Reviving Drought Stressed Plants

Reviving Drought Stressed Plants

Inadequate amounts of water can stress vegetation and motive a large number of issues. Usually, the oldest leaves are the first to turn symptoms, yellowing, drying and falling off the plant. During prolonged classes of drought, twigs and branches of bushes and shrubs can endure dieback. There will even be root injury from drought, which generally ends up in the eventual dying of the plant.

Of route the longer the drought lasts, the more harm is finished to the plants. Drought all through the start of the growing season could cause essentially the most harm of all since the plants are actively growing and making ready themselves for the summer.

Most vegetation need 1 inch of water every week or about 1 gallon in keeping with square foot.

When drought and water restrictions come, all we will do is wait it out. Hopefully, our plants had been healthy, energetic and mulched beforehand. Once the drought is over, it’s time to get admission to the wear and tear and take those steps to get our vegetation back into form.​

Don’t Over Water

Certainly, we want to resume common watering of our vegetation. It’s tempting to need to give drought-stressed vegetation as a lot water as they may be able to take care of, but it’s possible to overdo it. You wish to ease your vegetation again into health. Keep the soil wet, but not rainy. Roots need oxygen up to they want water and maintaining the soil saturated will suffocate the roots and result in more pressure.

[su_box title=”Advice” style=”bubbles”]Don’t fertilize right through the drought. Without ok water, fertilizer would both be wasted or would just purpose more stress[/su_box]

There’s no longer much we will do about too much rain, however we will control the hose and sprinkler. Most vegetation need 1 inch of water every week or about 1 gallon in keeping with square foot. If the plants are rising in sandy, quick-draining soil, had been lately planted and have unestablished root techniques or have damaged roots, they’re going to want to be watered a couple of instances a week, to ensure they’re taking over enough water.

Note to tomato growers: Two not unusual problems of tomatoes are brought about through them receiving abnormal amounts of water. Both cracking and blossom end rot are led to through the crops being left dry for per week or two, adopted by excess watering.

Prune Judiciously

During a protracted drought, it may on occasion lend a hand to prune another way healthy plants again by way of about third, to minimize the plant’s want for water. Use your judgment as to which vegetation need this extra lend a hand and avoid chopping again bushes and shrubs. They want their canopies to stop scorching and burning and pruning them back would simply reason extra tension. After the drought, if the tops of your vegetation have suffered critical browning and dieback, move forward and prune them back to about 6 inches from the bottom. In many cases, you’re going to see new enlargement starting on the base of the plant already. Plants appear to grasp when they’re threatened and need to reinvigorate.

    Remove any lifeless or dying branches. They won’t recover and they make excellent hiding puts for pests and access issues for disease.

    Fertilize With Discretion

    Don’t fertilize right through the drought. Without ok water, fertilizer would both be wasted or would just purpose more stress. Once the drought ends, a sluggish unencumber fertilizer is the most suitable option. It will probably be available because the plant recovers and will help ease it back into vigor. Choose one with a high phosphorous proportion, reasonably than one prime in nitrogen. The phosphorous will assist in repairing the basis machine, the place the nitrogen would inspire fast leaf expansion that could compound issues

    Synthetic fertilizers that contain salt are the worst choice after drought and will have to be avoided completely all through drought. The salt within the soil can injury the plant’s roots and accentuate drought damage.

    Scout for Secondary Problems

    Drought-stressed plants are targets for pests and sicknesses, which will further weaken your crops. While we must be searching for issues all the way through the season, keep an especially willing eye all through drought. Catch problems early. In some circumstances, you could wish to do some pruning out and even perhaps remove the plant totally.

    Replace Mulch

    Once your vegetation were smartly watered and in all probability fed, ensure they’ve a 3 to 4-inch layer of mulch across the drip line. Organic mulches decompose all the way through the growing season and by way of mid-summer, they will have almost disappeared. Keep those stressed roots cool and moist by means of replacing the mulch as soon as you’ll.

    Protecting Your Landscape From Drought Damage

    Drought tolerant vegetation: Some vegetation handle drought higher than others. Choose drought-tolerant crops and create a xeric lawn with decrease water needs. If you should have crops with high water needs, crew them in combination, so you’ll be able to water simply that small space.

    Organic topic

    Continually upload compost and different organic matter to your soil, to support its skill to retain moisture.

    Weed

    Weeds competed with garden plants for water and nutrients and weeds typically win that fight. Take steps to prevent weeds from taking grasp.

    Rain barrels

    Now is the time to attach a rain barrel—or two—to your downspout. It’s amazing how a lot water will also be collected after only one rain and the way happy you’ll be to have it all over the following dry spell.

    How To Grow Papaya: Growing Papaya From Seeds

    Growing papayas

    The fruit of papayas is high in nutrition C. You too can pick out the fruit when it’s inexperienced and cook dinner it like a marrow.

    Female and male plants do not grow on the similar tree, so you must have male and female bushes in the garden.

    Climate

    Papayas develop absolute best in hot areas.

    They can tolerate mild frost if they’re protected from cold winds.

    Soil requirements

    They can grow in maximum kinds of soil, nevertheless it must be smartly drained.

    The roots can get sicknesses if the soil stays too rainy.

    Loamy soils are highest.

    Planting date

    Papayas may also be planted at any time of the 12 months, but ideally in past due summer time.

    Spacing

    Plant papayas 1,five metres between crops and

    3 to 4 metres between rows.

    Growing papayas from seeds

    It is simple to grow the peculiar papaya tree from seed.

