. Don’t grow cabbage in locations where black rot occurred the previous year. See Extension factsheet SP277-P.
Club Root Galls or clubs on roots. Plants have light green color and are stunted. Hydrated lime

 

Terraclor 75 WP (transplant solution)

mfg directions

 

6 TBSP/gal. water

  Broadcast and work lime into soil by tilling within 3 days before planting. Apply 3/4 pint of Terraclor solution per plant as a transplant solution.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

CABBAGE CONT’D
Damping-Off Young plants are rotted off at soil line. Terraclor 75 WP (seedbed drench) 1 TBSP/gal. water/50 sq. ft. seedbed   Sterilize seedbed soil. Apply

Terraclor drench after seeding.

Wire Stem Brown discoloration of stem. Entire stem becomes hard and constricted. Terraclor 75 WP 10-15 lbs./10,900 ft. of row   Sprayed as 8-inch band centered on row.
Yellows (Fusarium) Leaves turn yellow. Cross section of stem shows brown discoloration in veins.       Grow resistant varieties in areas where soil is infested. Secure disease-free transplants.
CANTALOUPE
Alternaria Leaf Spot Tan target spots on leaves, followed by blighting. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

2-3 TBSP

 

4-6 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Use disease-free seed. Fungicide applications can be delayed until first sign of disease if adequate survey of garden is maintained.
Anthracnose Sunken spots on fruit and tan leaf spots.
Downy Mildew Yellow, irregular spots on leaves.
Gummy Stem Blight Brown, round leaf spots. Cracks on stems with gummy ooze.
Bacterial Wilt Individual runners suddenly wilt and die.       Apply insecticide to control cucumber beetles, which spread the bacterium. See Extension factsheet SP277-C.
Powdery Mildew White, powdery mold on surface of leaves. Sulfur mfg directions 0 Apply at first sign of disease and repeat at 7-14 day intervals. Do not apply sulfur if temperatures exceed

90 degrees F.

CAULIFLOWER (SEE CABBAGE)
CARROT
Alternaria Blight Numerous dark brown spots which may coalesce. Chlorothalonil 54 F 1.5-2 tsp 0 Spray at first appearance and repeat at 7-10 day intervals. Alternaria blight can spread rapidly.
Cercospora Leaf Spot Small, dark brown to black spots on leaves.
Southern Blight White mycelial growth on lower stem; death of plant.       Use crop rotation.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

COLLARD, KALE, MUSTARD & TURNIPS
Alternaria Leaf Spot Brown target spots on leaves. Fixed Copper

 

Maneb 80 WP

mfg directions

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

10

Maintain thin plant stand. Avoid low-lying or poorly-drained soils. Avoid hot part of growing season. Maneb for kale only. Begin sprays when disease is first noticed and repeat at 7-10 day intervals. Use a spreader-sticker for better fungicide coverage.
Anthracnose Small, tan spots with dark brown margins on leaves.
Cercospora Leaf Spot Tan leafspots with yellow haloes.
Downy Mildew Yellow spots on upper surface of leaf with white, downy growth on underside.
CORN (SWEET)
Blights (Helmintho- sporium) Spots on leaves and drying or blighting of leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 0.75-2 tsp

 

1.5 TBSP

 

3 tsp

14

 

7

 

7

Begin applications when conditions favor disease development and repeat at 4-7 day intervals. Do not apply chlorothalonil to sweet corn to be processed. Do not graze treated areas or feed treated plants to livestock. Use Maneb on crop

for seed production only.

Maize Dwarf Mosaic Alternating light and dark green streaks in leaves. Plants are stunted.       Plant early and preferably in fields not heavily infested with Johnsongrass. Silver Queen, a white variety, has fair tolerance to this disease.
Rust Bronze, elongate spots. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF

Maneb 80 WP

0.75-2 tsp

 

1.5 TBSP

 

3 tsp

14

 

7

 

7

See “Blights.”
Stewart’s Wilt Brown streaks in leaves parallel to veins.       Control corn flea beetle. See insect section of this publication. Also called bacterial blight.
CUCUMBER
Alternaria Leaf Spot Brown, target spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

2-3 TBSP

 

2-4 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Use disease-free seed. Fungicide applications can be delayed until first sign of disease if an adequate survey of garden is maintained.
Anthracnose Brown, irregular spots on leaves, sunken spots on fruit.
Angular Leaf Spot Brown, angular spots on leaves. Fixed Copper mfg directions 0 Spray at first appearance and repeat at 7-14 day intervals. Use disease- free seed. (Copper can injure young plants).
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

CUCUMBER  CONT’D
Downy Mildew Yellow, irregular spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

2-3 TBSP

 

2-4 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Use disease-free seed. Fungicide applications can be delayed until first sign of disease if an adequate survey of garden is maintained.
Gummy Stem Blight Brown, circular leaf spots. Cracks on stems with gummy ooze.
Bacterial Wilt Starts on individual

runners and eventually the entire plant wilts and dies.

