How to improve sugar recovery from cane

DESPITE an build up in space underneath cultivation, timely rain, considered use of fertilisers, advanced cultural practices and higher management, sugar disaster continues to be looming massive within the country. Apart from low procurement value presented by way of mill house owners, one of the crucial major reasons for the crisis is the poor sugar recovery charge from the overwhelmed cane. Sugar recovery here’s infrequently eight according to cent whereas in many countries it’s 12-14 in step with cent. The average cane yield at the charge of 53 ton consistent with hectare is some distance beneath the prevailing doable of the country’s crop.

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Irrespective of coverage and financial components which can be beyond farmers’ succeed in, some necessary measures to scale back the price of production and toughen cane restoration come with improved production practices, nutrient and water control, insects pest control, post-harvest handling along side exploiting the possibility of ratoon crop.

Improved manufacturing practices: Preparatory tillage is crucial operation in sugarcane cultivation. Since sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop penetrating as much as 90cm within soil, tillage practices can assist in development of higher root device and optimal growth of the crop. For right kind enlargement some farmyard manure and inexperienced manure should be added to the soil one month prior to land preparation.

Selection of quality seed is vital for top yield. Seeds for types of sugarcane with variable sugar contents are available in several portions of the country. Sets or cuttings used for propagation must be fresh and juicy, unfastened from insect pest and disease and nine-10 months outdated. Eyes buds for seed will have to be fully advanced from planted crop. The seed should be handled with correct fungicides.

Planting time and method: Appropriate planting method and time greatly affect growth, maturity and yield of the crop.
To maximise production, it is necessary to practice planting times without affecting yield from overdue planting. However, September crop is harvested with higher yield of 25-35 in line with cent and higher sugary recovery due to sumptuous vegetative expansion compared to February plantation.

Appropriate seed charge with proper row or furrow spacing are the important thing to attaining optimum plant population for top manufacturing. Generally for medium to thin types top seed price is used than thick cane with a view to get desired plant inhabitants and to facilitate intercultural operations. Recently, spaced transplanting method with unmarried eye set, paired row and broad furrow row method were presented in neighbouring country; those should even be attempted here.

Nutrient & water management: Water and fertiliser requirements of sugarcane are very top. Framers must deal with irrigations in sugarcane specifically throughout the summer and will have to regulate irrigation requirement according to to be had water at farm level. The crop calls for 16-20 irrigations. Drip irrigation saves 40-70 in step with cent water, improves sugar restoration as much as one in step with cent, will increase fertiliser use efficiency, saves electrical energy in pumping, improves insect and pest keep watch over, and reduces labour prices. Although first of all installation prices are prime, it can be overcome by different benefits.

For correct mineral nutrition of the crop, it will be significant to have knowledge of expansion body structure. However, fertilisers’ potency may also be greater when they’re applied thru irrigation water as in case of drip irrigation.

Pest control: There is need of built-in practices to keep an eye on weeds, bugs and pests in sugarcane to get top yield. These include intercultural practices for weed regulate, earthing up, and alertness of herbicides for correct weed keep watch over with the assistance of technical professionals.
Inter-culture: To stay field unfastened from weeds inter-culture of crop is beneficial because it supplies right kind aeration within the efficient root zone. Hoeing is finished for better aeration water penetrability and weed keep watch over. In sugarcane intercropping of onion, potato and so forth. is finished for buying top economic returns at early stages of cane crop. Inter-crop species should be restorative, now not heavy feeder, with shallow root machine and of brief duration.

Ratoon management: For top advantages ratooning is vital in sugarcane via eliminating the expenses at land preparation, planting subject matter costs and planting bills. By just right irrigation and nutrient management, it is higher to get prime yield from ratoon crop. Ratooning of cane harvested earlier than February is most popular. The sugar restoration in ratoon crop is also higher and it matures earlier than the plant crop.

Cane from the fields to be kept for ratoon should be reduce at ground degree. Sugarcane planted in two row strips 90 cm aside now not most effective ratoon well but in addition gave upper yields for every of three planting treatments than three and four-row strip planting techniques. Fill the gaps; keep watch over the weeds, insect pests and sicknesses correctly. In case of serious attack of any insect, do not stay the crop as ratoon.

For better crop, disease-free, wholesome seeds will have to be used. Preferably disease-resistant sorts treated with fungicide must be planted. Diseased vegetation will have to be got rid of from the sphere and must both be buried or burnt.