    Wash the seeds from a ripe papaya.

    Squeeze the seeds from the jelly bag that covers every seed. The seeds will handiest develop in case you take away the bag.

    Dry them in a shady position.

    Store in a tightly closed container and keep them till December.

    Plant the seeds in December. Put five seeds to a hole. Do now not put any compost or manure into the holes.

    Keep the small vegetation wet.

    You can simplest inform which trees are feminine and that are male when the bushes begin to flower. Therefore, you will have to all the time have more than one tree in step with hole, as a result of then you’ll be able to make a choice the feminine bushes.

    Female plant life bigger closer to the department than the male flowers

    Male plant life very small there are lots of flowers which grow on lengthy branches of the stem.

    Only female timber give fruit however they need male plants to pollinate them. Leave 1 male tree for 10 feminine timber.

    Planting

    Dig a hole about two times the size of the bag in which the young tree is rising.

    Remove the soil from the hole and add some compost and manure. Mix this with one of the most soil that has been dug out.Take the plant out of the container. If it is a plastic container you simply cut it open on the aspect.

    Do now not disturb the roots.

    Place the tree in the centre of the outlet. When you refill the hole hold the tree so that its base is degree with the surrounding ground.

    Raise the soil across the tree to block the water (rain or irrigation).

    Do no longer plant the tree deeper than it was in the container.

    Do not duvet the stem with soil as a result of it will rot.

    Water

    Papayas want little water.

    They will, alternatively, give extra and larger fruit if they are watered every 2 weeks in the dry season. The plant life will drop if they don’t get enough water.

    If they are planted in clay soils, be sure that the soil does now not stay too wet.

    To keep away from waterlogging in clay soil, make a ridge and plant the papayas at the ridge.

    Fertilisation

    Compost or manure

    Give the tree:

    1 bucketful in September,

    1 bucketful in November

    any other bucketful in January.

    Sprinkle a few handfuls of manure evenly around the tree each month from September to the tip of March.

    NB: Do not apply chicken manure on timber younger than 2 years as it will possibly burn the young papaya timber.

    Artificial fertiliser

    Give the bushes 4 tablespoonfuls (115 g) of 2:3:2 in September, November and January.

    Sprinkle flippantly around the tree, now not in opposition to the stem.

    Keep the timber mulched always (use grass, leaves, and many others).

    Do no longer grow other plants subsequent to the trunk as a result of it is quite cushy. If the trunk is broken the papaya tree can get illnesses.

    If the fruit presentations humps the tree may be in need of boron. Sprinkle 2 tablespoonfuls of borax across the tree.

    Pruning and thinning

    You can lower the tree (take away most sensible) so that it does not grow too tall. This encourages branching. Cut into wintry weather wooden, the place leaf scars are shut together. Paint the cut with a sealant.

    Harvesting

    You can pick out the fruit when the outside begins to turn out to be yellow.

    The fruit will ripen after you have picked it.

    Handle it moderately because it gets bruised simply.

    Diseases

    Papaya bushes simply get black leafspot. Your nearest extension officer or cooperative will be capable to inform you find out how to treat this illness.

    UK: Innovative farmers improve soils in shared rotations

    Three ahead pondering arable and horticultural farmers, who each grow different plants in a shared rented land rotation, are pioneering a collaborative method to improving the long-term health of their soils. Jepco, Lovedon Estates and Worth Farm presented overwintering cover vegetation into their shared rotations to beef up organic matter and soil health and to assess the affect on yields and high quality of their money crops – sugar beet, potatoes and lettuce. The collaboration is a part of the AHDB GREATsoils programme and early anecdotal comments indicates the farmer-led trial is already beginning to reap rewards.

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    Nick Sheppard, Jepco mentioned: “We have found an increase of almost eight per cent in lettuce yield after overwintering cover crops, compared to bare soils. We also perceived a reduction in fuel use in soil cultivations and better water infiltration after heavy rain falls in the lettuce fields that had an overwintered cover crop, compared to fields which were ploughed or left as an over winter stubble.” Jerry Alford, arable and soils marketing consultant for Soil Association, said: “Traditionally growing in a shared rotation has meant that soil health is of secondary importance because there is no incentive to improve the soil for someone else’s benefit.”

    “In this field lab, cover crop choice now has to work for all three businesses because the risks, as well as any benefits, affect them all.”

    Source Said;

    The trials when compared overwintering duvet vegetation to reveal soils. Each of the companies organised and paid for the larger integration of their own cover vegetation in their individual rotation. Different duvet plants trialled integrated oats, Italian rye grass, vetch and mustard. The affect at the rotation was assessed on: soil health and organic matter; soil ‘workability’; money crop well being and high quality; and financial parameters. Initially operating from summer time 2016 to summer 2017, the businesses have now agreed a joint long-term strategic collaborative approach.

    Grace Choto, wisdom trade supervisor at AHDB Horticulture, said

    “This field lab is demonstrating that different growers can work together effectively to build soils health. This fashion can be used via growers producing crops on rented land, for the benefit of all involved. Healthy, resilient soils will lend a hand sustain crop production smartly into the future.’’


    Grace Choto

    “The results in only the first year have been incredibly impressive. It shows both the impact using cover crops can have, as well as the value of grower collaboration.”