      Apply insecticide to control cucumber beetles, which spread the disease. See Extension factsheet SP277-C and the insect control section of this publication.
Powdery Mildew White, powdery mold on surface of leaves. Sulfur mfg directions 0 Apply at first sign of disease and repeat at 7-14 day intervals. Do not apply sulfur if temperatures exceed

90 F.

Scab Sunken spots on fruit. Chlorothalonil 54 F 2-3 tsp 0 Resistant varieties widely available. Apply at first sign of disease and repeat at 7-10 day intervals.
EGGPLANT
Leaf Blights, Fruit Rots Spots develop on leaves and fruits. Fixed copper

 

Maneb 80 WP

mfg directions

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

0

Begin spraying before disease appears.
KALE (SEE COLLARD)
MUSTARD (SEE COLLARD)
OKRA
Pod Blight Young pods fail to develop and deteriorate.       Many times this blight is associated with poor pollination. The fungus Choanephora attacks the flowers

and young pods. Providing good air drainage will help prevent infection by Choanephora.

Root-knot Nematode Swollen, galled root system.       See section above on nematode control.
Verticillium Wilt Yellowing of leaves. Inside of stem will have brown discoloration.       Rotate okra with crops which are not susceptible to Verticillium wilt.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

ONION
Downy Mildew Pale green, oval, sunken spots on leaves. Purplish mold may be in spots. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

3 TBSP

 

2-6 tsp

14

 

7

 

7

Apply when disease first appears and repeat at 7-10 day intervals. Do not apply Mancozeb or Maneb on exposed bulbs. Do not apply Chlorothalonil within seven days of harvest on dry-bulb onions or

within 14 days on green onions, leeks or shallots. Do not apply Chlorothalonil to sweet Spanish onions.

Leaf Blast (Botrytis) White to tan streaks on leaves. Leaves eventually die.
Purple Blotch

(Alternaria)

Purple target spots on leaves.
PEA (SOUTHERN)
Cercospora

Leaf Spot

Light to dark brown spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F 1.5-2 tsp 42 Spray at early bloom and repeat at

7-10 day intervals. For use on beans harvested dry with pods removed (blackeye pea only). Only Bravo 720 or Bravo DG is labeled. Do not graze treated areas or feed treated plants to livestock.

Rust Bronze to rust-colored spots that will rub off on hand.
Mosaic Virus Mosaic of leaves (alternate light and dark green

areas). Distortion of leaves and pods.

      Use virus-free seed. Plant resistant varieties.
Powdery Mildew Dull white, felt-like growth on leaves. Sulfur mfg directions 0 Spray at first appearance at 7-10 day intervals.
Root Rot Brick-red lesions on lower stem and roots. Roots later die.       See Bean, Snap.
PEPPER
Bacterial Spot Black, angular spots appear on leaves. Dark raised spots also occur on fruits. Plants shed infected leaves. Fixed Copper

Plus

Maneb 80 WP

mfg directions mfg directions 0 Use disease-free seed or buy disease-free transplants. Spraying with fixed copper will help prevent spread.
Blossom-end Rot Tan sunken areas on blossom end and side of fruit.       Lime soil to provide adequate calcium. Avoid planting on droughty soils. Do not use excessive nitrate fertilizer. Irrigate and follow culture practices that tend to provide the most uniform soil moisture.
Cercospora

Leaf Spot

Circular spots with gray centers develop on leaves. Fixed copper

 

Maneb 80 WP

mfg directions

 

3-6 tsp

0

 

7

Apply fungicide when disease appears and continue as needed on a 7-10 day schedule.
Anthracnose Sunken spots on ripening fruit.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

