Organic rice cultivation is easy

In Japan, rice paddies are available in various sizes and styles. Like the number of rice paddies, various rising methods come in an abundance as smartly. Especially relating to organic rice. Though, selecting the proper way for rice production very much is determined by the farm’s surroundings. Japan is a very lengthy stretched nation, compared to my own home nation, the Netherlands. Climate contrast of Japan’s maximum northern and southern area are massive. With cool summers and icy/snowy winters in the north and a extremely popular and humid sub-tropical local weather in the south.

According to skilled Japanese organic farmers I’ve met, rice is one of the absolute best crop to develop organically, if accomplished right.

Organic rice cultivation

I’ll explain the fundamentals of organic rice growing and give an introduction into a few different strategies.

Every aspect of a paddy box was invented with weed management in mind.

Flooding the fields, planting seedlings as an alternative of direct sowing, integrating animals and so forth.

Sustainable weeds and pest control in rice field

These inventive manner of coping with weed problems had been utilized since earlier period. In common, the better the soil becomes, the fewer weed drive you’ve gotten.

But the beginning section is essentially the most important moment in the pursuit for weed control.

“Aigamo Method”

Recently farmer Shiramizu explained me his means of rice manufacturing.

He makes use of the “Aigamo method” which permits for the production of natural rice whilst relying on much less guide hard work.

By the use of the Aigamo approach, Aigamo geese are released into the rice paddy.

Between 15 and 20 of these birds are needed for each and every 1,000 square meters of rice paddy.

Duck introduction in rice field

The benefits of the use of Aigamo ducks are amazing. Aigamo ducks assist the rice seedlings grow via consuming both bugs and weeds that get in the way. Consequently, the farmer is free from the back-breaking work of bending over to pull weeds by way of hand or using different weeding equipment. Living within the rice paddy, the geese fertilize the field with their manure. In addition, they stir up the soil within the rice paddy with their feet and expenses, a process that increases the oxygen content material of the soil, making it extra nutritious for the seedlings. But most significantly, since the ducks fire up the soil, weeds don’t get the danger of reaching the skin.

And finally, when it comes time to reap the rice within the fall, the geese have grown fat and will also be slaughtered for his or her meat. Farmer Shiramizu and his spouse experience Aigamo duck meat all through the iciness in quite a lot of cuisines.

Though, the advantages are great, one still must believe all the different predators that want to come and consume your ducklings. It’s now not uncommon to see crows flying away together with your newly launched yellow ducklings, as farmer Shiramizu describes. I still keep in mind my process of taking pictures fireworks every time crows got here just about the sector, 3 years in the past.

Other animals that hunt your ducks are: foxes, weasels, raccoons, canines and so forth. That’s why you can’t use the Aigamo way without the usage of a proper fence round the whole box and protective fishing line from above. Also important is a refuge where the ducklings can leisure and take safe haven from rain. And finally, the ducklings must be fed within the beginning segment. (no longer sure if fed throughout the season)

But in any case, I don’t suppose the disadvantages weigh as much as the many nice benefits of the use of Aigamo geese.

Shiramizu’s Aigamo method:

  1. Skipping a couple of steps, we start with a flooded field.
  2. Rice bran pallets are scattered everywhere the surface. This causes the water to grow to be cloudy, bring to mind it as an underwater mulch.
  3. The field is then cultivated, together with the rice bran. This will purpose the flooded field to transform a slimy mud, which makes it exhausting for weeds to make their manner up.
  4. Muddy box will then be left for 1-2 weeks.
  5. The field is cultivated another time getting rid of any weeds that might have sprouted and again makes the sphere a slimy dust.
  6. Then, rice seedlings are planted. Meanwhile rice field ducklings are saved in a small phase of the paddy.
  7. After the seedling have grown to the fitting measurement, about 1-2 weeks, Aigamo ducklings are allowed into the paddy. Just just like the tilling with the tractor they too fire up the soil, combating weeds from rising.
Rice brain application in field

The key to his manner is to make sure that the surroundings in the rice paddy remains unsuitable for weeds to grow. Rice bran, or rice bran pallets, causes the surface to turn into cloudy. Some farmers may additionally unfold rice bran after the planting of the rice seedlings. This method, weeds don’t get a chance in the beginning segment after planting.

Shiramizu releases Aigamo ducks that fire up the soil, so he simplest spreads rice bran once ahead of tilling. Secondly, tilling the sphere two times sooner than planting eliminates most weeds and makes for muddy prerequisites. Even just before harvest length, the field remains mostly blank of weeds.


Shiramizu doesn’t in point of fact fertilize his rice paddy. Obviously, the Aigamo ducks play crucial position in enriching the soil with their manure. In addition, mountain river water not simplest maintains the best water level in the field, but is also a valuable supply of quite a lot of vitamins.

Fertilizer application in rice field

Cover vegetation

(plants grown for the security and enrichment of the soil.)

Most typical farmers in Japan will go away their rice paddies fallow after harvest till subsequent season’s rice planting. It’s the organic farmers that still care in regards to the soil and make the most of duvet crops. Below are some commonplace cover plants:

Fish and Rice

Italian Ryegrass

The cover crop Shiramizu these days uses.

Italian ryegrass is sown within the box just a few weeks ahead of rice is harvested. Once harvest is finished Italian grass fill the sphere. The intensive root system of this cap crop tolerates compacted soils and will conserve residual nitrogen within the soil after rice harvest. Can also be used as feed for farm animals.

Chinese white milk vetch

A Chum of Shiramizu is the one farmer in Irokawa who grows milk vetch after rice harvest.

Milk vetch fertilizes the paddy fields, feeds cattle, and is a source of honey. Until only a while in the past, many paddy fields everywhere Japan used to be drenched pink with vetch blossom, waiting for next season’s rice planting. Being a legume, it’s able to fix nitrogen through a symbiotic dating with Rhizobia. Besides serving as nice fertilizer, the flowers are fit for human consumption and include several medicinal effects.

Other possible choices

Other possible choices are Hairy vetch and more than a few kinds of clovers.

Besides the use of Aigamo, other strategies include:

Releasing Koi carpers within the rice paddy for a similar reason as Aigamo ducks.

Flooding fields in iciness to draw swans.

Soybean cultivation on ridges between rice fields.