    Grace Choto

    GREATsoils is an AHDB-funded programme to help growers strengthen the health of their soils. a Sequence of GREATsoils events will likely be held throughout the UK all the way through the autumn. To find out extra and to ebook your home, discuss with horticulture.ahdb.org.uk/greatsoils

    Organic Farming is More Profitable than Traditional Agriculture

    Food security has always been the most strategic goal for countries around the world. Food safety is an additional unit resulting from the number of vital and immune system factors in production, handling and storage. The extent of this damage depends on the control systems after harvesting and pest control. Pests of destructive drugs play an important role in harvesting sensitive and semi-transparent agricultural products.

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    Wheat is the main human food, and food security and safety plans include production and protection.

    Wheat products will vary by 20 million tons to satisfy our food, food and seed needs for years. In 2010, the demand for wheat will reach 25.5 million tonnes. Currently, there is some shortage of domestic production added to imports. Scientists say the wheat loss after harvest is between 2.5% and 15.3% because there is no understanding of the control and storage systems of protocols and the uncertainty of the market depending on the handling and storage conditions, as they are high in the private sector.

    Food grains are now protected from pests for insects and ready-made vapors. In 1990, the Punjabi Food Board used aluminum alloy pieces of phosphorus per cubic meter to control wheat pest storage, which is now used for three types of insects. By using our national natural resources, many foreign currencies can be avoided when importing pesticides. In addition, the World Trade Organization Codex Alimentarius Commission recommends that organic pests be produced in accordance with international standards. On the basis of the needs, it was decided to carry out an organic pest control study on stored wheat and selected local plants.

    How To Grow a FULLY Organic Vegetable Garden

    Recently, several scientists have shown insecticidal properties in laboratory studies, including the prevention of toxicity, the search, the protection of surfaces and the prevention of pests from spawning to storage of cereals. Therefore, these vegetable oils are used to control organic and integrated sterile, sterile and various packaging materials under natural product conditions. This was done to develop an IPM Code of Conduct for a City Safe Storage System, replacing synthetic pesticides.

    Jute and spray-free cotton bags made of fabric of different density (mesh size) with three different cooking oils and three mixtures, three storage periods (30, 60 and 90 days), three copies. The infected new crop of wheat was packed in bags and treated with different strengths of the test substance to assess their different toxicity and antibacterial properties. The test apparatus is placed in a field of ventilated wheat under favorable conditions so that the insects can propagate the stored products.

    Attempts have been made to show significant concentrations of the mixture as a concentration to assess their effect. At certain times, data on deaths, printing on treated bags and insect numbers were collected. At the end of the experiment, the wheat obtained from the treatment and the untreated rheumatoid arthritis test was produced to satisfy changes in the dough and the foam.

    When analyzing the data, different concentrations, shelf life, and packaging effects on insect pests and insect poisoning effects on their association with vegetable oils. There was a positive correlation between bactericidal and bactericidal effects on photon pulp concentration, but a negative correlation with retention time. The penetration of the bag is inversely related to the frequency of insects corresponding to the density of the package. The three vegetable oils, a vegetable oil, each with a concentration of 10%, must be effectively packaged in a small insect control cotton cloth for two months and gradually reduced in the third month.

    Silty studies have shown that wheat dough has not evolved significantly from wheat stored in botanical bags. In addition, sensory flavors or coffee packs that were not found in packaged bags of wheat flour showed.

    Author Bio:

    Hello, my name is Syed Ghufran and I live in Karachi, Pakistan. I am doing post graduation in Mass Communication from Karachi University. By profession, I am a blog writer and currently, I am connected with Post Free Ads in Pakistan – Clickr. My hobbies are reading, researching and learning small things on daily basis. I always belive in “Live the Life You Love, Love The Life You Live”.

    Fertilizers available in the market of Pakistan

    Fertilizers available in the market of Pakistan

    Following table shows all available fertilizers in the market of Pakistan with brief detail of nutrients percentage, micro-nutrients and manufacture/marketing company (s)

