Pakistan ranked 3rd in world for newly installed hydropower capacity

ISLAMABAD – Pakistan has been ranked third on this planet for newly installed hydropower capability, much ahead of the United States and India. Out of the highest 20 countries which installed new hydro capacity right through 2018, Pakistan, with the brand new put in capacity of 2487MW, has been ranked 3rd, just at the back of China and Brazil which might be ranked 1st and 2d respectively in the list, declared via the International Hydropower Association (IHA) in its not too long ago issued report titled 2019: Hydropower Status Report – Sector Trends and Insights.

Formed underneath the auspices of UNESCO in 1995 as a discussion board to advertise and disseminate good observe about hydropower, IHA champions steady growth and sustainable practices around the sector.

India with 535 MW new put in capability is ranked 8th whilst US with 141MW is ranked 15th of the list. Listing down best 20 international locations through newly installed capability, the IHA states in its file that Pakistan managed so as to add 2487MW of environment-friendly hydel electricity in 2018 following China and Brazil at the first and second rung that added 8540MW and 3866 MW to their programs respectively.

Pakistan controlled so as to add 2487 MW of environment-friendly hydel electrical energy in 2018, simply in the back of China and Brazil which are ranked 1st and 2nd respectively in checklist Country has doable of generating 60000mw of low-cost hydel electrical energy.

Turkey with an addition of 1085 MW and Angola with an addition of 668 MW remained at 4th and fifth positions respectively as far as newly put in hydro capacity is concerned. The neighbouring India stood on the eighth position that might succeeded in adding 535 MW hydel electrical energy to its device not too long ago.
It is pertinent to say here that the entire new hydro initiatives had been initiated and finished all through the tenure of earlier government of PML(N). As in step with the IHA document, electricity generation from hydropower tasks accomplished a record four,200 terawatt hours (TWh) in 2018, the best possible ever contribution from a renewable power supply, as worldwide installed hydropower capacity climbed to one,292 GW, in line with the record .

China added the most capacity with the installation of eight,540 megawatts (MW), followed by way of Brazil (three,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).Brazil has now overtaken the United States as the second one biggest manufacturer of hydroelectricity by way of installed capability, after 3,055 MW was once put into operation final year at the 11,000 MW Belo Monte advanced within the country’s northeast.

During the yr 2018, Pakistan has successfully completed and commissioned three long-delayed mega hydropower tasks with cumulative era capability of 2487 MW. The new initiatives come with the commissioning of the 108 MW-Golen Gol hydropower mission, 1410 MW-Tarbela 4th Extension and the 969 MW-Neelum Jhelum hydropower projects.

The general installed technology capacity of hydroelectric energy in Pakistan surged to 9389 MW from 6902 MW, registering an build up of 36 percent in just one yr. It may be value to mention right here that from 1958 to 2017 in 59 years of its inception WAPDA may just arrange to take its hydel generation to 6902 MW.

According the reliable estimates Pakistan has an indentified possible of producing 60000 MW of cheap hydel electrical energy.

Rabi crop to stand 33 percentwater scarcity: IRSA

Rabi crop to stand 33 percentwater scarcity: IRSA

ISLAMABAD – The ongoing Rabi season will have to face 33 according to cent water scarcity as a substitute of 38 consistent with cent previous forecast by the Indus River System Authority.

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Talking to APP right here , IRSA spokesman Khalid Idrees Rana said that previous 38 according to cent water shortage was forecast for the present season. However, frequent rain spells that began in January helped in overcoming the water shortage but even so making improvements to the bottom stage.

The rains have been additionally blessings for all seasonal plants, fruit orchids and vegetables, he added.

He said that recently round 1,000,000 acre of ft of water was available within the reservoirs. However, at the call for of Sindh and Punjab provinces water was best being discharge for ingesting function.

Currently, 1 MAF of water available within the reservoirs

He said that catchment spaces had additionally won extra snow this year and with rise in mercury, it will get started melting which might lend a hand higher water influx in the rivers.

To a query, he stated that technical and advisory committee of IRSA would meet in remaining week of this month to review water state of affairs for upcoming Kharif season.

Meanwhile, IRSA Wednesday released 66,500 cusecs water from more than a few rim stations with influx of 82,600 cusecs.

According to the data released via IRSA, water level in the Indus River at Tarbela Dam used to be 1,393.98 toes, which was once 7.98 toes upper than its lifeless degree of 1,386 feet. Water influx in the dam was once recorded as 21,200 cusecs and outflow as 20,000 cusecs.

The water degree in the Jhelum River at Mangla Dam used to be 1,125.65 toes, which was once 85.65 toes higher than its dead degree of one,040 toes while the influx and outflow of water used to be recorded as 32,900 cusecs and 18,000 cusecs respectively.
The unencumber of water at Kalabagh, Taunsa and Sukkur was once recorded as 34,000 cusecs, 33,700 cusecs and five,100 cusecs respectively.

Similarly from the Kabul River, 13,200 cusecs of water was once released at Nowshera and 4,000 cusecs from the Chenab River at Marala.

