History & Development of Poultry Industry in Pakistan

Prior to 1963 the native breed “Desi” was mainly raised which produced a maximum of 73 eggs per year under local conditions. An improved breed “Lyallpur Silver Black” was evolved in 1965-66 in the department of Poultry Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The layers of this breed are capable of producing 150 egg/year and gaining 1.4 kg weight in 12 weeks of age under favorable management and feeding conditions.

Poultry in Pakistan was kept as backyard business for household needs. In early sixties the need of commercial poultry was felt which resulted in 1963, in the form of a national campaign to enhance the production of feed products in the country. Under this campaign the government announce a tax exemption policy on the income derived from poultry farming. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in collaboration with Shaver Poultry Breeding Farms of Canada started first commercial hatchery in Karachi. Simultaneously, a commercial poultry feed mill was started by Lever Brothers (Pvt), Pakistan Ltd., at Rahim Yar Khan, which was followed by other pioneers like Arbor Acres Ltd.

Special emphasis was laid by the Government on development of poultry industry in the country during 1965-75. The Government made major policy decisions to provide all possible facilities to poultry industry in the annual development plans. The incentives provided to poultry farmers/poultry industry included.

1. Tax exemption on income derived from poultry farming.

2. Import of flock and incubators was permitted under free list.

3. Allotment of state land on lease for poultry farming at very nominal rates.

4. Established poultry research institutes at Karachi and Rawalpindi through Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to facilitate research services specifically concerning disease control programmes.

5. Two meatless days were announced to encourage poultry meat consumption.

6. Subsidy on grains to form low cost quality ration, through UNDP-grains.

7. Loan through ADBP for the construction, of poultry sheds.

8. Established directorates of Poultry Production in Karachi and Punjab to provide extension services to the poultry farmers.

9. Establishment of Federal Poultry Board to coordinate government and industry activities in the poultry business.

The subsequent development of Pakistan’s Poultry Industry can be divided into four phases

Phase 1: The Introductory Period 1965-1970.
During this period the early poultry ventures, involving risks were supported by Government policies that exempted poultry production form national tax levies and permitted producers to import genetically improved breeding stocks and equipment such as incubators. A number of catalytic forces shaped the early development of the poultry industry.

These forces included potential profits in the industry, availability of technologies and supportive government policies resulting form the perception of a protein deficiency in Pakistani diet. The government of Pakistan also established the Directorate of Poultry Production at Karachi, which provided extension services to the growing numbers of poultry farmers. The early development of the industry was also characterized by emerging problems including rising feed costs, disease outbreaks and consumer preferences for Desi birds.

Phase 2: Institutional Development 1971-1975.
As poultry production became a significant enterprise in the agricultural economy of Pakistan, the government strengthened institutions serving the new industry. The Federal Poultry Board was established to coordinate government and industry activities, in the layer and broiler business. Research services were offered through the Poultry Research Institute with the assistance of UNDP/FAO funds. The Directorate of Poultry Development was established in Punjab similar to that in Karachi. Poultry Producers struggled with the adverse effects of government programmes e.g. the ban on export of poultry products and the consequences of some major planning flaws such the establishment of poultry estates clustered together without adequate sanitation and health control. This phase is characterized by both the greatest success of the poultry industry and its greatest failure. A dramatic increase in poultry production resulted due to diverted investments form the nationalization of industries in other sectors. At the same time the clustering of production units led to large disease outbreaks and the lack of marketing facilities due to ban on export of poultry products limited industry growth.

Phase 3: The Production Boom 1976-1980.
The government of Sindh followed a policy to attract investment in poultry farming by offering estate land under ten year leases. At the same time, the nationalization of other industries contributing the entry of capital into poultry industry, particularly in the Punjab, resulted in the poultry production boom. Commercial egg production increased from 624 million eggs in 1976 to 1223 million eggs in 1980. Broiler production increased form 7.2 million birds to 17.4 million birds during the same period. The increase volume of production was forced through limited marketing channels. Serious financial setbacks to poultry farming in Pakistan culminated from discontinuation of poultry exports; disease problems; high relative prices of poultry feed; deteriorating feed quality; and limited supply of feed ingredients. Poultry farmers faced with financial problems and seeking remedial measures formed the Pakistan Poultry Association in 1979 on the advice of the Federal Poultry Board.