    S/N Fertilizer N P K Micronutrients Company
    1 7 Star DAP 18 46 United Agro Chemicals
    2 Accelerate 6% Zn 4 Brothers Agri. Serv. Pak
    3 Adjust 6% Zn (Ch) DJC
    4 Agral Super Tonic 10 10 7.5 Agral Enterprises
    5 Agral Zorawer 12 Zn Agral Enterprises
    6 Agri Zoo 10% Zn Agri Farm Service
    7 Award (H.Acid) 50% H. Acid DJC
    8 Base 50% H. Acid DJC
    9 Bio-Phos TM 50% H. Acid Sayban International
    10 Boll Feed 5% Boron 4N Fertilizers
    11 Boost up Plus 1% NFP 4 Brothers Agri. Serv. Pak
    12 Bounce 8 6 6 Welcon
    13 Bouncer 5% Boron Sun Crop Pesticide
    14 Bumper Cotton 8 8 6 FMC
    15 Chandi Danidar 8 Star Agro Chemical
    16 Cheetah Zinc 2.% Zinc (Ch) Welcon Agro Chemicals
    17 Classic Zn 6%, B 4% DJC
    18 Cotton Plus 8 6 6 Auriga Chemical Enterprises
    19 DAP 18 46 FFC
    20 DAP 18 46 Engro Fert. Ltd
    21 DAP 18 46 Fauji Fert. Co.
    22 DAP 18 46 United Agro Chem.
    23 Diamond Zn 10% Zn Agri Aid. Ent.
    24 EdZn 33% Zn Edgro Pvt.) Ltd.
    25 Inergizer Humic Acid 50% H. Acid Warble
    26 Fashion NPK 8 8 6 DJC
    27 Foundation Plus 8% H. Acid 4B Fertilizers
    28 Golden Cotton 8 8 6 DJC
    29 Golden Harvest 5 18 2 Al-Sher Agro Services
    30 Grow Up 10 4 7 Sayban Int.
    31 Help SSP 18 Grow Green
    32 CAN 26 Fatima Fertilizer Co.
    33 CAN 26 Pak Arab Fertilizer
    34 Helper 40g Zn Sayban Int.
    35 High Power 3.3% Zn Al-Rehman Bilal Int. Pri.
    36 Hit Zn 10% Zn Welcon Ch
    37 Humic Acid 50% H. Acid Ali Akbar Int. Pri
    38 Isabian 12.7 Syngenta Pak. Ltd.
    39 Janat Granular OM) 25% OM National Agro Crop (Pvt.) Ltd.
    40 Kissan Plus SSP (G) 14 Hazra Phosphate Fert. Ltd.
    41 KSS Supreme Tonic 2% Zn Kissan Supplies Serv. Ltd
    42 Left Up Zinc 10% Zn DJC
    43 Lilly Boron 5% B Al-Sher Agro Services
    44 Magnet 50% H. Acid Ali Akber Ent.
    45 Medal 8 8 6 Al-Sher Agro Services
    46 National Zn 10% Zn National Agro Crop
    47 Naya Zinc 5% Zn Syngenta Pak Ltd.
    48 Nova Bio (G) 5 4 Nova Bio Tech Aust. Pvt.) Ltd.
    49 NP 22 20
    50 NP (22:20) 22 20 Engro Fert. Ltd.
    51 NP (22:20) 22 20 Pak Agro
    52 Plantatol 20 20 20 Valagro
    53 Power Zinc Sulphate 21% Zn Agrowin (Pvt.) Ltd.
    54 Pure (H. Acid) 50% H. Acid Agri Aid Ent.
    55 Qaim Zn Ch 2.5% 2.5% Zn (Ch) Pasban Agro Services
    56 Royal Power Zn 5% 5% Zn Pak Pensy Int. Pri.
    57 Rustam Tonic 4% Zn Jullundur Pvt. Ltd.
    58 Sever Plus 8% H. Acid 4B Fertilizers
    59 Sher Zinc 21% Zn Eragon Pesticide Crop
    60 Shining Zinc 10% Zn Warble Pvt. Ltd.
    61 Sohni Dharti 2.3 Welcon Agro Chemicals
    62 Soluber 20% B Syngenta Pak Ltd.
    63 Sona DAP 18 46 FFBL
    64 Sona DAP 18 46 FFC
    65 Sona Isalhkar 50% H. Acid Sona Agro Chemicals
    66 Sona Urea 46 FFBL
    67 Sona Urea 46 FFC
    68 Sona Urea (G) 46 FFBL
    69 Sona Urea (G) 46 FFC
    70 SOP 50 FFC
    71 Star NPK Danidar 18 18 18 Star Agro Chemical
    72 Strock 6% Zn, 4% B Target Ali Akbar
    73 Target Zn 10% Zn Ali Akbar
    74 Tarzan DAP 18 46 4 Brothers Fertilizer
    75 Trade Crop 2.48% Zn Swat Agro Chemicals
    76 Trican NPK (8:8:6) 8 8 8 Sun Crop Pesticide
    77 Urea 46 Engro Fert. Ltd.
    78 Urea 46 TCP
    79 Urea 46 Fatima Fert Compnay
    80 Urea 46 FFC
    81 Urea (G) 46 TCP
    82 Urea Khad 46 Trade Crop Pak
    83 Utha Zn 5% Zn (Ch) UDL
    84 Yes 19 19 19 FMC
    85 Zarcon 10% Zn Auriga Chemicals
    86 Zarkhaiz 8 23 18 Engro Fert. Ltd.
    87 Zarkhaiz Green Engro
    88 Zegron 2.5% Zn (Ch) AMIS Int. Marketing Serv.
    89 Zeneca 10% Zn Sayban International
    90 Zinco Ma 2.5 Zn (Ch) Dot Ma Agri. Divi
    91 Zingran 2% Zn (Ch) Grow Green Int.
    92 Zingro 33% Zn Engro
    93 Zinkron 33% Zn Sun Crop
    94 Zinkron Plus 10% Zn Sun Crop Pesticide
    95 Zintox Plus 33% Zn (G) FMC
    96 Zorawer 11 52 Engro

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    Fertilizer recommendations for wheat in Pakistan

    All phosphorus and potassium and half of the nitrogen is broadcast and included in the soil prior to sowing. Phosphorus will also be carried out at the first irrigation if this was once no longer carried out at sowing. The closing part of the nitrogen is most sensible dressed with the first or second irrigation.

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    Fertilizer recommendations for Wheat in Pakistan

    On gentle textured soils, nitrogen will have to be implemented in three splits. In rainfed areas all fertilizer may well be implemented at sowing. In the case of overdue planting, it’s higher to use the entire fertilizers at sowing and slightly increase the dose. Potassium, zinc (Zn) and other micronutrients must be implemented the place wanted according to the result of soil research.

    6 steps to improve your fertiliser use efficiency

    An reasonable of 40% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied to vegetation isn’t utilised and could be misplaced. However, through making small adjustments to fertiliser use, farmers can cut back these losses and spice up margins. In an ordinary season, maximum farmers will reach a nitrogen use potency of somewhere round 60%, says Frontier nationwide crop technical manager Edward Downing.

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    However, analysis has shown that 80% is achievable and he believes this is what farmers must be aiming for.