Manchurian wild rice Cultivation (マコモタケ; Makomo) in a piece of the rice box.

I try my highest to put up weblog put up more frequently, but I nonetheless will have to find a steadiness between farm work, Japanese find out about, agriculture find out about, crafting and writing.

Maybe shorter articles are higher instead of writing these extremely long weblog posts…

Livestock vaccination drive begins in Tharparkar

Livestock and Fisheries department of the federal government of Sindh launched the PPR vaccination power in district Tharparkar nowadays. Mr Abdul Bari Pitafi, the provincial minister for farm animals and fisheries launched the campaign in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

the vaccination will assist ensure that wholesome cattle which will likely be instrumental in ensuring meals safety and sustainable livelihoods for the already drought stressed communities within the area.

Mina Dowlatchahi FAO Representative in Pakistan

The campaign is part of the reaction to the drought in Tharparkar.

The vaccination will prevent farm animals loss against Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) illness sometimes called ‘goat plague’. It is a viral illness of goats and sheep characterised by means of fever, sores in the mouth, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and on occasion demise.

Emphasizing the significance of animal health for Tharparkar, Mina` Dowlatchahi FAO Representative in Pakistan said the vaccination will assist ensure that wholesome cattle which will likely be instrumental in ensuring meals safety and sustainable livelihoods for the already drought stressed communities within the area.

Tharparkar district hosts more than 20% small ruminant of the whole province Sindh.


She also mentioned that the record Sindh Drought Need Assessment (SDNA October 2018) performed via FAO in collaboration with Natural Disaster Consortium (NDC) reveals that of all the surveyed household, 25% reported demise in their cattle, 21% in buffaloes, 53% in goats, 45% in sheep, 20% in camels 18% in donkeys, and 57% in poultry during previous six months.

Tharparkar district hosts more than 20% small ruminant of the whole province Sindh. The small ruminants are predisposed to multi-stress in the district which lead them to prone to deadly illnesses like PPR. The illness can also be avoided and eradicated thru vaccination.

Speaking at the occasion, Mr Farrukh Toirov Deputy FAO Representative in Pakistan mentioned goal groups for proposed action includes subsistence farm animals farmers, small-scale agriculture farmers and ladies headed households. The intervention will vaccinate three million small ruminants in Tharparkar and 1.2 million in Umerkot.
Drought in district Tharparkar immediately affects the growth of vegetation in addition to water resource for farm animals, which in turn ends up in lack of animal manufacturing, and cattle top mortality charges, which is an immediate threat to food safety and livelihoods.

Satellites and SMS help Pakistan’s farmers with smart irrigation

Using knowledge from Nasa, Pakistan’s water analysis agency is sending rain forecasts to 10,000 farmers, serving to them to irrigate more successfully and building up their crop yields. It remains to be beyond farmer Mohammad Ashraf’s comprehension that individuals in Islamabad can are expecting that it is going to rain within the next two days in his village. He may be astonished that, in response to this prediction, they are able to tell him how much he must water his rice and sugarcane plantations.

Currently, we are totally dependent on whatever the sellers of agri-products tell us about using pesticides and seeds. We just accept whatever they say,” he says. “If it comes from the government agency, it would be authentic

“I marvel at this science of being able to predict something that is unknown and in God’s hands,” says the 36-year-old farmer, Every Friday, he reads the simple Urdu messages despatched to his telephone, pronouncing things like: “Dear farmer friend, this is to inform you that between 21 and 28 July 2017 in your area (Bahawalnagar) the crops used this much water (cotton 1.6 inch, sugarcane 1.7 inch). Next week, rain is predicted in some parts of your region. Therefore please water your crops accordingly.”.

The textual content messages (or SMS) are sent via the Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR), a central authority company that carries out water research. Ashraf can be much more flabbergasted if he knew the scientists get this information from space

“Using satellites and models that take the pulse of the earth, we can identify the amount of water a given crop requires at a specific location and a specific time,” says Faisal Hossain, head of the Sustainability, Satellites, Water, and Environment (SASWE) research group on the University of Washington which developed the programme for, “estimating crop water requirement in a cost effective and sustainable manner for the whole country”.

Dear farmer friend, this is to inform you that between 21 and 28 July 2017 in your area (Bahawalnagar) the crops used this much water (cotton 1.6 inch, sugarcane 1.7 inch). Next week, rain is predicted in some parts of your region. Therefore please water your crops accordingly.

Ashraf, who lives in Hayatpur in Punjab’s Sargodha district, now takes these messages critically. Five years ago, he met water mavens from the PCRWR who were doing a box survey to explore how to enhance groundwater conservation and crop yield. During their surveys, the professionals found that farmers were over-watering their vegetation. They put in a water meter on Ashraf’s 12-acre farm and defined that if the arrow became in opposition to the golf green at the dial, it meant that his land had sufficient water. When the arrow became towards the crimson mark, it was time to water.

Using satellites and models that take the pulse of the earth, we can identify the amount of water a given crop requires at a specific location and a specific time

Faisal Hossain

“Like every farmer in the village, I did not believe them. We have been farming for generations and know what works and what doesn’t,” Ashraf informed But the following yr, he determined to only water his field when the marker pointed towards the pink. That season he produced extra, spent less on diesel to run the tubewell, and made more profit than somebody within the village. “The others watered their sugarcane fields three times more than I did and not only did my plants grow taller, I had less disease in my crop than the rest.”

Ashraf says that an acre of his land yielded 1,000 maunds (1 maund = 37 kilogrammes) of sugarcane. Each maund offered for PKR 180 (USD 1.70). “I sold my crop for PKR 180,000 (USD 1,700) while most villagers could only sell between PKR 80,000 and 100,000 (USD 755-944). Now a convert, he says he plans heed to every word from PCRWR. “I’d say that 99% of the time they are right on the mark about rain,” he says.

    Since remaining year, the PCRWR has sent weekly information to farmers like Ashraf via textual content messages, telling them how a lot water their vegetation want. They also ship them climate forecasts.

    “We started with 700 farmers in April 2016, all across Pakistan, and since January this year the number of farmers receiving the messages has increased to 10,000,” says Ahmed Zeeshan Bhatti, deputy director of PCRWR. The company has submitted a proposal to a couple organisations to beef up it in improving the recommendation and expanding the carrier to 100,000 farmers.

