Use of spurious pesticides on cotton crop rampant

In Pakistan the pesticide business has an annual turnover of round Rs 12 billions to Rs 14 billions and all the insecticides are being imported since the nation has but to growth on this necessary field. Out of the total import, about 80 consistent with cent of insecticides are used on cotton which is Pakistan’s most dear cash crop and also the main foreign currency echange earner for the rustic.

Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance

In 1971, an ordinance called Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance was promulgated by the government to control the import, manufacture, formulation, sale, distribution and use of insecticides in agriculture. The Rules thereunder were framed and notified in 1973. The main goals of the Ordinance and Rules are:

  • Control the import, manufacture, formula, sale and distribution of pesticides.
  • Verify good packing and correct labelling of packing containers;
  • Verify safe dealing with and garage and
  • Verify high quality keep watch over of pesticides.

Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee (APTAC)

Under the ordinance the government has constituted an Agricultural Pesticides Technical Advisory Committee (APTAC) composed of 18 participants. The committee is answerable for advising the federal government on legal, administrative and technical implications of Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance / Rules, registration of pesticides and drawing up of specification of pesticides.

Packing and Lable requirements

So far packing and lable requirements are concerned the lable signifies identify of the product, active ingredient, identify and cope with of registrant, web content material, retail worth, registration bumber, date of check, batch number, date of expiry anti dote, warning and so on. So far because the enforcement of the mentioned ordinance is anxious, at the federal degree the dept of plant coverage, and at the provincial levels departments of agriculture extension in every provinces is responsible.

In the province of Sindh the enforcement of the said ordinance within the field is performed solely by way of the inspectors designate who are district officers, agriculture, Deputy District deputy district officer agriculture and agriculture officials at Taluka degree. No doubt, these district officers are under the executive district officials (EDO), agriculture however having no power of an inspector the EDO looks useless in respect of enforcement of the Pesticide Ordinance 1971.

Substandard Insecticides Samples

In the higher Sindh area to stay checks on the sale of spurious or substandard insecticides samples of insecticides are accrued by means of the pesticide inspector designate and despatched to Sukkur the place an authorised officer despatched it onward to A pesticide laboratory at Rohri after vital coding, which is meant to be secret. Testing results of each and every pesticide is then sent to the chief chemist at Hyderabad where the result’s compiled and sent either to The involved DDO’s or the dealers directly (as informed) from the DG workplace. Apparently the device look excellent and transparent however in actual sense it is not so.

Lab Assessments Of Pesticide Samples

Allegations abound that pesticide samples taken for lab assessments are replaced or desired result of tests are at various levels – involved in consideration. During the present cotton season I had an opprotynity to seek advice from cotton fields in Kingri taluka in Khairpur district where haris confirmed me empty bottles of pesticides they had used i Used To Be surprised to look that all of the insecticides have been faux.They have been: Danital 10 EC, Permasact 25EC. Mecon Top 20 EC, and Pepto Kill 10 EC.

Danital 30 EC

Here it could be correct to say that Danital sold out there beneath this logo name is “Danital 30 EC” of which importer is M/s Arrysta Agro Pakistan (Private) Ltd. Its litre pack MRP: Price is Rs 930.00 and in keeping with acre dose for noticed bollworm is 250 ml. On the opposite fake logo of Danital is of 10 EC and MRP Rs 1200.00 and recommended dose is only 300-350 ml in keeping with acre. Here it will be relevant to say that with 10 EC active ingredient exact dose will have to were 750 ml per acre and MRP Rs 400 in keeping with litre.

Mecontop and Hepto

The irony is that because of corruption, which is rampant , within the enforcement of Agricultural Pesticides Ordinance now not only the poor innocent growers is struggling but the very agriculture sector of Sindh province is the sufferer. So some distance different fake logo of pesticides viz: Permasact (which precise used to be Permasect of R B Awari Pesticide company), Mecontop and Hepto Kill are concerned its laboratory, as imprinted on the lable, are M/s Pak China Chemicals Lahore and Distributor M/s Rehbar Agro Chemicals (No address) as might be noticed in the photograph. Besides labels on those merchandise shows many errors, such as no registration number, improper active ingredient, mistakes of spelling of many words, and so on.