PEPPER CONT’D
Phytophthora Blight Rapid wilt and death of plants in wet areas of field.       Plant on raised bed.
Root-knot Swollen, galled root system.       See previous section on nematode control.
Southern Blight Plants wilt and die. White mold can often be seen on base of stem. Terraclor 75 WP (soil treatment) mfg directions   Turn soil deep to bury plant debris that might harbor disease organism. Use Terraclor in setting water at planting. Rotate with sod crops.
Sun Scald Dry, white bleached spot on side of pod exposed to sun.       Fruits on plants kept in a healthy, vigorous condition are not likely to be injured by sun scald. Control of bacterial spot will prevent loss of leaves and keep the fruit protected from the sun.
POTATO, IRISH
Early Blight Small brown, target spots appear on leaves in hot, wet weather. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1-1.5 tsp

 

1-2 TBSP

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

14

 

14

Start applications when plants are

4-6 inches high and continue at 7-

10 day intervals.

Late Blight Water-soaked irregular spots on leaves in cool,

wet weather. Plants appear scalded.

Black Leg Stem turns black. Plant wilts and dies.       Plant certified seed.
Rhizoctonia Canker

(Black Scurf)

Black cankers girdle stem, causing poor growth. Terraclor 75 WP mfg directions    
Scab Rough, scabby spots on tubers.       Use disease-free seed. Where soil is infested with scab organism, use resistant varieties and rotate crops. See SP277-G.
Seed Piece Decay Rotting of seed piece. Mancozeb

 

Maneb

Use dust formulations according to mfg directions   Treat seed pieces with fungicide dust before planting. Plant seed pieces immediately after treating. Do not use treated seed pieces for food, feed or oil purposes.
Ring Rot Brown discoloration of vascular tissue in tuber.       Plant certified disease-free seed and practice crop rotation.
Virus Diseases Curling, streaking, or mosaic in leaves. Plants may be stunted.       Plant certified disease-free seed and practice crop rotation.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

PUMPKIN
Downy Mildew Yellow, irregular spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

5

Begin spraying at first sign of disease. See label for spray intervals. Use higher rates for scab control.
Gummy Stem Blight Black, circular spots on fruit.
Microdochium Blight White dashes on stem surface.
Scab Sunken or raised spots on fruit.
Mosaic Virus Green patterns on fruit.       Reflective mulches, aphid control, and weed control may be helpful. Control is difficult.
Powdery Mildew White, powdery mold on leaf surface. Sulfur mfg directions 0 Begin spraying at first sign of disease.
SPINACH
Downy Mildew (Blue

Mold)

Yellow spots on upper leaf surface. Gray downy

fungus on underside of leaf.

Basic copper sulfate 53 WP mfg directions 0 Start fungicide applications at first sign of disease and continue at 7-10 day intervals as necessary. Where white rust has been a problem in

the past, spraying should start when the first true leaves develop. “Fall Green,” a fall variety, is moderately resistant to white rust and several races of blue mold.

White Rust Yellow spots on upper leaf surface. White powdery mass on underside of leaf.
SQUASH
Downy Mildew Yellow, irregular spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF

Maneb 80 WP

1.5-3 tsp

 

2-3 TBSP

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Begin spraying at first sign of disease. See label for spray intervals.
Powdery Mildew White, powdery mold on leaf surfaces. sulfur mfg directions 0 Apply at first sign of disease and repeat at 7-14 day intervals. Do not apply sulfur if temperatures exceed

90 F.

Scab Sunken or raised spots on fruit. Chlorothalonil 54 F 2-3 tsp 0 Begin spraying at first sign of disease. See label for spray intervals.
Blossom Blight Blossoms rot and stick to young fruit. The end of the fruit turns black.       Provide good air circulation for rapid drying.
Mosaic Virus Greening of fruit. Leaves mottled, veins stunted.       Reflective mulches may be of some value. The yellow-stemmed

varieties Multipik, Superpik and Supersett are tolerant of watermelon mosaic virus.

 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical  & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

SWEET  POTATO
Black Rot Black spot on roots. Dry, black decay extends in flesh of root.       Use certified  seed. Do not replant for 3 years in locations  where this disease has been present.
Scurf Brownish  black discoloration  on surface of potato.
Cork Small, black, corky spots in potatoes.  Spots do not extend to surface.       Use certified,  disease-free  seed.
Root-knot  Nematodes Longitudinal  cracking  of potato.       See previous section on nematode control.
Soil Rot (Pox) Circular  sunken areas on fleshy roots. Feeder roots are blackened.       Rotate sweet potatoes  with other crops. Maintain  pH below 5.2 in infested fields. Grow a resistant variety.
Stem Rot (Fusarium

Wilt)