    I think the information they send is quite useful for us as by conserving water, our profit margins will be greater

    37-year old farmer Mohammad Tariq from Faisalabad

    “We carried out a survey to gauge the response of the farmers to our advice and the feedback was encouraging,” he says. Between 25 and 30 farmers would name again immediately for additional knowledge. “Our initial telephone survey revealed that farmers are saving almost 40% of water by rationing irrigation,” he says, adding that the carrier is saving round 250 million cubic metres of irrigation water according to 12 months. In the following phase of the programme, the PCRWR desires to train the farmers, as well as the ones operating in the agriculture division, to use research and the meteorological recommendation properly.

    “I think the information they send is quite useful for us as by conserving water, our profit margins will be greater,” says 37-year old farmer Mohammad Tariq from Faisalabad. He, alternatively, wishes for more sorts of information akin to when to sow, when to spray with insecticides, how time and again and what seed is just right for which crop.

    “Currently, we are totally dependent on whatever the sellers of agri-products tell us about using pesticides and seeds. We just accept whatever they say,” he says. “If it comes from the government agency, it would be authentic.”

    “When the British designed the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) between 1847 to 1947, it was to turn 67% of the basin area into farmland,” said Azeem Shah, regional researcher at Lahore founded International Water Management Institute.

    Even after the British left in 1947, the federal government irrigation engineers were adding new dams, barrages, link and department canals to the previous gadget. Today IBIS has three large dams, 80 5 small dams, nineteen barrages, twelve inter-river link canals, forty-five canal instructions and nil.7 million tube wells. Still, say experts, canal irrigation water efficiency may also be greater from the current 33% up to 90% (within the evolved international locations) by repairing leakages in the system, good metering and growing efficient solutions for decreasing the call for for water and on the similar time expanding agricultural productivity.

    Further, as of late, stated Shah, the cropping intensity has increased through 150% compared to 1947 with farmers not wanting to depart any fallow land. They also cultivate two or 3 vegetation. “Over the last 70 years, the quantity of the water has remained the same but agriculture is competing with other sectors, such as industry, as well as the growing population,” says Shah. Today, says Shah, kind of 50% of irrigation wishes are met via IBIS canals and 50% is extracted from the ground.

    The SMS programme is supported technically and financially by way of the University of Washington’s Global Affairs Department, NASA’s applied sciences programme, the Ivanhoe Foundation and the Pakistan executive. When it began, the PCRWR was providing week-old knowledge, but is now in a position to forecast for the present and the long run. Hossain issues out, however, that even supposing long-term forecasts weren’t presented, temporary weather data would still have value. “Soil moisture has memory and inertia, so knowing how much it has rained and stayed in the soil the previous week is necessary to plan the coming week’s irrigation,” he defined.

    The PCRWR is able to get entry to global climate model forecasts with the assistance of the University of Washington, the use of a Chinese type and collaborating with the Pakistan Meteorological Department. “It is thus able to provide quite accurate information,” says Bhatti.

    With Pakistan among many nations liable to local weather change and excessive weather prerequisites, using clinical the way to help farmers irrigate their land extra efficiently is all the more important. Will this advice help farmers adapt to or fend off excessive climate phenomena in the years to come?

    “That’s the idea,” says Bhatti, including that the advice must assist farmers tackle local weather aberrations like heatwaves, and increased frequency of heavy and intense rainfall.

    Hossain is a extra wary: “The skill of general circulation model projections – say into 2040 – is poor and of little empowering value to farmers. We are more focused on providing tactical information, rather than long-term strategic information for adaptation.”

    Nor is this the only cellphone-based initiative going down in Pakistan. In the province of Punjab, the Punjab Information Technology Board (PITB) at the side of the Agriculture Department of Punjab, is partnering with Telenor, a cellular company offering financial services and products to farmers who do not have financial institution accounts. “Not only are we providing interest free loans to smallholder farmers we are providing them advisories on how to improve their yield by using modern agriculture practices and linking them to agriculture experts, research institutions, agriculture extension workers and input providers,” said Uzair Shahid, senior programme manager on the PITB.

    Step via small step, the farmers of Pakistan would possibly end up seeing telephone generation as an very important a part of a extra productive long term.

    انگور کی برداشت اور دیکھ بھال

    انگور ایک ایسا پھل ہے جس کا ذکر قرآن پاک میں بھی موجود ہے اور یہ بادشاہوں کاپھل بھی کہلاتا ہے ۔انگور تقریباً دنیا کے ہر ملک میں کاشت کیا جاتا ہے ۔ دنیا میں سب سے زیادہ انگور چین ، امریکہ ، اٹلی اور فرانس میں پیدا ہوتا ہے اور اس کی پیداوار 70ہزار ملین ٹن ہے ۔ 8ہزار سال پہلے تجارتی پیمانے پر جس علاقے میں باقاعدہ طور پر انگور کی کاشت کی گئی تھی اس کو اب مڈل ایسٹ کہتے ہیں ۔ پاکستان میں انگور 15302ہیکٹر رقبے پر کاشت کیا جاتا ہے اور اس کی سالانہ پیداوار 64317ٹن ہے ۔ پاکستان میں سب سے زیادہ انگور بلوچستان میں 15153ہیکٹر رقبے پر کاشت کیاجاتا ہے جس سے مجموعی پیداوار کا 63150 ٹن پھل حاصل ہوتا ہے ۔ اس کے علاوہ اب یہ تقریباً پنجاب کے تمام اضلاع میں بھی کاشت کیا جا رہا ہے اور جنوبی پنجاب میں باقاعدہ طور پر “چولستان گر یپس ویلی “کا اعلان کر دیا گیا ہے جہاں گورنمنٹ آف پنجاب کی مدد سے زمینداروں کو سبسڈی دے کر انگور کی کاشت کی جارہی ہے ۔

    Govt planning to establish Ground Water Regulatory Authority

    Annually, round 200 million tonnes of silt is amassing in Tarbella dam while in Mangla dam the amount is 75 million tonnes. The federal govt is planning to ascertain Ground Water Regulatory Authority (GWRA) and has asked the suggestions of the provincial government in this regard.