Growers Of Sindh towards pesticide purchase and application strategy

However, when the very landlord of Pirjogoth used to be apprised of the entire pretend insecticides provided by means of his relied on local pesticide broker it was once discovered difficult to just accept via him. However, once I asked him in nationwide passion to lend a hand me in apprehending the very unscrupulous pesticide dealer he declined pronouncing that the very pesticide broker use to provide him complete inputs for his land. What a pityAction in opposition to the dealer approach discontinuation of future assist (credit score on top interest) which is vital for the survival for majority of the growers of Sindh regardless of small or large.

Out of curiosity to grasp whether or not samples of those pretend manufacturers of pesticides had been drawn via the insecticides inspector of the agriculture extension when I visited the place of work of the agriculture, Khairpur, it was once observed that majority of the samples drawn all over the month of July, August and September 2004 cotton season were of firm or reputed corporations or vendors which used to be reflective of the information got from the pesticide dealers and my very own observations.


  1. Since the present system of enforcement of the pesticide ordinance is corruption ridden a revolutionary alternate through native our bodies gadget is unavoidable.
  2. Powers of Executive District Officer Agriculture will have to be enhanced in order that unbridal pesticide inspectors could be brought under the regulate of the district management (District Nazim).
  3. Among the regulatory tasks since enforcement of Agricultural Pesticide Ordinance 1971 could also be the duty of Federal Plant Protection Department, in stead of acting as a silent spectator, the DPP also will have to come forward in the field the usage of services of its Regional Entomologists based totally at Khairpur in Sindh, Multan and Lahore in Punjab, Quetta in Balochistan and Peshawar in NWFP, solely for strict watch on labels requirements.
  4. Pesticide containers must contain importers guarantee against the pesticides bought in the market via dealers.

Regulated Pests and their Origins

The historic Silk Road system of trade routes across Asia would have been the origin of much of the early human initiated dispersal of many, now cosmopolitan, oriental pest species to Europe and the converse, together with the dispersal of pests from and to places en route. The pests most amenable to this type of movement were those associated with durable commodities and staple diet consumables. However, a degree of susceptibility to dispersal is evident, with some grain and structural fabric pests proving highly mobile and now cosmopolitan while others are still relatively restricted to their original areas.
These latter, such as the very destructive dermestid khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, and the bostrychid larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus, have achieved major status as quarantine pests in recent times because of their still limited distribution. Nevertheless most pests of durable commodities had achieved cosmopolitan status before the advent of modern phytosanitary practice and these pests have become even more widely dispersed through recent sea and air trade.

Regulated Pests and their OriginsAs trading ships became faster the type of host commodity transported became more diverse and with it the pests associated with more perishable commodities as these were included in trade or carried as sustenance of ships’ crews. Dispersal of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, illustrates this well (Maddison and Bartlett, 1989). A major host is citrus and early voyagers learned the benefits of fresh citrus to prevent scurvy. Citrus was cultivated in the Asian subcontinent from earliest times (Willis, 1966) but with the advent of trade became widely cultivated in the Mediterranean region especially the Iberian and Italian peninsulas where Mediterranean fruit fly was probably endemic by then, despite its southern African region origins. With the development of sea trade, convenient ports were developed for watering, fuelling and replenishment of food including fresh fruit and vegetables. Today many of these can be identified as areas of establishment of Mediterranean fruit fly including the Canary Islands, St Helena, Cape Province South Africa, south-west Western Australia, Hawaii, Central America and landfalls in South America such as Rio de Janeiro. Undoubtedly there were other areas where the species failed to establish initially or failed to survive long term including eastern Australia and New Zealand.

A source of confirmation of pest dispersal in this way can often be found in the label data on specimens in entomological reference collections in the locations in question and elsewhere the species might have been of interest. Many are recorded in distribution data of taxonomic papers on the pest species. Care must be exercised to differentiate between specimens taken as interceptions at entry and those from established populations at the recorded location. However, even interception records are valuable in that they indicate the possibility of establishment on that or other occasions. The outcome of this historical process is that many pests will be found to have reached their limit of dispersal before phytosanitary quarantine became an established practice. In some places they will be recognizably endemic and consequently of no justifiable quarantine significance. In other places where establishment potential is marginal they may be present and persisting below the limit of ordinary detection. If this can be determined, there might be no justification for quarantine barriers to trade with respect to that pest. The reliability of pest incidence data is in direct relation to the search effort put into detection surveys.


Maddison, P.A. and Bartlett, B.J. (1989) A contribution towards the zoogeography of the Tephritidae. In: Robinson, A.S. and Hooper, G. (eds) Fruit Flies, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 3A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 27–35.

Willis, J.C. (1966) A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns.Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.