The cane will have to be harvested after it has attained maturity obtaining most weight via adopting right technique warding off field losses. Harvesting of both immature or over-aged cane with fallacious method ends up in lack of yield, sugar recovery, deficient juice high quality and problems in milling.
One month prior to harvesting, irrigation must be stopped and the harvested crop must no longer be left within the field for lengthy. If at all stored in the field for longer duration, it will have to be lined with trash. Different sorts should be harvested in keeping with their period of maturity. The crop harvested all over February-March provides excellent ratoon crop.

Several strategies are available to resolve the maturity of the crop in order that it may be harvested at proper time. Many farmers harvest their crop in accordance with its age and appearance. Sometimes farmers harvest the crop even sooner than it attains maturity necessitated by mills call for. Delays in harvesting are also reasonably common, particularly when there’s extra cane space. Harvesting must all the time be at right time using right way for better yield.

In many nations together with ours even nowadays harvesting is finished manually. Among several tools, the chopping blade is normally heavier and facilitates easier and efficient slicing of cane. Manual harvesting calls for professional labour as mistaken harvest ends up in lack of cane and sugar yield, poor juice high quality and problems in milling. But the issue is that harvesting labour is becoming scarce and dear.

There could also be need to establish extra research institutes for the advance of crop manufacturing and higher recovery from the beaten cane with a view to reach autarky in sugar and earn foreign exchange.

Sugar sources in crop plant (Sugar cane , Sugar beet , Stevia)

Sugarcane

Sugarcane is the source of obtaining the sugar in tropical and subtropical countries. The production of sugar from sugarcane in 1966 and 1967 is 40 to 41 million tons. In Puerto Rice, sugar production average is 850000 tons for two years.
The sugar cane plant is a member of course growing of grass family and their Juice and sup have high sugar content.
Sugarcane
Sugarcane is the source of obtaining the sugar in tropical and subtropical countries. The production of sugar from sugarcane in 1966 and 1967 is 40 to 41 million tons. In Puerto Rice, sugar production average is 850000 tons for two years.
The sugar cane plant is a member of coarse growing of grass family and their Juice and sup have high sugar content.
The process of obtaining the sugar from sugar cane:
Many step use to obtain the sugar from sugar cane in industry:
1- Sugarcane receiving and unloading from transport
2- Sugarcane preparation
3- Sugarcane juice clarification
4- Sugarcane juice extraction
5- Sugarcane juice crystallization
6- Separation of sugar crystal in sugarcane juice
7- Drying of sugar crystal
8- Packaging of sugar crystal

Sugar beet

Sugar beet is used for the production of sugar as the sugar cane. For the production of sugar, sugar beets are harvest in autumn and early winter by digging in the ground. Sugar is formed in leaves by photosynthesis and is then stored in their root. Their root contains the 25 percent water and 20 percent sugar.
The pulp of sugar beet is insoluble in water and consists of the different compound such as the cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin and their component is used for animal feed.
Sugar produce steps from the Sugarbeet:
1- Delivery of sugar beet
2- Spot checks
3- Washing
4- Cutting
5- Diffusion
6- Purifying the sugar juice
7- Crystallization
8- Centrifugal Spinning
9- Molasses

Stevia

Stevia is the herb of South American and uses for sweetener for centuries. Stevia is sweeter than the sugar. Stevia plant contains stevioside compounds, rebaudioside, and glycoside. Stevia is a sugar substitute that comes from a plant and has no calories. Stevia leaves have the highly sweeteners and Stevia sugar are used as the medical properties such as lower of blood sugar level
The process making the syrup from stevia:
Many steps are used for making the syrup from the stevia.
1- Collection of leaves
2- Leaves the place inside bottle
3- Add the alcohol in the bottle
4- After the two-day filer the alcohol
5- Take the liquid and cook at low temperature
6- After the cooking filter the syrup
7- Fell the bottle and then close.

Authors:  Muhammad Usman , Hafiz Muhammad Adnan , Umair, Abdul Majid ,Sajid Sarwar

Sugarcane : A Complete guide

SCIENTIFIC NAME: Saccharum officinarum

INTROUDCITON:

Sugar cane is C4 plant it is a parineal crop. The plant takes 10 to 12 month under Pakistani condition. 18 month under Australian condition and 24 month in Cuba and Brazil condition to complete its life cycle. The plant grows from seed set called as plant crop. It is vegetative plant. Rising of succeeding crop after harvesting first year crop is known as ratoon crop. Sugar cane is very sensitive to cold injury. During frost conversion of sucrose to glucose takes place. The sugar mill are interested in sucrose while the farmer are interested in sugar cane weight. Therefore we need high sugar and high weight variety. It is a true seeded plant. They have five sub species

· Saccharum spontanium

· Saccharum sinensis

· Saccharum Bari beri

· Saccharum robustum

· Saccharum officinarum

 

SOIL REQUIREMENT:

Sugar cane can be grown in low fertile, medium fertile and high fertile soil. It is very essential the sugar cane should be grown in high fertile soil because of parineal crop and produce high biomass.