    Annually, round 200 million tonnes of silt is amassing in Tarbella dam while in Mangla dam the amount is 75 million tonnes.

    All the preparations relating to monsoon flood coverage have been completed and the general meeting to study the flood protection plan will likely be held in June, stated Chairman Federal Flood Commission Ahmad Kamal while briefing the National Assembly Standing Committee on Water Resources.

    The committee assembly, which was held with Nawab Yusuf Talpur in chair, was once knowledgeable by way of chairman FFC that for water conservation several strategies are in pipeline.

    To regulate the over utilization of underground water sources, the government is making plans to arrange GWRA. Similarly the provinces and Higher Education Commission were requested so as to add topics associated with water conservation to the curriculum, said Ahmad Kamal.

    Secretary irrigation Balochistan has complained that the province isn’t getting its full proportion of water. Special secretary irrigation Sindh said that they’re getting 33 % less water than its share.

      The Committee on water resource was knowledgeable that every year around 200 million lots of silt is amassing in Tarbella dam. The proposal of Tarbella’s desilting is currently into account however it is difficult job.

      The committee was informed by means of Join Secretary Water Resource, Syed Mehr Ali Shah that around 200 million tones of silt in amassing in Tarbella reservoir once a year while in Mangla dam the volume of silt accumulation is 75 million tons .
      It was knowledgeable that 60 to 62 million acre ft water is being wasted in Pakistan yearly.

      The committee used to be further informed that for the storage of water 27 dam reservoirs tasks had been initiated.

      Even after the construction of Diamir Bhasha there will likely be no surplus water availability in the gadget.

      Regarding the water provide in the dual towns of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, member committee Ali Nawaz Awan said that the entire requirement of the twin cities is 226 million gallons. Rawalpindi is recently getting 56 million gallons of water, he stated.

      Secretary irrigation Punjab, Amjad Qazi knowledgeable the committee that Punjab govt will complete the construction of Danducha dam inside 3 years. Around 35 million gallons of water in keeping with day of water will be supplied to the twin cities from Daducha dam, he added.

      He said that Punjab has finalized it water policy. Under the water act 2019 water resource commission can be established in the province.

      To withdraw underground water one might be required to get license from the water useful resource fee. Similarly without disposal licence water cannot be disposed off in rivers or canals, he added.

      Secretary irrigation knowledgeable that for the simpler management of water machine Punjab Water Resource Regulatory Authority is being established.

      The committee was informed that Sindh will finalize its water coverage inside six months.

      Outdated techniques in the modern world

      SINDH’S first sugar manufacturing facility used to be established in Tando Mohammad Khan — then part of Hyderabad district — a while in the early sixties. It was once situated at the left bank of the Indus.Cotton cultivation was allowed at the left financial institution whilst rice cultivation has been banned on this house, no less than on paper. The proper financial institution spaces, however, were to provide rice as an issue of policy. And all this land was fed via the colonial generation Sukkur barrage, inbuilt 1932.

      Pakistan’s National Food Security Policy used to be approved for the primary time in 72 years by way of the outgoing PML-N govt. Punjab and Sindh — Pakistan’s two major grain producing provinces — have additionally framed their very own agriculture policies.


      The crop-mapping or zoning strategy for Sindh’s agriculture sector was once based on parameters established way back. Sadly, things are different nowadays. A Major shift is seen in crop cultivation as the federal government, both provincial and federal, has turned a blind eye to it.

      Crop zoning regulates the farm sector. It determines how and where a particular crop or is to be cultivated so as to reach the best yield. Such zones are outlined in view of weather prerequisites, available water flows, drainage system and soil fertility and so forth of that space. This manner helps be certain that efficient utilisation of sources.

      Sindh and Punjab are both bearing the brunt of inauspicious implications of this transformation. Punjab’s southern portions are house to sugar cane cultivation due to the ordinary growth of the sugar business in water deficient areas that do not swimsuit the crop. Sugar cane is thought of as Pakistan’s political crop commanding patronage of all bigwigs.

      The crop-mapping or zoning strategy for Sindh’s agriculture sector was once in line with parameters established long ago. Sadly, things are different nowadays. A Major shift is observed in crop cultivation as the federal government, each provincial and federal, has became a blind eye to it

      Pakistan’s National Food Security Policy used to be approved for the primary time in 72 years by way of the outgoing PML-N govt. Punjab and Sindh — Pakistan’s two major grain producing provinces — have additionally framed their very own agriculture policies.

      Besides those two provinces, Balochistan contributes in opposition to the paddy crop while Khyber Pakhtunkhwa focuses on tobacco, even though it additionally has a large number of potential for maize production.

      The nationwide meals safety coverage, coupled with the two provincial agriculture insurance policies, cover all policy spaces for sustainable agriculture enlargement. However, to ensure sustainability, what appears to be missing is synchronisation at federal and provincial levels.

      “The government needs to share information-based knowledge to convince growers about which crop should be sown in a given season. This culture needs to be developed if we aim to achieve sustainability in our farm sector which has a huge potential for growth,” contended Dr Yusuf Zafar, former chairman Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.

      Water, a precious commodity, is becoming scarce. The government often makes use of the general public’s handbag to supply subsidies to first produce a definite crop, akin to sugarcane, after which export the sweetener with rebate, with out benefitting either genuine farmers or consumers. Farmers don’t get the specified worth for his or her produce while consumers get pricey sugar due to institutional lacunas at the implementation degree.

      It is owing to a lacking zoning device that Pakistan incessantly has a bumper sugarcane crop coupled with sugar surpluses, all at the cost of declining cotton acreage and looming water shortage. The country has a huge possible for cotton manufacturing and a big textile industry.

      To borrow from a Punjab-based agriculture analyst, Ibrahim Mughal, Pakistan is spending Rs600-700 billion on import of various agro-commodities particularly cotton, fit to be eaten oil and pulses.

      “We can easily produce [these commodities] by ensuring proper zoning to protect our ecosystem. But we have to protect the natural habitat of our crops and we must stop tinkering with the natural ecosystem or be ready to face the consequences,” he noticed.

      If the rustic earns foreign currency on rice exports, it additionally spends an enormous quantity to import safe to eat oil and pulses. And each vegetation can also be grown domestically, as obvious from the revel in won in the 2010 super floods when sunflower cultivation boomed.