    So what does 60% potency appear to be? Take a wheat crop yielding 8t/ha with a grain protein of 10.eight%. This crop could have most often received 200kg/ha of N fertiliser.

    “This crop has taken up 190kg/ha to support this level of output and if you assume about 70kg/ha is supplied from soil, that leaves 120kg/ha coming from fertiliser,” he says. This equates to 60% of the full applied.

    Looking at the benefits of making improvements to potency, in a situation the place nitrogen is limiting yield, it is going to lead to increased output.

    “If a farmer can increase uptake to get up to 9t/ha, the efficiency rises to 72% and it brings £160/ha extra margin.”

    If nitrogen isn’t proscribing, bettering potency to 70% approach the farmer can save on fertiliser and follow simplest 171kg/ha for the same yield and protein.

    Here are six spaces where farmers can support their fertiliser use efficiency.

    1. Other vitamins and soil pH

    A deficiency in some other nutrient can lead to a decrease nitrogen use potency.

    One example is sulphur, which has a very powerful position in protein synthesis. A scarcity in this macronutrient is related with poorer nitrogen uptake, Mr Downing says.

    Phosphate may be important for rooting, and having a excellent, in depth root community is essential for maximising nutrient uptake.

    “Don’t forget soil pH, as this also affects root development too,” he says.

    Mr Downing points to lime use in the UK, which has been declining over the past 14 years, and if this trend continues there will be 0 use by way of 2040.

    2. Reduce losses as ammonia

    Another factor hitting fertiliser efficiency is losses from soil. There are two key processes at work here: ammonia volatilisation from applied urea and nitrate leaching.

    Aside from the environmental benefits of lowering ammonia, Mr Downing believes tackling these losses can probably save tens of kilograms of fertiliser, which could be a really extensive saving.

    Switching from urea to ammonium nitrate fertiliser is one technique to get rid of ammonia loses, because it does now not volatilise.

    “Another option is to incorporate urea in soil, but I can’t see this being practical,” he says.

    Timing is essential and farmers will have to steer clear of warm, dry stipulations when making use of urea, as this favours volatilisation.

    However, urease inhibitors can just about get rid of this downside, through controlling the conversion of urea to ammonium.

    “Perhaps farmers should consider using an additive when applying urea in more challenging conditions.”

    He highlights Adas knowledge showing a 75% reduction in ammonia losses when the use of an enhanced urea product instead of heterosexual urea.

    In one Frontier trial, there used to be a nitrogen use efficiency of 62% with liquid urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN). Two different urease inhibitors had been being tested and both greater potency to 70%.

    3. Reduce nitrate leaching Although nitrate is a very cellular type of nitrogen, if there’s a growing crop present, it’ll take in the nutrient.

    Mr Downing says the leaching problem arises when there may be more nitrate than the crop can take up throughout periods of heavy rain. It is a selected drawback for bare stubbles in iciness when rainfall is upper and there is not any crop taking over any nitrogen.

    That is why quilt crops are precious, as they may be able to capture this nitrogen.

    Nitrification inhibitors also are helpful, as they prolong the conversion of ammonium to nitrate through about 6-10 weeks.

    Frontier has even looked at tackling losses from soil through taking soil out of the equation with a foliar manner.

    Last year, Mr Downing checked out supplying the primary 70kg/ha as solid fertiliser and the remainder 110kg/ha in two foliar splits.

    “We didn’t end up killing the crop and it yielded similar to the control,” he says. “The results look promising and we will be repeating the trials this year.”

    4. Apply the correct fee

    In season, farmers should be prepared to revise fertiliser rates up or down and not simply stick with the unique plan.

    Crop imagery and biomass measurements from drones and satellites, at the side of N sensors and tissue checking out, are useful tools for seeing how crops are taking on N and getting a greater estimate in their necessities.

    5. Apply at the proper time

    Applying smaller amounts throughout more splits in most cases improves fertiliser use potency.

    “One limitation is with nitrogen+sulphur products, as this ties you into specific rates and timings,” he says.

    However, there are other ways to apply sulphur, such as liquid fertiliser, low-sulphur products and explicit sulphur merchandise akin to Polysulphate, giving farmers extra flexibility over N fertiliser timings.

    “Go by conditions, not calendar date,” Mr Downing says, mentioning that the primary and last applications are those at greatest risk of losses.

    The first dressing is essential to get the crop off and operating in the spring and keep tillers, however it is usually essentially the most vulnerable to leaching.

    “So you need to ensure there is sufficient crop growth to ensure uptake, and monitoring soil temperature will help with this.”

    Conversely, with the final dose, dry soils with prime temperatures is usually a problem, expanding ammonia volatilisation and lowering nitrogen uptake.

    “Be prepared to pull the timing earlier if it is looking to be warm and dry like last year,” he says.

    6. Apply as it should be

    Finally, get your fertiliser spreader tray examined and make sure it is as accurate as conceivable. Poor accuracy can be a real problem with wider bouts.

    Technology helps, with auto shut-off serving to avoid overlaps with abnormal box shapes. and Mr Downing says there may be even an Amazone spreader that adjusts spread development in keeping with wind course and pace.

    Fertilizers available in Pakistan for field crops

    Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea. Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea.

    Fertilizers restore soil fertility by supplying nutrients to the soil. These nutrients are utilized by crops for their growth and development. Without the addition of fertilizers, crop yield would be significantly reduced as our soils are deficient in major nutrients, like, N, P & K. Mineral fertilizers are used to increase the nutrient concentration of the soil and these minerals can be quickly absorbed and used by the crops.