The general water storage capacity stood at zero.959 million acre toes.

Water and Agriculture Scenario in Pakistan

(By Rohoma Tahir, Mujahid Ali, H.M. Bilal, Rabbia Zulfiqar)

(Horticulture, College of Agriculture, UOS)

Recently Pakistan is among most threatening countries regarding water shortage in the world. This alarming situation is very severe as our main livings depend upon agriculture. Without agriculture, man can’t live and without irrigation, man can’t have agriculture. Food is most important for human beings as well for animals for their life. In the beginning, a man pleased his hunger by eating fruits from the forest and drinking water from natural streams. Slowly his need become bigger and he felt the need of different types of food. He started cultivating and retreat crops. Agriculture was his only occupation. He depended mainly on rainwater to water the crops, but nature did not prefer him always. Occasionally droughts were harsh and there was an influence on lack of harvest. There was a need for irrigation and he started to use water from ponds, streams, and rivers for agriculture. Irrigation is defined as the supplementation of precipitation by storage and transportation of water to the fields for the proper growth of agricultural crops.

The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were the first to use water for agriculture. In North America, Spanish and Americans built canals along the Rio Grande. With the development of agriculture, irrigation became more known in the Indus Valley, presently India and Pakistan. Today 689 million acres of agricultural land is irrigated with water to facilities across the whole world. Out of total 68% of irrigated land is in Asia, 17% in North America, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania.

Water is the basic element that maintains life. Misuse of water has the capacity to cause agricultural, economic, climatic and political issues in the area. Many countries around the world have fallen victim to water-conflicts. Water sharing and the uses of six rivers is the second major issue between Pakistan and India after the Kashmir issue. Five rivers reach to the Pakistan Punjab and all join at Mithinkot – this point is called Panjnad.

David Eli Lilienthal, known for leading the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), visited India and Pakistan to observe the reality of the issue. He noticed, “No army, with bombs and shellfire, could ravage a land as thoroughly as Pakistan could be ruined by the simple advisable of India’s forever shutting off the sources of water that keep the fields and the people of Pakistan alive.”

Pakistan is basically an agricultural country 65% population of Pakistan is related to agricultural unfortunately Pakistan is present near tropic and it received less rain during the year that’s why irrigation system for Pakistan act as the backbone of our economy.

Farming and agriculture are the oldest activities being performed by the human on this earth. Pakistan has one of the most fertile soils in this world and its credit goes to Indus valley in this region. Canal water is just like the blood of agriculture and farming, there was a time when such activities used to be performed near rivers but as the time passed the land near the river was no more available, but the requirement of water was still there.  The area where Pakistan is blessed with natural gifts and one of the gift is the irrigation system. 75% of the Pakistan land which is used as an agricultural land that is covered by the irrigation system. Rivers have been the largest source of water; the rainfall has also been the 2nd important source and the 3rd one is groundwater.

The irrigation system is not as new as it sounds. For irrigation system, we find perennial canals and tube wells. The major source of water supply throughout Pakistan is Indus River. And Dams and Barrages have been established on them. Tarbela and Mangla are the larger dams in Pakistan. And they generate hydroelectricity, storing water and irrigating the land. Small dams are used as a water reservoir and they also supply water, three Small dams are Khanpur Dam, Rawal Dam, and Hub Dam.

Difference between dams and Barrages are: Dams are built on mountainous where the Barrages based on flat surfaces. Barrages are used as a supply of irrigation to the agricultural land. In Pakistan, there are four Barrages: Sukkur Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Kotri Barrage, and Chashma Barrage are well known.

A canal is a basic mean that provides water from the river to agriculture field where it is required. Canals are come out of rivers, dams, and barrages. The irrigation system of Pakistan is best in all over the world’s irrigation system. This system is good due to a canal.

Canals take water from the river when the water level is rise due to flood. That’s why the extra water is used in a better way rather than spoil around the area. Perennial canals are those canals which are taken from the Dams and Barrages these canals also supply water to the field. In Pakistan there are No. of large dams 3, No. of small dams 85, No. of Barrages 16, No. of Headworks 2, No. of interlink Canlas 12, No. of canals system 44, No. of watercourse 107,000, Lengths of canals 56,073 Km, Length of water course 1.6 Million km, Irrigated area 36 Million Acres, Average escapade to the sea 39.4 MAF.

For the use of groundwater 0.7 million tube wells have been installed. All the resources are used to fulfill the requirement of water. But with the passage of time, the demand for water is high, and these resources are not enough to meet the need. There is need to make new Dams and other resources to strengthen the irrigation system.

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Pakistan and irrigation system is the major resource for agriculture. Fortunately, like gas, oil and coal resources Pakistan is rich in fertile land and its irrigation system is considered as one of the world’s largest irrigation system. ‘Water is one of the rarest and the most precious sources in the world’.

Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is totally depending on irrigation. There are several Irrigation systems of Pakistan, for example rivers, canals, barrages, headworks, dams and tube wells. Total agricultural land of Pakistan measured in 2011 by World Bank was 223850 sq.-km. which is on 4th in the world, but unfortunately this area is shrinking due to several factors, for example roads and highways, mega migration to cities, lack of water for irrigation and housing societies.