      The West Pakistan Rice (Restriction on Cultivation) Ordinance 1959 is incessantly invoked in command (left financial institution) spaces of Ghotki Feeder canal (Guddu barrage), Nara and Rohri canals (Sukkur barrage) to ban sowing of paddy. This mirrors the zoning system. But because of vulnerable governmental writ those laws are not strictly enforced, thus paddy surpluses are seen in banned areas.

      Pakistan exports a freshwater resource when rice is exported, says former chairman Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources Dr Mohammad Ashraf. Out of eight.6 million tonnes of rice produced in 2015-16, 4.2m tonnes (price Rs194bn) have been exported. These exports required 6.8MAF of freshwater amounting to Rs8.4bn (at Rs1,233 in line with acre foot of water)

      Due to nonexistent zoning, top delta crops are grown in spaces the place floor water is insufficient and groundwater is deep or saline. Edible oil crops should be introduced which require much less water and don’t impact foreign currencies.

      Dr Ashraf underscored the desire for crop zoning given depleting water resources. The focus will have to be on water conservation and maximization of according to acre productivity to minimize using floor freshwater sources. Abstraction of groundwater, another important resource, is going unchecked and is another burden on the ecosystem.

      Over the years Pakistan has turn out to be in large part depending on cotton import because of declining home production of cotton bales. The textile business wishes round 15m cotton bales whilst home production hovers around 10m, resulting in imports.

      The space under cultivation for cotton faces huge encroachment in Sindh and Punjab by way of the sugar cane crop which is still politically patronised regardless of which party is in power. This has result in an unnatural growth of the sugar industry.

      Improving water productivity vital for sustainable rice production

      Improving water productiveness is important for sustainable rice manufacturing and boosting rice exports from the current $2 billion to $5 billion. Pakistan Basmati Heritage Association (PBHA) Director Sheikh Adnan Aslam made these remarks at ‘Khushal Kissan’ seminar. Rice farmers from Jhang district and key individuals of PBHA together with Ch Muhammad Shahzad & Raja Arsalan attended the development.

      The farmers to adopt international rice usual of sustainable rice platform convened by UNE & IRRI for promoting useful resource potency and sustainability.

      Imran Sheikh —COORDINATOR PBHA

      Sheikh Adnan Aslam shared the challenge & objectives of PBHA for meeting demanding situations and motion plan for promotion and preservation of basmati rice in manufacturing and export. He said the rustic used to be facing a looming water disaster.Director Punjab Seed Corporation Malik Imtiaz advised the farmers to make use of certified seed for increasing yield and quality of rice. He appreciated the initiative of PBHA for providing healthy and authorized seed on sponsored fee to the farmers.

      Former Chairman REAP Ch Masood Iqbal suggested the federal government to introduce new basmati types for ensuring productivity and pest resistance. Praising PBHA undertaking, he termed it a ray of hope for the rice sector. Coordinator PBHA Imran Sheikh urged the farmers to adopt international rice usual of sustainable rice platform convened by UNE & IRRI for promoting useful resource potency and sustainability.

      Senior Manager & Head Advisory Services FFC Rao Muhammad Tariq shared his perspectives about balanced use of fertilizers and the significance of potash & micronutrients in boosting rice productiveness, quality and profitability. Zonal Manager North Engro Fertilizers Naeem Farukh highlighted the balanced use of fertilizers by means of following 4R principles (proper sort, proper dose, proper position & proper time). Deputy Director On-Farm Water Management Tariq Maqbool briefed the contributors about dwindling water resources and highlighted the importance of precision land leveling for making improvements to water potency, yield & source of revenue.

      Pakistan ranked 3rd in world for newly installed hydropower capacity

      ISLAMABAD – Pakistan has been ranked third on this planet for newly installed hydropower capability, much ahead of the United States and India. Out of the highest 20 countries which installed new hydro capacity right through 2018, Pakistan, with the brand new put in capacity of 2487MW, has been ranked 3rd, just at the back of China and Brazil which might be ranked 1st and 2d respectively in the list, declared via the International Hydropower Association (IHA) in its not too long ago issued report titled 2019: Hydropower Status Report – Sector Trends and Insights.

      Formed underneath the auspices of UNESCO in 1995 as a discussion board to advertise and disseminate good observe about hydropower, IHA champions steady growth and sustainable practices around the sector.

      India with 535 MW new put in capability is ranked 8th whilst US with 141MW is ranked 15th of the list. Listing down best 20 international locations through newly installed capability, the IHA states in its file that Pakistan managed so as to add 2487MW of environment-friendly hydel electricity in 2018 following China and Brazil at the first and second rung that added 8540MW and 3866 MW to their programs respectively.

      Pakistan controlled so as to add 2487 MW of environment-friendly hydel electrical energy in 2018, simply in the back of China and Brazil which are ranked 1st and 2nd respectively in checklist Country has doable of generating 60000mw of low-cost hydel electrical energy.

      Turkey with an addition of 1085 MW and Angola with an addition of 668 MW remained at 4th and fifth positions respectively as far as newly put in hydro capacity is concerned. The neighbouring India stood on the eighth position that might succeeded in adding 535 MW hydel electrical energy to its device not too long ago.
      It is pertinent to say here that the entire new hydro initiatives had been initiated and finished all through the tenure of earlier government of PML(N). As in step with the IHA document, electricity generation from hydropower tasks accomplished a record four,200 terawatt hours (TWh) in 2018, the best possible ever contribution from a renewable power supply, as worldwide installed hydropower capacity climbed to one,292 GW, in line with the record .

      China added the most capacity with the installation of eight,540 megawatts (MW), followed by way of Brazil (three,866 MW), Pakistan (2,487 MW), Turkey (1,085 MW), Angola (668 MW), Tajikistan (605 MW), Ecuador (556 MW), India (535 MW), Norway (419 MW) and Canada (401 MW).Brazil has now overtaken the United States as the second one biggest manufacturer of hydroelectricity by way of installed capability, after 3,055 MW was once put into operation final year at the 11,000 MW Belo Monte advanced within the country’s northeast.