Phase 4: Depression and Adjustment 1981-1990.
Disease problems posed a serious threat to the sound development and consolidation of the industry. The large Karachi poultry estates began to close in 1984 and a number of poultry farms closed in other areas of Sindh. Production showed a decreased growth or even depression during early 1980 particularly of increases in the Punjab, Baluchistan and NWFP. However, in the later part of 1980’s starting form 1985 industry seemed to be readjusted with much rise in poultry number particularly in broilers. Faced with disease problems, lower productivity and numerous environmental and climatic difficulties, some of more successful farmers decided to produce under more modernized conditions and to establish their poultry farms in cooler, less polluted area of the country. Breeding farms in Karachi and Punjab thus relocated to Abbotabad, to the base of the Murree Hills and to the Valley of Quetta. The farmers also built houses with controlled environments for breeders, broilers and commercial layers.

1991 to Now:
In this period was a disaster due to diseases, in 1990 the farmers suffered a great loss due to Hydro pericardium syndrome specially the farmers of Broiler and Broiler Breeder Birds. In 1991-92 an other disease Gumboro attacked the chicks of broiler, layer and parent flock that resulted in great mortality. With the passage of time efforts to reduce the incidence of these diseases and prophylaxes regarding vaccination and bio-security were done, this also resulted in establishment of new medicine companies and the importation of vaccines form abroad started. At national level institutes like Poultry Research Institute, Veterinary Research Institute and Agriculture University Faisalabad also done efforts to reduce these diseases.

In 1995 a new disease Avian Influenza appeared in Murree and Abbotabad and mortality in parent flock rose up to 80% due to this disease and set a challenge to the scientists at national level. Conferences at the diagnosis of this disease were conducted in which scientists discussed their point of views, after great loss measures were adopted that resulted in controlling the disease. In 1996 parent flock increased in number due to absence of planning that resulted in depression in the market and the price of chicks decreased several times its cost of production. This depression in Poultry market continued in 1997 as result of ban on serving of lunch in marriage parties that reduced the demand of poultry products in the market up to 40%. Slowly in 1998 it started improving and by increase in price of chick the companies got a great profit. 1999 again a syndrome like influenza broke that cause great loss in some areas while some areas were safe. Now still there are many threats to the poultry industry the manor of which is the marketing problems of chicks to finished products, a great planning is required in this regard. At this time it is supposed that big firms like Be Be Jan can be help full to reduce the instability of the market but it may be before time.

Poultry Status in Pakistan
Pakistan 1968 1977 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Investment in commercial poultry farming sector (million Rs.) 65 915.2 1460 3600 12300 27000 36389.00

Hatcheries (Commercial)

i) Number 2 23 41 100 218 256 189.00

ii) Capacity to produce chicks (Million) 4.84 38.05 52.84 132.20 276.00 403.025 351.10

iii) Day old chicks produced (Million) 2.35 28.08 30.76 67.96 112.02 297.900 235.00

Feed mills (Commercial)

i) Number 2 17 27 51 114 147 138.00

ii) Capacity to produce feed (million ton) 0.048 0.247 0.390 0.850 2.811 2.650 2.66

iii) Poultry feed produced (million ton) 0.012 0.102 0.207 0.637 1.800 1.240 1.43

Commercial poultry farms (number)

i) Layers 202 1450 2030 3684 4687 5300 4632.00

ii) Broilers 176 725 1120 3482 7318 8125 16489.00

iii) Breeding 2 30 55 201 425 516 553.00

Capacity to maintain/ produce birds per annum

i) Layer (commercial) million nos. 0.40 4.25 7.17 10.00 15.6 24.81

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 2.86 11.50 24.66 60.10 187.1 221.18