History of the irrigation system of Pakistan in 1947 when the Indian sub-continent was divided in to two independent states, like many issues there is water issue as well. In 1960 both countries signed the “Indus Water Treaty”. According to the treaty In,dia was given the Eastern Rivers named as Sutlej, Bias and Ravi. And under the control of Pakistan, there are three Western rivers Jhelum, Indus and Chenab. Unfortunately, it was signed back in 1960’s that India can water of Pakistani controlled Rivers for irrigation and power generation purposes as Pakistan is at downstream of these rivers. Since Pakistani controlled river is in India, so there is a chance that India effects on irrigation resources of Pakistan, as he did during war time in 1965 and 1971.

Irrigation Sources in Pakistan: Indus river is a major source of water in Pakistan which is subdivided into its branches downstream known as Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej also Kabul River. About 70% of total water consumed for irrigation, Due to high variation in rainfall, mostly observed in monsoon season, it is very difficult to maintain water for flood and irrigation of healthy and unhealthy rivers. One of the sources of refill are the hill fast-moving water, also known as ‘torrent’. There are 14 different ‘hilly-torrents’ in Pakistan.

Some other causes of restocking the Indus River Basin are: 1) Melting of snow 2) Precipitation, although melting process may cause more damage, but precipitation frequency is much higher than other one. At Karakorum Range, which includes a couple of tallest mountains in the world, it usually rains in winter which increases the packed snow at these high mountains. This snow melts in summers and converts in to runoff contributing about 82% of water for ‘KAREEF’ season and 18% for ‘RABEE’ season. RABEE starts from mid of November and ends at May, and KAREEF season starts from April to September.

Condition of Tarbela, Chashma and Mangla Dams reservoirs is reducing water storage capacity which will badly affect the water supply for irrigation in agriculture. KBD water reservoir will have storage capacity for more than 100 years. Reduced water supply in downstream areas in Punjab and Sindh will lead to the salt content of drinkable water cause shortage of drinking water availability for Punjab and Sindh.

Sindh will be the most affected area if Kalabagh is not built. Areas which are under irrigation at now may become barren, converted into a desert. KBD will store and release water flood when needed for agriculture in Sindh, thus saving the damage due to floods and meeting water required for agriculture and saving the salt content of groundwater at a shallow level.  It will save land currently under cultivation from turning barren.

“We never know the worth of water till the well is dry”. According to the Wapda chief, almost 60% of the Pakistan population is directly linked in agriculture and livestock and despite being it also included in 15 most water-scarce countries, Pakistan has one of the most water-intensive agriculture with the fourth highest water use rate. Pakistan needs to narrow the huge gap between the growing population and its needs, and the number and capacity of water reservoirs.

Research reports have warned that Pakistan will have water scarcity by the year 2025 if Kalabaag dam is not built. It’s time that we stand up to save Pakistan, save ourselves and our coming generations from the drought and famine. Support Kalabagh Dam as W.H. Auden once said, “Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.”

Early Kharif season and Water Shortage

ابتدائی خریف موسم پانی کی کمی کا شکار

The Indus River System Authority (Irsa) on Friday projected a six per cent water shortage in early Kharif season and advised provinces to delay cultivation by two weeks till ice starts melting. However, there will be no water shortage in middle and late Kharif season as the country will have 10 MAF more water than the previous year.

This is the crux of a meeting of Irsa Advisory committee which met under Chairman of Irsa Asjad Imtiaz Ali to decide the availability and distribution of water for provinces during the upcoming Kharif season. Major Kharif crops are cotton, sugarcane and rice. The committee noted that the country would lose 25 per cent of total water available during because of system losses.

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Irsa observed that 110 Million Acre Feet (MAF) water would be available for Kharif season, of which 23 MAF water would be lost. The committee said that in Jehlum and Chenab zones, the loss will be 10 per cent in the early Kharif season and 15 per cent in late kharif season. In the Indus zone, the water loss would be as much as 40 per cent, it noted.
It said that 67.25 MAF water would be available in canals for provinces. The body observed that the country would face 6 per cent water shortage in the early Kharif season. The committee decided that provinces would be given water according to their needs as the country would have more water than the previous season. “However, if the country faces water shortages, provinces would be taken on board to share it,” the committee said. The country would have a carryover stock 11.5 MAF of water.
Later, Irsa’s spokesperson Khalid Idrees Rana said that 10 MAF water would be released in Kotri downstream. He said that Punjab would get 33.6 MAF water and Sindh 30.25 MAF water for Kharif crops. “Balochistan will get 2.6 MAF whereas Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 0.8 MAF water for Kharif crops,” he said. He maintained that 1.2 MAF carryover water stock was available in reservoirs. He said that major reservoirs, including Tarbela and Mangla, would be filled in August at 1,550 and 1,242 feet levels, respectively. Official said that there would be no water shortage in upcoming Kharif season starting from April 1 till September end.