DESPITE an build up in space underneath cultivation, timely rain, considered use of fertilisers, advanced cultural practices and higher management, sugar disaster continues to be looming massive within the country. Apart from low procurement value presented by way of mill house owners, one of the crucial major reasons for the crisis is the poor sugar recovery charge from the overwhelmed cane. Sugar recovery here’s infrequently eight according to cent whereas in many countries it’s 12-14 in step with cent. The average cane yield at the charge of 53 ton consistent with hectare is some distance beneath the prevailing doable of the country’s crop.
Irrespective of coverage and financial components which can be beyond farmers’ succeed in, some necessary measures to scale back the price of production and toughen cane restoration come with improved production practices, nutrient and water control, insects pest control, post-harvest handling along side exploiting the possibility of ratoon crop.
Improved manufacturing practices: Preparatory tillage is crucial operation in sugarcane cultivation. Since sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop penetrating as much as 90cm within soil, tillage practices can assist in development of higher root device and optimal growth of the crop. For right kind enlargement some farmyard manure and inexperienced manure should be added to the soil one month prior to land preparation.
Selection of quality seed is vital for top yield. Seeds for types of sugarcane with variable sugar contents are available in several portions of the country. Sets or cuttings used for propagation must be fresh and juicy, unfastened from insect pest and disease and nine-10 months outdated. Eyes buds for seed will have to be fully advanced from planted crop. The seed should be handled with correct fungicides.
Planting time and method: Appropriate planting method and time greatly affect growth, maturity and yield of the crop.
To maximise production, it is necessary to practice planting times without affecting yield from overdue planting. However, September crop is harvested with higher yield of 25-35 in line with cent and higher sugary recovery due to sumptuous vegetative expansion compared to February plantation.
Appropriate seed charge with proper row or furrow spacing are the important thing to attaining optimum plant population for top manufacturing. Generally for medium to thin types top seed price is used than thick cane with a view to get desired plant inhabitants and to facilitate intercultural operations. Recently, spaced transplanting method with unmarried eye set, paired row and broad furrow row method were presented in neighbouring country; those should even be attempted here.
Nutrient & water management: Water and fertiliser requirements of sugarcane are very top. Framers must deal with irrigations in sugarcane specifically throughout the summer and will have to regulate irrigation requirement according to to be had water at farm level. The crop calls for 16-20 irrigations. Drip irrigation saves 40-70 in step with cent water, improves sugar restoration as much as one in step with cent, will increase fertiliser use efficiency, saves electrical energy in pumping, improves insect and pest keep watch over, and reduces labour prices. Although first of all installation prices are prime, it can be overcome by different benefits.
For correct mineral nutrition of the crop, it will be significant to have knowledge of expansion body structure. However, fertilisers’ potency may also be greater when they’re applied thru irrigation water as in case of drip irrigation.
Pest control: There is need of built-in practices to keep an eye on weeds, bugs and pests in sugarcane to get top yield. These include intercultural practices for weed regulate, earthing up, and alertness of herbicides for correct weed keep watch over with the assistance of technical professionals.
Inter-culture: To stay field unfastened from weeds inter-culture of crop is beneficial because it supplies right kind aeration within the efficient root zone. Hoeing is finished for better aeration water penetrability and weed keep watch over. In sugarcane intercropping of onion, potato and so forth. is finished for buying top economic returns at early stages of cane crop. Inter-crop species should be restorative, now not heavy feeder, with shallow root machine and of brief duration.
Ratoon management: For top advantages ratooning is vital in sugarcane via eliminating the expenses at land preparation, planting subject matter costs and planting bills. By just right irrigation and nutrient management, it is higher to get prime yield from ratoon crop. Ratooning of cane harvested earlier than February is most popular. The sugar restoration in ratoon crop is also higher and it matures earlier than the plant crop.
Cane from the fields to be kept for ratoon should be reduce at ground degree. Sugarcane planted in two row strips 90 cm aside now not most effective ratoon well but in addition gave upper yields for every of three planting treatments than three and four-row strip planting techniques. Fill the gaps; keep watch over the weeds, insect pests and sicknesses correctly. In case of serious attack of any insect, do not stay the crop as ratoon.
For better crop, disease-free, wholesome seeds will have to be used. Preferably disease-resistant sorts treated with fungicide must be planted. Diseased vegetation will have to be got rid of from the sphere and must both be buried or burnt.
The cane will have to be harvested after it has attained maturity obtaining most weight via adopting right technique warding off field losses. Harvesting of both immature or over-aged cane with fallacious method ends up in lack of yield, sugar recovery, deficient juice high quality and problems in milling.
One month prior to harvesting, irrigation must be stopped and the harvested crop must no longer be left within the field for lengthy. If at all stored in the field for longer duration, it will have to be lined with trash. Different sorts should be harvested in keeping with their period of maturity. The crop harvested all over February-March provides excellent ratoon crop.
Several strategies are available to resolve the maturity of the crop in order that it may be harvested at proper time. Many farmers harvest their crop in accordance with its age and appearance. Sometimes farmers harvest the crop even sooner than it attains maturity necessitated by mills call for. Delays in harvesting are also reasonably common, particularly when there’s extra cane space. Harvesting must all the time be at right time using right way for better yield.
In many nations together with ours even nowadays harvesting is finished manually. Among several tools, the chopping blade is normally heavier and facilitates easier and efficient slicing of cane. Manual harvesting calls for professional labour as mistaken harvest ends up in lack of cane and sugar yield, poor juice high quality and problems in milling. But the issue is that harvesting labour is becoming scarce and dear.
There could also be need to establish extra research institutes for the advance of crop manufacturing and higher recovery from the beaten cane with a view to reach autarky in sugar and earn foreign exchange.