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.02 0.31 0.40 1.00 3.1 9.83

Birds maintained/ produced

i) Layers (commercial) million nos. 3.320 8.291 10.00 12.00 14.26

ii) Broilers (commercial) million nos. 8.010 45.200 74.1 230.00 192.89

iii) Breeding stock (commercial) million 0.220 0.840 1.8 3.435 5.24

Poultry products

i) Commercial eggs (million) 730 1990 2405 2880 3336.00

ii) Commercial meat 10270 49330 77235 217780 190934.53

a) Broiler (MT) 7610 42940 68930 207000 177072.90

b) Culled birds & layers (MT) 2660 6390 8305 10780 13861.63

Rural Poultry (Desi)

i) Eggs (million nos.) 1036 1575 2085 2360 5341.00

ii) Meat (metric tons) 38110 57410 74100 147190 142292.75

Total (commercial & rural poultry)

i) Birds maintained (million nos.) 45.050 101.541 146.9 323.235 292.42

ii) Eggs (million nos.) 1766 3565 4490 5240 8677.00

iii) Meat (metric tons) 48300 106740 151335 364970 333227.28

How can you tell if a chicken is happy?

By Harry Wallop

A scientist claims caged hens live better than free-range birds. Has common sense flown the coop?

At first, the sheer scale is hard to fathom. I can see yard after yard of metal and hardly any animals. But the noise is unmistakable: a steady clucking sound, which rumbles throughout the enormous building.

It is only when your eyes adjust to the low level of light that you slowly notice the birds. Initially, just a few hundred and then more and more. I am standing on a metal gangway – like the ones you find in high security prisons. On either side of the narrow walkway, hens are packed in groups of 60 to each “cage”. The cages stretch for 330 feet to the end of the shed, and they run along each of the eight different storeys in the shed. I am on the highest level and can glimpse thousands of feathers and glinting eyes beneath my feet. It is unnerving. hen agrinfobank.com

In total, there are 76,000 hens in this shed. This is just one of the five sheds that Phill Crawley, a ruddy-faced, second-generation poultry farmer, owns in Leicestershire. And, alongside the barns dotted among the orchards and fields, are thousands upon thousands more chickens.

That is because Sunrise Eggs, his family company – responsible for 2 per cent of the 9.3 billion eggs laid in Britain every year – produces free-range as well as “colony” eggs.

Colony, or “enriched cage”, used to be known as battery eggs, but the European Union last year forced all farmers to move to the higher-welfare colony system, after years of wrangling with the industry. Under the old system, you were allowed to keep 18 hens in one square metre – about the size of the floor of a telephone box. The new system allows for 13 hens in the same area.

To my eye, this existence still looks pretty miserable. The hens never leave their cage, never see daylight and cannot walk more than a few feet back and forth. Crawley says matter of factly: “They’ve never known any different.”

He has allowed me in to inspect his farm after a leading chicken expert at the University of Bristol, Prof Christine Nicol, suggested that many free-range hens were no happier than those in enriched cages.

“It looks horrendous. It looks like a factory, your worst nightmare of an industrial intensive system,” Prof Nicol said. “But when you look inside the cages, I’m not saying it’s great… but the birds have space, they have a perch, they have got things to scratch on.”

Crawley is rightly proud of his well-run farm. His colony sheds are industrial, but along with that comes a surprisingly low level of smell and dirt – the chicken muck is taken away on a conveyor belt every two days, keeping the floors of the cage surprisingly clean. He plucks a hen from the cage and lets me inspect it closely: its feathers are glossy and its eyes are bright.

“I don’t think any system is perfect,” he says. “Each system has its good points as well as its not-so-good points.”

A few years ago it seemed all the supermarkets would join the likes of Marks & Spencer and become free-range only. “But then the credit crunch came along,” says Crawley. “And the supermarkets said, ‘Actually, we’d better keep colony hens.’ It was very much a cost-driven thing.”

At Tesco, half a dozen medium free-range eggs cost £1.30. Its everyday value ones are 93p. Many consumers may wince at the idea of “enriched cage” hens, but not at the price of their eggs. Only half of all the eggs consumed in Britain are free-range or organic (which has even stricter standards of animal welfare).