Plants are yellow and stunted. The interior of the vine shows a brown discoloration.       Select disease-free  seed stock by examining  vines of each hill. If cross section of vine shows a brown discoloration,  do not use roots for seed stock.
Southern  Blight (Plant

Bed)

Plants die in spots in bed. White growth on lower stem.       Use new soil in beds each year.
TOMATO
Bacterial  Spot Small, raised spots on fruits. Water-soaked spots on foliage. Fixed Copper plus

Mancozeb  75 DF OR plus

Maneb 80 WP

mfg directions

 

1.5-2 TBSP

 

3-4 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Use hot water seed treatment  or use disease-free  seed.
Blossom-End  Rot Black spot on blossom end of small green fruit.       Maintain  adequate  calcium  level in soil and uniform soil moisture. Plant least susceptible  varieties. Avoid droughty  soils.
Early Blight Brown target spots followed  by blighting  of foliage. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb  75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-2 tsp

 

1.5-3 TBSP

 

3-6 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Start preventative  spraying as soon as plants are established  in the garden. Spray at 7-10 day intervals. During periods favorable  for

disease development,  shorten the spray interval.  Maneb 80 WP can be used in the greenhouse  and in the garden.

Anthracnose Circular,  sunken spots on ripe fruit.
Septoria  Leaf Spot Small, gay circular leaf spots with dark borders.
Buckeye  Fruit Rot Circular,  zonate bands within large spot on fruit, worse on lower clusters.       Mulch and stake plants to keep soil off fruit clusters.
 

Disease

 

Symptoms

Chemical & Formulation1 Approximate

Rate/Gallon2

 

PHI3

 

Limitations

TOMATO CONT’D
Fusarium Wilt Yellowing and wilting of foliage. Inside of stem has brown discoloration.       Use a resistant variety and rotate tomato fields. Obtain disease-free plants and plant on disease-free soil.
Gray Mold (Botrytis) Leaves turn brown from tip back; gray mold can be

seen on foliage during humid weather.

Chlorothalonil 54 F 3 tsp 0 Begin fungicide spray applications at first sign of disease.
Late Blight Irregular, watersoaked spots on leaves. Occurs in mold, wet weather. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF

Maneb 80 WP

1.5-3 tsp

 

1.5-3 TBSP

 

2-6 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Follow spray schedule for early blight. If weather conditions are favorable for late blight, shorten spray interval. Obtain disease-free plants and plant in non-infested soil.
Leaf Mold Yellow spots on upper surface of leaves. Olive to gray mold on underside of leaves. Primarily in greenhouses. Chlorothalonil 54 F 1.5-2 tsp 0 Fungicides will control leaf mold in the garden, but are not adequate in greenhouse production. The best control in greenhouse tomatoes is the

use of resistant varieties and regulation of humidity.

Pythium Stem Rot Dark, water rot of lower stem of young plants.        
Southern Blight Plants wilt and die. White mold can often be seen on base of stem. Terraclor 75 WP (soil treatment) mfg directions   Turn soil deep to bury plant debris which might harbor disease organisms. Use Terraclor in setting water. Rotate with turf.
Verticillium Wilt Yellowing of leaves; inside of stems will have brown discoloration.       Use resistant varieties. Practice long rotations of tomatoes with other crops.
TURNIP (SEE COLLARDS)
WATERMELON
Alternaria Leaf Spot Brown, target spots on leaves. Chlorothalonil 54 F Mancozeb 75 DF Maneb 80 WP 1.5-3 tsp

 

2-3 TBSP

 

2-4 tsp

0

 

5

 

5

Begin at first sign of disease. See label for spray intervals. Plant anthracnose- resistant varieties. Mancozeb and Maneb are not labeled for scab control.
Anthracnose Brown irregular spots on leaves and sunken spots on fruit.
Cercospora Leaf Spot Tiny, dark brown spots.
Downy Mildew Yellow, irregular spots on leaves.
Gummy Stem Blight Irregularly circular leaf spots. Cracks on stems with gummy ooze.
Scab Small, raised warts on fruit.        
Fusarium Wilt Yellow and wilting of leaves. Brown discoloration in interior of vine.       Grow resistant varieties. Long rotations should be practiced even where

resistant varieties are used.