    Crops require sixteen (16) different types of mineral nutrients during their growth and these nutrients are supplied by the soil and mineral fertilizers. Plant nutrients are classified into three categories.

    • The three primary macronutrients: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K).
    • The three secondary macronutrients: calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium (Mg).
    • The micronutrients or trace minerals: boron (B), chlorine (Cl), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium

    Pakarab Fertilizers Limited produces Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN), Nitro Phosphate (NP) and Urea and has a monopoly in the production of CAN and NP.

    Sarsabz Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
    In farming, the efficient supply of nutrients to the plants, with a low level of losses, is of great importance. This applies primarily to nitrogen, which has a direct influence on crop growth and development. Due to its special properties, the supplies of nutrients are quick and for a longer time.

    Product
    26% N (Dual Nitrogen) – 13% Nitrate and 13% Ammonical other than Nitrogen, it supplies additional 5 elements required for plant growth:

    Product

    26% N (Dual Nitrogen) – 13% Nitrate and 13% Ammonical other than Nitrogen, it supplies additional 5 elements required for plant growth:

    • Potassium – 0.9%
    • Calcium – 10%
    • Magnesium – 0.05%
    • Sulfur – 0.4%
    • Copper – 0.001%

    Effects

    The composition of readily available nitrate nitrogen and reserved N (nitrate available after its conversion from ammonium nitrogen) is optimal for providing all crops with targeted nutrition. The nitrate nitrogen that is available immediately after the application and absorbed in water is taken up directly by the plant and nutrient losses are almost eliminated. Sarsabz CAN is a hygroscopic product and needs very low moisture to be absorbed by the plants. It is equally effective in water stressed areas where soil has low moisture. Furthermore Calcium and Sulfur available in Sarsabz CAN is also helpful in soil reclamation.

    • Properties
    • Sarsabz Calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) is a granulated nitrogenous fertilizer that supplies nitrogen to plants in a balanced and secure manner. The combination of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen makes Sarsabz CAN a special product with neutral chemistry (pH). The excellent granulation and specific surface coating has very good spreading properties.
    Sarsabz Urea

    Urea is widely used in the agriculture sector both as a fertilizer and animal feed additive, which makes the production of Sarsabz Urea considerably high in comparison to other fertilizers in the country

    Product
    • Sarsabz Urea – 46% Nitrogen
    Properties

    Sarsabz Urea releases nitrogen into soil which is thereafter taken up in by the plants. Once applied to the soil, Sarsabz Urea undergoes vital transformations and breaks up into ammonium form and this total process is dependent on soil moisture. As soon as Sarsabz Urea dissolves in the soil, it forms around it a zoning layer of high pH and ammonia concentration turning the soil to be acidic and toxic at the same level. Sarsabz Urea is available as prills that are crystalline white and highly resistant to moisture and thus facilitate long time storage as well.

    Effects

    Sarsabz Urea has the highest nitrogen content, equal to 46 percent. This percentage is much higher than other nitrogenous fertilizers available in the market. The nutrient composition rendered by urea enhances the productivity of the soil and enriches its nutrient constituency. Providing each plant with relevant element needed, urea sustains plant life.

    Application

    Sarsabz Urea can be applied in various forms, it can be spread in bulk alone or can also be mixed with other fertilizers before application. When urea is applied on acidic soils of lower pH i.e below 7.0, it should be incorporated into the soil as soon as possible. Sarsabz Urea is high moisture absorbent therefore it should be stored in sealed and well enclosed bags.

    Sarsabz Nitrophos

    For farmers, choosing the right fertilizer for their soil is very important. In Pakistan, the soils are calcareous, have high pH and are alkaline in nature. Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) being highly acidic is the most suitable fertilizer for these soil types.

    Product
    • Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP)
    • 22% Nitrogen – 20% Phosphorus (P2O5)
    • Also contains 9~10% Calcium
    Properties

    Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) is a granulated fertilizer in which each grain has equal amounts of Phosphorus (P) 20% & Nitrogen (N) 22%. In addition to this, NP being a highly acidic product with a pH of 3.5, is the most suitable fertilizer for soils that have a high pH and are alkaline in nature.

    Effects

    The balanced combination of Nitrogen & Phosphorus is ideal for plant growth and development. It contains dual Nitrogen (Nitrate: readily available to the plants and Ammonical: available after its conversion to nitrate through the process of nitrification). Consistent and longer use of Sarsabz NP also improves soil health.

    Application

    Sarsabz Nitrophos (NP) can be applied universally on all types of soils, but is more effective where the soils have high pH and are alkaline in nature. In many crops it could be effectively applied at planting and at early growth stages of the crops. Each grain has equal amounts of N & P, hence the nutrients are equally distributed throughout the field.

    Sarsabz Di-Ammonium Phosphate (DAP)

    Sarsabz DAP fertilizer contains available Phosphorus 46% P2O5 and Ammonical Nitrogen 18% N. DAP is considered a basal fertilizer for its high contents of phosphorus and low concentrations of nitrogen. Sarsabz DAP can be applied to all field crops, vegetables and orchards as per recommendations. For further details please call at Sarsabz Pakistan 0800-91919.


    Product

    Sarsabz DAP fertilizer contains available Phosphorus 46% P2O5 and Ammonical Nitrogen 18% N. DAP is considered a basal fertilizer for its high contents of phosphorus and low concentrations of nitrogen. Sarsabz DAP can be applied to all field crops, vegetables and orchards as per recommendations. For further details please call at Sarsabz Pakistan 0800-91919.