      During the yr 2018, Pakistan has successfully completed and commissioned three long-delayed mega hydropower tasks with cumulative era capability of 2487 MW. The new initiatives come with the commissioning of the 108 MW-Golen Gol hydropower mission, 1410 MW-Tarbela 4th Extension and the 969 MW-Neelum Jhelum hydropower projects.

      The general installed technology capacity of hydroelectric energy in Pakistan surged to 9389 MW from 6902 MW, registering an build up of 36 percent in just one yr. It may be value to mention right here that from 1958 to 2017 in 59 years of its inception WAPDA may just arrange to take its hydel generation to 6902 MW.

      According the reliable estimates Pakistan has an indentified possible of producing 60000 MW of cheap hydel electrical energy.

      Top Agriculture Websites in Pakistan

      Agriculture is a backbone of Pakistan economy, every Pakistan’s directly or indirectly linked with agriculture. Peoples live in villages directly linked with production of agriculture commodities including field crops, herbs, fruits, livestock and poultry while peoples living in urban area linked with agriculture by mean of selling agriculture products, marketing or exporting agriculture products and businessman use agriculture produced in their factories as basic material for production.

      Internet brings drastic changes in thinking trends of society and agriculture sector also feel the reflection of internet on thinking of farmers to final consumers. Android phones are one of another key factor to increase the use of internet, now a common man also easily access the internet using android phone. Now a farmers working in a field of remote area of village has same facility of internet as compare to a person sitting in a full luxury room of big city like Lahore, Karachi or Islamabad.

      Online agriculture information is the emerging side of new technological revolution and number of website developed in Pakistan and providing wonderful resource to all players of agriculture sector from farmer to final consumer. This article provide information of Pakistan top 10 agriculture related website that provide a deep information of agriculture range for conventional traditional farming to modern high tech farming. All ranking based on data access on 15th May 2019.

      10. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 50, 917 and 10 in agriculture category.

      9. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 32,069 and 09 in agriculture category.

      8. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 25,547 and 08 in agriculture category.

      7. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 18,378 and 07 in agriculture category.

      6. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 15,442 and 06 in agriculture category.

      5. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 5,914 and 05 in agriculture category.

      4. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 5,144 and 04 in agriculture category.

      3. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 3,975 and 03 in agriculture category.

      2. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 3,455 and 02 in agriculture category.

      1. is placed on number ten in ranking and as per alexa estimation this website generally ranked in Pakistan is 3,455 and 02 in agriculture category.

      Key Challenges Facing Pakistan Agriculture

      Key Challenges Facing Pakistan Agriculture


      The fresh extraordinary building up in international meals and commodity costs has focussed attention, both home and world, on how perfect to cope with the immediate have an effect on of those increases at the poor and the inclined households who spend just about four-fifth in their incomes on food. Indeed, FAO (2008) estimated that in 2007 globally around 75 million people joined the number of hungry because of the build up in meals costs.

      Several subsequent studies have strengthened the findings that millions of people have develop into food insecure and being driven into poverty across the globe because of increases in food grain costs (IFPRI (2009), DFID(2009), UN (2008) and Ivanic and Martin (2008a). Studies on Pakistan have also drawn the same conclusion (Chaudhry and Chaudhry (2008). While the fast center of attention of attention has rightly been on cushioning this have an effect on on poverty and hunger, the agriculture sector as a whole is now being tested in its entirety now not best on how absolute best it may well ensure that meals safety and fight starvation but additionally its function in economic development in a globalized economic system.

      For if this build up in food and commodity costs indicators an earthly alternate in the global phrases of business in favour of agriculture, and there is explanation why to believe that is so given the worldwide upward shift in demand for meals grains, then the agriculture sector can turn out to be the foremost engine of monetary growth and construction particularly for growing international locations like Pakistan. Also the normal argument that expanding economies of scale are discovered simplest in trade because innovation and technical trade drives productivity growth basically in this sector, is also no longer increasingly more true.

      Pakistan in its youth after independence in 1947 the process of industrialisation (or “primitive accumulation of capital”) used to be financed not directly through an import-substitution and pricing regime which modified the phrases of trade in favour of manufacturing and towards the agriculture sector


      Agriculture may be witnessing massive and sustained will increase in productivity because of the advent of hybrid seeds, new forms of cultivation and other technical and scientific advancements. In Pakistan the new democratic government is giving the best possible precedence to developing agriculture as well as assigning it a leading position in the development technique being formulated for the impending 10 th Five Year Plan (2010-15). This Note identifies a few of these crucial challenges that coverage makers face in assigning agriculture this main position in addition to examines how carried out economic analysis and studying from different countries reports can lend a hand provide steerage to probably the most solutions that the coverage makers desperately search.


      Agriculture Pricing : Should the Government be within the business of administering costs? Neo-classical (now neo-liberal) economics is relatively transparent that prices of agricultural commodities must be made up our minds by means of market forces and no restrictions should be positioned on their motion both within the domestic marketplace as well as on their exports and imports. Such a unfastened market regime would make certain that prices closely mirror world prices and result within the optimum utilisation of sources. Reality, then again, could be very other.

      In Pakistan in its youth after independence in 1947 the process of industrialisation (or “primitive accumulation of capital”) used to be financed not directly through an import-substitution and pricing regime which modified the phrases of trade in favour of manufacturing and towards the agriculture sector (Amjad,1982). This resulted in rapid industrialisation and a rustic with hardly any industries at independence saw by the tip of the 1950s the emergence of a significant client excellent commercial base. Even despite the fact that in subsequent decades the location faced by means of the agriculture sector quite advanced as the economy spread out and value controls had been gradually diminished together with the abolition of the meals rationing machine within the 1980s, agricultural prices remained on average lower than 30 consistent with cent of world prices.

      A Contemporary study (Salam, 2009) has calculated that because of price controls and business restrictions the resulting distortions resulted in an annual reduction in earnings of the major plants by means of virtually $1.7 billion on average throughout 2001-08 (see Table 1 and a pair of). This can be almost 15-20 according to cent of the price of those major plants.

      Table 1: Average Annual Transfers from Selected Crops

      Period Wheat Basmati paddy Coarse paddy Seed Cotton Sugarcane
      US $ / metric ton
      2001-05 96.95 47.47 0.17 70.46 1.40
      2006-08 139.39 49.64 19.26 38.66 1.21
      2001-08 112.87 48.28 7.33 58.54 1.33

      Source: Salam, Abdul (2009).