Table II. Common Names and Trade Names of  Chemicals for Controlling Diseases of  Vegetables

 

Common Names

 

Trade Names1

 

benomyl

 

Note:  Home  garden benomyl products are  no longer available.

chlorothalonil Bravo 720  (54%) Bravo 75 WP Bravo 90 WDG

Bravo Flowable Fungicide

Broad Spectrum Liquid Fungicide

Fungi-Gard

Lawn, Ornamental and  Vegetable Fungicide

Vegetable Disease Control

fixed  coppers Basicop Blue Shield Kocide

Tri-Basic Copper  Sulfate

mancozeb2 Dithane DF Manzate 200  DF Penncozeb
maneb2 Maneb 80 WP Maneb Spray

Maneb Liquid Fungicide

PCNB Terraclor 10 G Terraclor 75 WP

 

Kill Broad Mites, Aphids, Thrips, Spider Mites, Natural Pest Prevention in Garden

The world we live in has so much beauty, however it also contains pests. Pests which attack our plants, try to get in our home and sometimes find themselves setting up shop in areas we don’t want them to.

As a commercial grower for over 30 years, I’ll admit I’ve sprayed thousands of gallons of poison on plants. Over the years, I slowly weened myself off all those chemicals and looked for natural replacements.

Knowing the pests you’re trying to control plays an important role in the product you use. Controlling an aphid is different than controlling a caterpillar.

So many people ask us WHAT they can use to control pest naturally. Here’s our Top natural pest control solutions based on experience along with why we like them!

Natural control of aphid

A common pest on many plants, these sap-sucking insects are often noticed feeding in clusters on new plant growth. Here’s how to control aphids organically without using toxic sprays.

There are approximately 4,000 aphid species found throughout the world. Low to moderate numbers are usually not harmful to plants and rarely require aphid control. However, heavy infestations will cause leaves to curl, wilt or yellow and stunted plant growth. A general decline in overall plant vigor will also be noticed. Several species can transmit plant diseases, particularly viruses which they pass on during feeding.

Aphids are small (1/8 inch long), soft bodied, pear-shaped insects that may be green, yellow, brown, red or black in color depending on species and food source. Generally adults are wingless, but some can grow wings, especially if populations are high. They have two whip-like antennae at the tip of the head and a pair of tube-like structures, called cornicles, projecting backward out of their hind end.

[WpProQuiz 1]

Note: As they feed, aphids secrete large amounts of a sticky fluid known as honeydew. This sweet goo drips onto plants, attracting ants and promoting a black sooty mold growth on leaves. Cars and lawn furniture that are under infested trees will also be covered with this sticky fluid.

Life Cycle

In spring wingless female aphids hatch from overwintering eggs and soon give birth to many nymphs (males are not present). Young nymphs increase gradually in size and within a week give birth to many more nymphs. This process is repeated several times and results in huge population explosions. As the colony grows, a few of the females develop wings and fly off to other host plants to start new colonies. In late summer and early fall sexual forms (males and females) develop which mate and lay overwintering eggs. There are many overlapping generations per year.

Note: Most aphids, except for the sexual forms, do not have to mate in order to reproduce, and they produce live young, rather than eggs.

Control

  • Pinch or prune off heavily infested leaves or other plant parts.
  • Use the Bug Blaster to hose off plants with a strong stream of water and reduce pest numbers.
  • Commercially available beneficial insects, such as ladybugs and lacewing are important natural predators. For best results, make releases when pest levels are low to medium. If populations are high, use a least-toxic, short-lived natural pesticide to establish control, then release predatory insects to maintain control.
  • Apply food-grade Diatomaceous Earth for long-lasting protection. Made up of tiny fossilized aquatic organisms, that look like broken glass under the microscope, DE kills by scoring an insect’s outer layer as it crawls over the fine powder. Contains NO toxic poisons!
  • Safer® Soap will work fast on heavy infestations. A short-lived natural pesticide, it works by damaging the outer layer of soft-bodied insect pests, causing dehydration and death within hours. Apply 2.5 oz/ gallon of water when insects are present, repeat every 7-10 day as needed.
  • Horticultural oils should be applied early in the season or late in the fall to destroy overwintering eggs.
  • Fast-acting botanical insecticides should be used as a last resort. Derived from plants which have insecticidal properties, these natural pesticides have fewer harmful side effects than synthetic chemicals and break down more quickly in the environment.
  • Do not over water or over fertilize – aphids like plants with high nitrogen levels and soft new growth. Use organic fertilizers which release nutrients slowly.

Tip: Ants feed on the honeydew that sucking insects produce and will protect these pests from their natural enemies. An application of Tanglefoot Pest Barrier to the stalks of roses and other woody plants will help keep ants away.