    • Phosphorous (P2O5) – 46%
    • Nitrogen (Ammonical) – 18%
    Properties

    Equal sized granules, soluble in water. Sarsabz DAP contains high nutrient content and excellent physical properties that make it suitable for drill and broadcast. Sarsabz DAP is extensively used phosphatic fertilizer. It is produced by reacting phosphoric acid and ammonia. DAP itself is an alkaline fertilizer with a pH, more than 7.5.

    Effects

    Sarsabz DAP increases root structure of the plant, important for plant health which contributes in higher yield and timely maturity of crops.

    Application

    Sarsabz DAP is applied to all field crops at the time of sowing.

    Sudden death of cotton plant results monetary losses

    Cotton is one of the most important fiber and cash crop of the world. Pakistan is the 3rd largest exporter of raw cotton and a leading exporter of yarn in the world; contributes nearly 10 percent in the agriculture GDP and is a source of 60 percent foreign exchange earnings. The value addition through cotton is 8.2 percent in agriculture and 2 percent in the GDP. Sindh and Punjab are the ancient homes of cultivated cotton. It is considered white gold of Pakistan.

    The area under cultivation and production is about 3192 thousand hectares and 14265 thousand bales, respectively with 760 kg/hectare yield. The crop has maximum area in Punjab followed by Sindh and very negligible in NWFP. The yield per hectare of seed cotton in Punjab is more to that of Sindh province.

    Cotton crop is totally useful for human beings and animals from seed to waste, basically is a natural fiber that finds use in many products, range from clothing to home furnishing and producing medical products; as a result, it is always in demand though its use is subject to the strengths and weaknesses of the overall economy.

    Cotton feeds 1035 ginners and about 5000 oil expelling units, which produce 4.00 million tons edible oils. In such a way, cotton brings cash return to farmers, supply raw material to textile industry and provides employment to thousands workers, both in rural and urban areas. About two third of the harvested crop is composed of the seed which is crushed to separate its three products oil, meal and hull. Cotton seed oil is a common component of many food items, used primarily as cooking oil. The oil is used extensively in the preparation of snacks food and crackers, cookies and chips. The meal and hull are used as feed for live stock, poultry and fish. Cotton waste, meal and hull also used as fertilizer for improving soil fertility. Cotton waste is also multiuse product used for mulching in crops, substrate for artificial cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

    However, the productivity rate of cotton for Pakistan did not depart significantly from the world average (1,576 kg/ha) over the period, because of many reasons, including diseases, caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and physiological disorders. Lyda and Watkins (2001, www.apsnet.org) listed 3 bacterial, 17 fungal, 4 plant parasitic nematodes, 10 viral and 2 phytoplasmal and spiroplasmal diseases in world. The work carried out so far in Pakistan shows that seedling rot or wilt, root rot, boll rot, anthracnose, different types of leaf spot diseases, premature opening of bolls (Tirak), stunting and reduction in size of leaves, some nematode species, bacterial blight (angular leaf spot and boll rot), leaf curl and stenosis of cotton, found causing damage to the crop. These diseases are injurious in some areas, in some years and on some plant parts. The magnitude of disease damage depends up on the environment and cultivar. In spite of all, cotton wilt disease is the most dangerous, causes sudden death of plants and results monetary losses after infection; therefore in severely affected areas it may cause whole fields to be ploughed out.

    Several species of Fusarium and Verticillium fungi causes wilt. Both the fungi differ from one another, but cause very similar symptoms. The only reliable method for separating and identifying these diseases is taxonomy of causal fungi, both can be readily isolated and cultured from the diseased plant portions. Both the fungal wilts thrive with high nitrogen fertilizer, excessive soil moisture, thin stands and deep cultivation. Both the fungi survive for long periods (for at least a decade) in soil on organic matter and even on non-host plants. However, some of the differential general characteristics between both the wilt fungi may also help in identification and control.

    Fusarium wilt develops well in acid soils, is more prevalent in sandy soil, causes more injury when the nematodes injure the roots, can be transmitted internally in seed and prefers hotter soil than Verticillium. Whereas, Verticillium wilt thrives in alkaline soil; is more prevalent in heavy soils, does not require injury for infection, can not be transmitted internally in seed and prefers cooler soil than Fusarium.
    The wilts start appearance at seedling in case of early attack and/or may also occur at any plant growth stage. Areas of reduced or patchy plant stand can be seen in affected fields, usually spreading in the direction of irrigation flows. Symptoms include seed and seedling rot, wilting, death of seedling and adult plants, accompanied by vascular browning.

    Initially, vein clearing and leaves show a distinct loss of turgor and yellowing occurs starting at the leaf margin between the main veins, sometimes referred as leaf epinasty, followed by stunting. The stunted plants may fruit early.The yellowing progresses inward and is followed by necrosis hence defoliation occurs starting at the bottom of the plant, and consecutively towards the top, results progressive wilting of leaves and stem, defoliation and finally death of the plant (partially or wholly), some attempted regrowth. The diseased plants are pulled out easily, due to the loss of rigidity. Brown, red or yellow rings of discolored tissue observed in case of cutting the stem in crossways, mostly close to the base and plant death occur in severe cases. Fusarium wilt is a solid dark brown ring compacted with healthy white stems around the outer portion of the stem and that the infected areas observed irregular in shape and size. Water-conducting stem tissues turn brown and become inactive, resulting in wilted foliage. Leaves turn yellow between veins and eventually shed as plants die to leave bare stems. Once the fungus has colonized the plant the diagnosis is confirmed by splitting the stem to reveal dark brown, vascular discoloration and streaking characteristic of wilt, most likely causes the death of the host. The wilt diseases mostly spread in patches, but entire field may also be affected in severe conditions. Certain strains of the causal fungus only cause symptoms when plants are also infected with the root knot nematode. In those cases, galls are usually prevalent on lateral roots. Some formae speciales are not primarily vascular pathogens but Fusarium spp. may also cause foot and root rot or bulb rot in cotton.