      Table 2: Annual Resource Transfers from Selected Crops ($ million)

      Period Wheat Basmati paddy Coarse paddy Seed Cotton Sugarcane Total
      Million US dollars
      2001-05 951 103 1 365 59 1478
      2006-08 1599 143 66 233 53 2093
      2001-08 1194 118 25 315 56 1709

      Source: Salam, Abdul(2009).

      Fixing Price of Wheat 2008-10 Wheat is the staple meals of the folks of Pakistan and accounts for just about 40 in keeping with cent of value added within the crop sector. In a decisive transfer the brand new democratic executive that took over in March 2008 decided to boost procurement prices2 of wheat for the incoming wheat harvest in Spring 2008 at Rs. 625 according to maund3 from the cost of Rs.425 in line with maund fixed via the last government to make sure higher returns to farmers. This was once additionally in part a response to the fiasco that had resulted from the insurance policies followed by the last executive which had fastened the cost well under international costs for the Spring 2007 wheat crop. Believing it had a bumper crop the then govt had first allowed the export of wheat, however since it had fastened the cost of wheat smartly below global prices a big a part of the wheat crop was once smuggled into neighbouring international locations leading to acute shortages.

      The government ultimately used to be compelled to import wheat at much upper costs than it had exported. In solving the upper value of wheat for the Spring 2009 crop the government relied amongst others on the suggestions of a Task Force of eminent mavens that recommended fixing prices as close to as international costs and saying them well earlier than the wheat sowing season.4 A wheat worth of Rs. 950 introduced by way of the government in September 2008 was once almost 52 % higher than its earlier worth. This ended in a bumper crop, as farmers shifted land to wheat manufacturing as well as used extra inputs, forcing the government to buy huge quantities of wheat to care for costs it had fixed.

       This ended in a big building up in executive reserves for which it had neither the godowns to retailer nor had allocated sufficient price range to pay for their storage. Also prices in neighbouring countries were decrease so no wheat was smuggled out. Also international prices of wheat had begun to fall in order that the government could simplest export wheat at a loss which it was once now not prepared to do. In announcing the upper worth of wheat for Spring 2009 crop in line with world costs although welcomed through the farmers ended in different issues. First and important it adversely affected the poor in urban spaces and the landless labour and really small farmers (who do not grow sufficient to meet their wishes) in rural areas.

      It also fuelled inflation within the economic system that was then working at over 25 in line with cent. The govt in part tried to offset this through providing direct income improve to poor households in both city and rural spaces (of Rs 1000 in line with family in keeping with month via the Benazir Income Support Programme).

      Announcing the price of wheat for the Spring 2010 crop once more posed a predicament to the federal government as international wheat costs had fallen to nearer Rs. 700 per maund. However, the government may just no longer cut back the price it had mounted earlier and determined to care for wheat costs at Rs. 950 in step with maund much to the discontentment of the farmer lobby.

      Key Issues

      This review of government interference in solving the price of wheat lately to bring them consistent with global prices in addition to ensuring better returns to farmers is an representation of the challenges a govt can face when it intervenes in agricultural markets. The new government has also fixed minimal prices of rice in the closing two years with limited procurement goals and confronted equivalent challenges.

       In a comparable transfer the Supreme Court of Pakistan upheld an order of the High Court that fixed sugar costs at Rs. 40 in step with kilogram (Kg) which was smartly below the prevailing global value. The outcome was once that sugar disappeared from the marketplace and was once available in restricted quantities at nearer Rs. 60-70 in line with Kg even if the government bought its sugar stocks thru Public Utility Stores at Rs. 40 consistent with Kg. Once the Supreme Court order receded sugar is now available in the market at around Rs. 70/- in step with Kg.

      Some of the important thing questions that rise up from the Pakistan’s enjoy may also be posed as follows:

      • Should the govt interfere in agriculture markets or go away them completely to marketplace forces?
      • If it does intervene what must be the root on which costs will have to be fixed?
      • If it does fix costs with regards to global costs how should it take care of problems coming up from large fluctuations in international costs?
      • How do you reconcile incentives to farmers thru higher prices with reasonably priced coverage to the deficient and susceptible households who spend round 80 in step with cent of their earning on meals?
      • If farmers are paid world costs for their merchandise should they not also pay income tax (from which they’re these days exempted in Pakistan) as do different source of revenue earners in the country? How is that this executed in different nations?
      • What are the possibilities of opening up trade in meals grains in South Asia and the revel in thus far together with the putting in of a Food Security Bank?

      Research and Sharing of Country Experiences

      The problems outlined had been much researched but within the present international milieu there may be need for severe re-assessment. At a minimum analysis can lend a hand coverage makers realise the prices and benefits of the selections they take. Also how different developing nations are selecting those issues would assist policy makers learn from each and every others studies. The downside this present day is that the IFI’s, namely the World Bank and in Asia the ADB, have very inflexible perspectives on these issues (i.e. leave it totally to market forces and not using a industry restrictions) which can be for most developing countries neither politically possible nor essentially economically the best. Also fairness issues don’t lend themselves to easy solutions when such policy regimes are followed. The seek will have to center of attention on second absolute best answers which come as shut as imaginable to ensuring efficient results in addition to meeting needs of the deficient and inclined.

      Reducing Rural Poverty: Empowering the Poor

      While there remains substantial debate on ranges and trends in poverty in Pakistan especially post-2001 where legitimate estimates recommend a vital decline to round 22 according to cent in 2005-06 as compared to nearer 35 in step with cent in 2001-02, there is no disputing the stark finding that poverty in rural spaces is far upper as compared to city areas. Rural poverty used to be estimated in 2005-06 at 27 consistent with cent which is nearly double that of urban poverty at 13.1 in step with cent (Pakistan Economic Survey, 2008-09). Also there is proof to signify that poverty is upper amongst females as compared to males. Estimates for 2007-08 which have no longer been formally recognized suggest that poverty levels could have further decreased to round 17 in keeping with cent total which appear to be rather counterintuitive given a significant slowing down in the economy in that yr and with inflation being at 12 in keeping with cent.