Culture and botanical management of thrips

French bean is the most important export vegetable crop cultivated in Kenya. Pests and diseases are the major constrains to its production. The major pests of French beans are bean flies, thrips, and bean aphids. Amongst these pests, thrips are the most notorious and account for 63 – 68% yield loss of fresh marketable pods. Frankliniella occidentalis is the most widespread thrips species which has developed resistance to the commonly used synthetic pesticides. Farmers rely heavily on these synthetic pesticides in order control the thrips and up to sprays of 15 times have been reported per growing season. This act has lead to the contamination of the fresh French bean pods with pesticide residues. The toxicated fresh pods may not be accepted in lucrative markets, more so in Europe. This study therefore, aimed at developing an alternative method of controlling thrips on French beans by use of cultural and botanicals. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in two trials to assess the efficacy of botanicals against Frankliniella occidentalis infesting French beans. Field experiments were also conducted in two trials to evaluate the effect of different mulches on infestation and damage of French beans by thrips, and to evaluate the effect of integrating intercropping, mulching and use of botanicals on the infestation and the damage of French beans by thrips. The laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out at the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology Nairobi in a complete randomized design. Field experiments were conducted at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization, Thika, Kenya in a randomized complete block design with five replicates for mulching experiments and three replicates for the integrated experiments. The laboratory results showed that L-Cyhalothrin caused the highest mean percentage mortality of the first instar F. occidentalis followed by Pyrethrum. Neem and Garlic caused the lowest mean percentage mortality. The result from greenhouse experiments showed that the lowest mean number of thrips was recorded on the French beans sprayed by L – Cyhalothrin followed by pyrethrum (soil + foliar), neem (soil + foliar), neem (soil) pyrethrum(soil), garlic (soil + foliar), garlic (soil) and control. The lowest damage score on fresh pods was recorded on the leaves treated with Pyrethrum (soil + foliar) and neem (soil + foliar) while the highest damage scores were recorded on the French beans treated with garlic (soil) and the control. The result from the experiments involving mulching showed that the lowest mean number of thrips was recorded on French bean leaves and flowers mulched with transparent plastic sheets followed by those mulched with dry grass, black plastic mulch, tithonia green mulch and the control. The results from integrated field experiments revealed that maize + dry grass + pyrethrum had the lowest mean number of thrips in flowers followed coriander + dry grass + pyrethrum, dry grass + pyrethrum, French bean a lone, coriander, pyrethrum and dry grass. In flowers the lowest mean number of thrips from French bean plant sprayed by LCyhalothrin followed by maize, maize + dry grass + pyrethrum, coriander + dry grass + pyrethrum and dry grass. The most abundance thrips species identified on French beans leaves was Hydatothrips adolfifriderici followed by Megalurothrips sjostedti while Frankliniella schultzei and F. occidentalis were very low in number. On French bean flowers, F. schultzei was the most abundance followed by M. sjostedti while F. occidentalis and H. adolfifriderici were very few. This study showed pyrethrum and neem pesticides can be used as an alternative chemical management for F. occidentalis on French beans in greenhouses. It also revealed that cultural and botanical methods can be integrated to provide an alternative pest management system. The system involves a combination of pyrethrum + maize + dry grass. However, these methods are not as effective and fast acting as synthetic pesticides, but are safer for the environment and consumers.

What is organic farming?

Natural or Organic cultivating is a strategy for yield and animals creation that includes significantly more than picking not to utilize pesticides, composts, hereditarily altered living beings, anti-infection agents and development hormones.

Naturally generation is a comprehensive framework intended to streamline the profitability and wellness of differing groups inside the agro-biological system, including soil life forms, plants, domesticated animals and individuals. The central objective of natural creation is to create ventures that are feasible and concordant with the earth.

The general standards of natural creation, from the Canadian Natural Benchmarks (2006), incorporate the accompanying:

ensure the earth, limit soil debasement and disintegration, diminish contamination, upgrade organic efficiency and advance a sound condition of wellbeing

keep up long haul soil richness by enhancing conditions for natural action inside the dirt

keep up organic decent variety inside the framework

reuse materials and assets to the best degree conceivable inside the venture

give mindful care that advances the wellbeing and meets the behavioral needs of domesticated animals

get ready natural items, stressing cautious preparing, and dealing with strategies so as to keep up the natural trustworthiness and indispensable characteristics of the items at all phases of creation

depend on inexhaustible assets in privately composed agrarian frameworks.