CLIMATE:

The sugar cane is tropical crop it can tolerate high temperature but the optimum temperature at the time of sowing should not be less than 12 ºC to 18 ºC. The optimum temperature for growth is 30 ºC.

PLANTING SEASON:

There are two seasons:

· Winter season (September sowing)

· Spring season (February to March sowing)

In winter season intercropping takes place for example onion in Sindh and wheat, mustard in Punjab. In February to March only onion can be sown.

LAND PREPARATION:

Sugar cane requires deep tillage. Deep tillage includes Mould board plough and those farmers who do not have tractor they use Sarkar plough made up of wood. There are two types of sowing in sugar cane. Sugar cane is sow in furrow area as it is water-loving plant. Row to row distance is 3-5 ft.

CONTENTS:

Thin variety seed is sown for 60-70 munds per acre. It contains 13-14% fiber & 70% water, 10-11% sugar and 2-3% impurities, 1-2% glucose. We have to evaporate the water than we will get the sugar. Plant to plant distance is 9-12 inches over lapping of sets take place. Buds and leaf grown alternately. Leaf covers the bud to protect it in order to safe the bud from the outer environments. If the bud damages than the growth does not occurs/ takes place.

SEED SELECTION:

Ratoon type crop are not selected. It is better to cut the top portion of crop as top portion contain good amount of glucose and lower portion contain sucrose. Immature seed is better than mature plant seeds. 40,000 to 60,000 sets are grown in 1 acre.

VARIETIES:

· BL-4 Barbados + Lyallpur

· POJ Java variety in Indonesia

· COL In India 113-116 Comibitor + Lyallpur

· BF Barbados + Faisalabad 129

· BF-162

· Thatta-10

· SPSG-26

· CP Canal point

 

GERMINATION RATE:

· Top portion of sugar cane give 70% germination

· Middle portion of sugar cane give 40% germination

· Basal portion contain more salts therefore its germination is 30%

· Covering of sugar cane is called “rind” which contain parenchyma cells it contain sugar content.

· Roots are known as fibrous roots.

· When the stem bends and than the root which arises are known as butterious roots.

· Basal root contain glucose only which help in growth.

· Earthing up (prevents from water logging) should be done in the month of June.

· One bud can arises 40 to 50 sugar cane.

SEED TREATEMENT:

Sugar cane seed in the form of sets can be treated with fungicides or in hot water.

SOIL FERTILITY:

Before land preparation we need good manuring crop. Before seeding or flowering we have to plough the green manuring. After this we have to irrigate the land in order to decompose the green manuring. Before sowing the crop a month ago we have to do manuring 10 to 15 tones per acre should be use a month ago before sowing the crop. Farmyard manuring should be decomposing properly.

FERTILIZER REQUIREMENT:

First we have to satisfy the phosphorous requirement.

· At sowing:

2 bags of DAP or 2 bags of TSP or 5 bags of SSP and 1 bag of SOP or MOP.

· Seedling stage:

It comes after 1 month of sowing. 1 bag of urea when the temperature is high above 20 ºC than 2 bag of A.N is used.

· Tillering stage:

This stage comes after 2 month of sowing 1 bag of urea. After 3 months of tillering 1 bag of urea is used.

IRRIGATION:

In September sowing (autumn) we need 40%
to 45% time of irrigation of crops. For February to March sowing we need 30% to 34% times irrigation of crop (spring season). For September irrigation we need 4.5-acre foot water. For February to March irrigation we need 3-acre foot of water.

 

DISEASES:

· Red rot

· Whips smut

· Mossaic virus

· Ratoon stunting disease (RSD)

Sugarcane a complete guideCONTROL:

· Healthy seed

· Resistance variety

· Crop rotation

INSECT PEST:

· Termite

· Pyrilla

· Milli bug

· Red mites

BORERS OF SUGAR CANE:

· Stem borer

· Top borer

· Pink borer

· Gurdas pur