    Cotton wilt causing both pathogenic fungi (Fusarium and Verticillium spp.) are seed-borne, may carry over for long-distance, spread from year to year by sowing infected seed; also move from field to field, farm to farm and region to region, whenever very small quantities of infested soil is transported through boots, farm equipments, vehicles, in water (irrigation and overland flows), in flood irrigation and also in infected plant material, including seed etc. The fungi sustains on the outer surface of roots of many crops and weeds and survives indefinitely in soil for at least a decade, even in the absence of cotton plants. The diseased plant debris lying in the field or in the storage space also helps both the fungi to remain alive. The cotton husks, used as cattle feed are also identified as a potential source for spread of wilt. The scientists also reported very broad host range of both the wilt causing fungi, at the species level. More than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families.

    Prevention is better than cure, because control of wilt diseases is very difficult, chemical control is very costly and even is impossible to recover heavily infected, shriveled and damaged plants. However, cultivation of resistant variety is only the most easy, economical and safe method. Growers are advised to plant improved immune or resistant varieties, because these are equal to the susceptible varieties in yield, adaptation and other cultural characteristics and field practices; since new races of the fungi may develop and attack on these.

    cotton04

    However, it is necessary that growers must keep in touch with the latest information on resistant varieties and control measures. The following preventive measures also help to minimize risk of damage.• Crop rotation with non host crop is preferably recommended, because lower disease intensity has been reported in case to avoid cultivation of susceptible varieties/cultivars in the diseased area at least for three years.
    • Clean cultivation by removing infested plant materials after harvesting through deep and repeatedly tillage operations help to destroy infected plant parts from field.
    • Good drainage improves soil conditions which help to minimize the disease incidence.
    • Use of disease free and certified seed or seed treatment with suitable seed dressing fungicides before sowing is also recommended.
    • In some cases, late and deep sowing reduces disease incidence.
    • Mixed cropping with non host crops also help to check the disease.
    • 5-6 weeks mulching with colorless plastic is recommended for soil solarization and straw mulch help to maintain temperature for reducing the fungal population in crop field.
    • Uprooting and burning of diseased plants and weeds help to minimize further spread of the problem.
    • Proper irrigation and balanced fertilizer application help to grow healthy plants with the aim of more resistance against wilt and other diseases.
    • Avoid storage of plant waste material and even storage in the field, otherwise sweeping the waste material from storage space and burning or burying all plant debris must be ensured.

    Courtesy: M. Mithal Jiskani and Gul Bhar Poussio
    Department of Plant Pathology, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam

    Affects of Chemical Fertilizers that are use for enhance the nutrients availability

    By: Muhammad Usman

    Department of Soil Science University College of Agriculture Sargodha

    Chemical fertilizers are manmade soil enhancers used to raise the level of nutrients found in soil. The natural nutrients found in the soil essential to plant growth, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, are manufactured synthetically from inorganic material and applied to soil in the form of chemical fertilizers. Although chemical fertilizers improve the growth of plants and increase the yields of fruits and vegetables in a relatively short period of time, there are certain disadvantages of using chemical fertilizers as opposed to organic fertilizers derived from natural sources.

    Effects of Chemical Fertilizer :

    Ground Water Pollution

    The persistent use of chemical fertilizers causes the pollution of ground water sources, or leaching. Chemical fertilizers that are highly soluble get absorbed by the ground more rapidly than they are absorbed by the intended plants. Plants have the capacity to absorb only a given level of nutrition at a time leaving the rest of the fertilizer to leach. Leaching is not only hazardous to groundwater sources but also to the health of subsoil where these chemicals react with clay to create hard layers of soil known as hardpan. As a result of chemical fertilizer use the health of soil and water is jeopardized, not to mention the waste of money and nutrient deficient plants.

    Soil Friability Effect

    The presence of a number of acids in the soil, such as hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, creates a damaging effect on soil referred to as soil friability. The different acids in the soil dissolve the soil crumbs which help to hold together the rock particles. Soil crumbs result from the combination of humus, or decomposed natural material such as dead leaves, with clay. These mineral rich soil crumbs are essential to soil drainage and greatly improve air circulation in the soil. As the chemicals in the chemical fertilizers destroy soil crumbs, the result is a highly compacted soil with reduced drainage and air circulation.

    Destruction of Micro-Organisms

    The synthetic chemicals in the chemical fertilizers adversely affect the health of naturally found soil micro-organisms by affecting the soil pH. These altered levels of acidity in the soil eliminate the micro-organisms beneficial to plant and soil health as they help to increase the plants’ natural defenses against pests and diseases. These helpful micro-organisms consist of antibiotic-producing bacteria and mycorrhizal and other fungi which are found in healthy soil. The use of chemical fertilizers also jeopardizes the health of bacteria that fix the nitrogen balance in the soil. These nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for converting the atmospheric oxygen into a form of nitrogen that can be used readily by plants.