Natural cultivating advances the utilization of harvest pivots and cover edits, and empowers adjusted host/predator connections. Natural deposits and supplements created on the ranch are reused back to the dirt. Cover edits and treated the soil fertilizer are utilized to keep up soil natural issue and ripeness. Protection bug and malady control techniques are worked on, including crop pivot, enhanced hereditary qualities and safe assortments. Coordinated irritation and weed administration, and soil preservation frameworks are important devices on a natural homestead. Naturally affirmed pesticides incorporate “regular” or other nuisance administration items incorporated into the Allowed Substances Rundown (PSL) of the natural norms. The Allowed Substances Rundown distinguishes substances allowed for use as a pesticides in natural farming. All grains, rummages and protein supplements sustained to animals must be naturally developed.The natural models for the most part restrict results of hereditary designing and creature cloning, engineered pesticides, manufactured manures, sewage muck, engineered drugs, engineered sustenance handling helps and fixings, and ionizing radiation. Restricted items and practices must not be utilized on affirmed natural homesteads for no less than three years before gather of the confirmed natural items. Domesticated animals must be raised naturally and sustained 100 for each penny natural bolster fixings.

Natural cultivating presents many difficulties. A few yields are more testing than others to develop naturally; in any case, almost every item can be delivered naturally.

GMOs and pesticides create super-pests

One of the expected advantages to genetically modified crops is their proposed ability to withstand onslaughts from weeds and other pests that could damage or destroy crops. Unfortunately, that’s not the way mother nature works. Yes, these crops may be resistant to the original stains of weeds and pests they were engineered for, but they are not resistant to the new super-weeds that have come in their place.

Mutations and resistance

GMOs and pesticides create super pests 300x300 GMOs and pesticides create super pestsSimilar to bacterial infections in humans, once a host becomes resistant to a strain, that strain simply mutates so that it can stay one step ahead. The cycle then continues and new pesticides and GMOs must be formulated to withstand the new threats. These new threats; however, become more and more difficult to kill which is why stronger and more dangerously toxic pesticides must continue to be developed. This unnatural cycle cannot last forever though and the day will come when these super-weeds and super-pests will prevail.

Things are getting worse, fast

According to research professor Charles Benbrook at the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources at WSU, genetically engineered crops have led to an increase in total pesticide use, by 404 million pounds in the last 14 years. “Resistant weeds have become a major problem for many farmers reliant on GE crops, and are now driving up the volume of herbicide needed each year by about 25 percent,” Benbrook said. In recent years, more than two dozen weed species have become immune to Roundup’s principal ingredient, glyphosate. “Things are getting worse, fast,” says Benbrook “In order to deal with rapidly spreading resistant weeds, farmers are being forced to expand use of older, higher-risk herbicides.”

To illustrate the problem…

The use of Bt corn is a great way to illustrate the resistance problem. Bt corn is genetically changed to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin, which is toxic to insect pests. By law, farmers in the U.S. who plant Bt corn are required to plant non-Bt corn nearby. These non-GMO fields are to provide a location to harbor pests. The concept behind this technique is to slow the evolution of the pests’ resistance to the Bt pesticide. Clearly the problem has gotten way out of hand when there is a law that exists specifically to slow the progression of resistance in pests. Instead of recognizing that the current system is broken, big agriculture companies like Monsanto turn a blind eye and force farmers to increase the use of pesticides.

Mother Nature’s design

Mother Nature has a very special system that does not involve man-made chemicals or genetically modified crops. If fact, this is one of the very reasons mid-sized organic farming is the most efficient kind. “And how do crops survive the pests without GMOs, chemical fertilizers or pesticides?” you might ask. The answer is simple; centuries old techniques such as crop rotation, inter-cropping, residue management, roguing, regulating seed quality and applying natural insecticides are used. These sometimes labor intensive techniques have no place in the industrial agriculture system who’s goal is to automate and standardize as much of the process as possible in an attempt to turn out the largest yield and the most profits.

Sources for this article include:

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/fad64s00.html

http://www.huffingtonpost.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_maize#Bt_corn

By: John McKiernan

Source: Natural News

Pesticides are penetrating deep into plants tissues

Over the last 30 years, the use of pesticides has spiked around the world. People now pour 2.5 million tons of these chemicals into the environment annually, contributing to a $35 billion industry run by global corporations. To make matters worse, the more people use pesticides, the more ineffective they become.