“Free-range is more labour-intensive,” explains Crawley, as he takes me across to one of his huge free-range barns, or huts. One worker is needed per 16,000 free-range hens, compared with one worker per 50,000 colony hens.

Curiously, he knocks on the door, before entering. “I do it so the chickens aren’t surprised when I come in.” He is not being sentimental; he is just trying to ensure that they don’t get stressed.

This is the key issue. Caged hens, even “enriched” ones, are fully controlled to the last inch. “Colony birds have a consistent life. There are far fewer variable factors compared with a free range.” And the big variable in the free-range hut right now is me and The Daily Telegraph’s photographer clomping about.

There are two key criteria that define hens as free-range under EU and British Lion guidelines. Firstly, they must have access to the outside. This is accomplished by opening a series of hatches along the side of the hut during daylight hours. About a quarter of the hens are outside, some rootling about in an orchard, and some even perched on the low branches of trees.

But the rest are inside – hordes of them, with an alarmingly large clutch gathering around my feet trying to untie the laces of my shoes and pecking my ankles.

The second free-range criterium is that there can be no more than nine animals per square metre, which is still pretty crowded.

So, while the hens outside look a happy, even an idyllic, sight in the autumnal Leicestershire fields, there is an industrial feel to the swarm of free-range hens inside. “There are some humans who jump out of bed at 5am and go to work. There are some who slump on the sofa all day with a four-pack of strong brew. And there are all those in between,” says Crawley. “Free-range hens are no different.”

Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, the chef and a long-term campaigner for animal welfare, says he is unconvinced by the idea that colony birds can be as happy: “Only free-range birds are able express the full range of natural behaviours that hens naturally wish to engage in – foraging for natural foods such as plants and bugs, wing flapping, dust bathing, nesting and laying in comfort, and all the time moving in a natural environment without any restrictions. I’m sure it’s not easy to assess the welfare benefits of these behaviours scientifically.”

This point, of course, only refers to those hens who choose to explore the outside. Not the poultry layabouts.

There is one thing, though, I have yet to inspect: the taste of the eggs, which is an aspect of the free-range debate that many chefs do not address.

Crawley takes me back to his farmhouse, where his wife Jane cooks me two boiled eggs, both laid just a few hours previously.

I crack the tops off. One looks immediately golden and inviting, one a bit pallid. But both taste almost identical – rich without being luscious.

It turns out that the nice-looking one is the colony egg, not the free-range one as I had presumed. “It’s likely the pigment in the food made it that colour,” explains Crawley. I arch my eyebrow. “But that doesn’t mean it’s artificial. Maize is a natural colourant.”

Still, it is hard to disagree with Henry Dimbleby, co-owner of the Leon chain of restaurants (free-range only), when he says: “I actually have never done a taste test. But for me – however well ventilated and however well lit those caged barns are – there is something profoundly unsettling about them.”

I may not have been able to taste the difference in the eggs, but I could sense which hens had a better chance at a happy life.

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‘Pakistan has great export potential in poultry industry’

Friday, July 19, 2013

Federal Minister for the Ministry of National Food Security and Research Sikandar Hayat Khan Bosan on Thursday said Pakistan has great export potential in poultry industry and can also benefit from growing demand of Halal food world over.‘Pakistan has great export potential in poultry industry’
He expressed these views during a meeting with a delegation of poultry industry here at the ministry. Earlier minister was briefed on the state of poultry industry by K&N’s Chief Executive Khalil Sattar. Sattar said that contribution of poultry industry in gross domestic product was 1.7 percent while at the same time it was providing 1.7 million jobs to skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. Moreover poultry industry has also played an important role in alleviating poverty by improving rural economy.
While discussing ways for sustainable growth in poultry production, the delegation requested the federal minister to take notice of dearth of well-equipped veterinary laboratories at district level particularly in intensive poultry producing areas of the country. The minister assured the delegation that steps will be taken to introduce modern diagnostic facilities in required areas to improve poultry output.
Bosan also stated that Pakistan has great export potential in poultry industry and can also tap into the growing demand of Halal food worldwide. staff report.

Source: Daily Times