Why are crop yields lost to insects greater than ever before, when pesticide use is at an all time high?

Take a look at the citrus greening crisis happening in places like Florida and California. Citrus greening is a disease spread by the psyllid insect. This insect contaminates citrus trees by leaving a trail of bacteria that ultimately kills the trees. Florida is currently witnessing a 10 percent reduction in produce because of this.
Problems like these exist because pesticides are killing beneficial insects, like lady beetles, that were created to feasts on pests like psyllids. By killing lady beetles, pesticides destroy a balanced ecosystem.

So are pesticides doing more harm than good?

Pesticides are ravaging the environment. Farmers and researchers are now witnessing the death of entire bee colonies because of pesticides. Billions of bees are disappearing from their natural environment, as they cannot handle the poisonous nectar they’re pollinating from contaminated flowers.

Systemic pesticides use on the risePesticides are penetrating deep into plants tissues: agrinfobank.com

Some people are completely aware of pesticides’ ability to disrupt the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary glands. These glands control hormones in the human body which guide the development, growth, gender, behavior, and reproductive systems.
That’s why some people wash their fruit and vegetables before eating them. The sad reality is that pesticides exist not only as residue, but are also pent up and stored inside plant tissues. In fact, systemic pesticide use is on the rise. These chemicals, first used in 1998, have now spread to most of the conventional food supply. Systemic pesticides travel from the soil and are absorbed into vegetation, moving through the xylem and extending into the leaves and flowers, where they infect pollen and nectar. Four classes of pesticides have become commonplace and include imidacloprids, which are applied to vegetables like tomatoes and leafy greens. Thiamethoxam is typically used as seed “treatment” for corn, but is now applied to soil for fruit and vegetables. Clothianidin is also a seed contaminant, used on canola, cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Dinotefuran is either applied to soil or sprayed directly on leafy greens, including cucumber crops.

Stunning pesticide levels in USDA tests

Tests conducted by the US Department of Agriculture from 1999 to 2007 report stunning levels of systemic pesticides in conventional produce. They found that 70 percent of broccoli and 74 percent of fresh lettuce contained imidacloprid residues. Heavy levels of thiamethoxam were found in strawberries and sweet peppers.
Worse yet, the tests found imidacloprid levels of up to 550 parts per billion in eucalyptus nectar and pollen – three times the amount needed to kill honeybees!
Water droplets that exude from a plant’s surface also tested positive for systemic pesticides; plants are practically bleeding out chemicals!
The Journal of Economic Entomology reports, “When bees consume guttation drops, collected from plants grown from neonicotinoid-coated seeds, they encounter death within a few minutes.”
Additionally, systemic nitroguanidine pesticides can last up to 500 days or more in soil, affecting the ecosystem for up to two seasons, poisoning water, soil, worms, beetles, and bees which all play an important role in a thriving environment.

Four simple actions to make a difference

• Stop using pesticides altogether and appreciate a balanced ecosystem.
• Shop locally, but more importantly, shop organically. Put your money where your morals are.
• Realize that the government is not protecting the population from harmful chemicals. Even though they have more regulatory agencies than ever before, big government is actually permitting these disease spreading, Earth-ravaging chemicals to persist.
• Collectively make your voice heard by signing a petition. http://petitions.moveon.org/sign/ban-systemic-pesticide
Sources for this article include
http://petitions.moveon.org/sign/ban-systemic-pesticide
http://www.motherearthnews.com
http://www.panna.org/issues/food-agriculture/pesticides-on-food
http://www.organicgardeningguru.com/pesticides.html
http://www.panna.org/issues/food-agriculture/pesticides-on-food

Source: http://www.naturalnews.com

Top 10 Home and Garden Pesticides

Most Commonly Used Conventional Pesticide Active Ingredients

Home and Garden Market Sector, 2001 and 1999 Estimates Top 10 Home and Garden Pesticides
(Ranked by Range in Millions of Pounds of Active Ingredient)

2,4-D
Glyphosate
Pendimethalin
Diazinon
MCPP
Carbaryl
Dicamba
Malathion
DCPA
Benefin

Note: Does not include moth controls: Paradiclorobenzene (30 – 35 million pounds per year) and naphthaline (2 – 4 million pounds per year). Also does not include insect repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (5 – 7 millions pounds per year).

H indicates herbicide and I, insecticide. NA indicates that an estimate is not available.

Source: EPA proprietary data. EPA Sales and Usage data.