      Pakistan’s agriculture financial system is characterised by means of an extremely skewed ownership of productive property, in particular land and water. There are a lot of small, resource deficient and subsistence farmers (86 per cent of 6.6 million farm families) who own lower than 50 consistent with cent of the land and water resources and a small collection of massive farmers (14 in line with cent of the total) proudly owning more than 50 in line with cent of the assets. About a third of the agricultural labour power is composed of landless labour which along with very small farmers (2 hectares or less), especially tenant farmers tend to be the poorest in the country. (see Annex Table I and II).

      The problem is to plan insurance policies which make agriculture more equitable for small farmers and landless labour.

      This is again a far researched house but there are two primary initiatives by the newly elected democratic executive on which sharing of country experiences could be specifically helpful. These relate to distributing state lands among the landless and the second is poverty alleviation via small holders farm animals and diary construction.

      Distributing State Land Among the Landless and Small Tenant Farmers

      There is a rising body of research in Pakistan (drawing at the New Institutional Economics) that argues that a main factor hindering economic development is the limited get right of entry to nature of its underlying social order.6

      This college argues that poverty in Pakistan is not merely the result of adverse resource endowments but since the poor are locked “into a nexus of power which deprives the poor of their actual and potential income.”7 This energy construction which contains state establishments and native robust elite discriminates in opposition to the deficient in gaining get admission to over productive belongings, finance, public services and governance selections which makes it virtually unimaginable for them to wreck out of poverty.

      For them to break out of poverty requires first providing access to land for the landless labour in addition to tenant families to shop for land and then offering them through establishments over which they’ve regulate key inputs such as credit, seed, fertilizer, water extension services and get right of entry to to markets.

      In Pakistan’s case it’s endorsed shifting the estimated 2.6 million acres of state land to the landless at the side of the availability of credit score to tenant farmers to enable them to buy land. This would make a significant dent on bettering prerequisites of landless and tenant farmers.

      Pakistan has experience of distributing state land to retiring senior government functionaries each civilian and armed forces. However most effective in recent years has this transfer been made as an immediate intervention for lowering poverty.

      The Punjab executive in recent years dispensed over 1 million acres to landless labour in the province in holdings of 12.5 acres below plenty of schemes and equipped necessary inputs to those farmers to ensure just right returns from the land. While no detailed find out about on these schemes had been revealed the overall impression has been that they’ve been successful on the subject of vital improvements in living standards and human development indicators of households who gained possession rights to this land.

      More lately the brand new democratic provincial govt in Sind has additionally put in place a scheme to distribute state land to poor girls (under the Benazir Behan Basti Programme) who are receiving direct source of revenue strengthen below the Benazir Income Support Programme). No analysis has yet been finished of this scheme which used to be introduced in 2009.

      The creator is not aware of any present or previous schemes that lend a hand tenant farmers in getting access to lands they these days domesticate regardless that this proposal is contained in the Approach Paper to the 10th Five Year Plan (2010-15) (see Planning Commission, June 2009).

      Key Issues

      The problems related to land distribution through land reforms or resettlement programmes in new lands introduced beneath cultivation has been extensively analysed. However, there are a number of key issues which want in-depth research from which policy makers may just benefit together with via other country studies. These relate to:

      • Understanding the operating of rural agriculture land markets and how such land may well be made accessible to the poor landless and tenant farmers.
      • Successful enhance programmes for offering key inputs to settle farm households who have been given land rights and particularly the ones programmes in the operating of which they are at once concerned.
      • Programmes which distribute state land to poor women for cultivation and housing.
      • Poverty Alleviation through Smallholders Livestock and Dairy Development

      Only when it dawned on economic planners that livestock accounts for 52 in keeping with cent of agriculture sector GDP (Pakistan is the fifth biggest milk producer in the world) that critical consideration has been given to encourage its construction. The non-public sector has, on the other hand, been energetic in the putting in place of cool chains including international companies (eg. Nestle) which gather milk from designated points in rural spaces and then promote as packed milk in urban areas.

      Again what is not sufficiently recognized is that landless labour which account for nearly one-third of agricultural households depend on livestock as crucial supply of source of revenue, which provides an ordinary waft of money source of revenue on day by day foundation and livestock conserving which is principally completed through unpaid feminine household participants is the most important for meeting their nutritional needs. Available proof also signifies that extent of reliance of farm households on farm animals is inversely similar with farm measurement. The Government in Pakistan thus sees small holder dairy construction specifically for landless as providing considerable attainable for poverty alleviation.

      Given acute scarcity of available village land and top costs for land the landless to find it extremely tough to find suitable area for their milch animals. Other constraints faced via them come with insufficient diet, veterinary health and synthetic insemination coverage. They also are exploited by “dhodies” (milk dealers) and also via overseas firms who offer low milk prices to them. Given that land isn’t available many landless labour stay their milch animals at “deras” (enlarged residing quarters) of huge landowners and in return they have got to work for them with little or no wages.

      To alleviate poverty amongst landless labour the government has therefore determined to release a Smallholder’s Dairy Development Project which can assist them in increasing milk productivity in addition to loose them from exploitation by means of “dhodies” and large landowners. Important elements of the scheme include provision of land and infrastructure for neighborhood farms, environment up of farmer’s organizations, era/input fortify particularly provision of credit, strengthen for improvement in health and breed of animals as well as fortify in processing and advertising of milk.

      Key Issues

      While examining enlargement and construction of the agriculture sector economists as well as coverage makers have no longer given enough attention to the improvement of the livestock sector which as now we have observed will also be an important method of assuaging rural poverty. Policy makers may just be told from other countries stories especially in devising focused programmes for small farmers and landless cattle holders. Some of the problems that need investigation are:

      Analysis of the function of the farm animals sector in alleviating poverty especially feminine poverty in rural spaces.

      Analysis of native, national and regional markets for milk and milk merchandise and how livestock house owners especially small farmers and landless can tap those markets and recover prices for the milk they promote.

      Livestock possession as a method of offering economic enhance for deficient rural households especially in assembly their dietary needs and the way those may be adversely affected by more and more selling their milk for generating cash income.

      Corporate Farming: Should it’s encouraged in labour surplus economies?

      With a highly skewed land distribution and labour pressure enlargement at close to three in keeping with cent, amongst the highest on the earth, the problem of encouraging company farming and extra not too long ago leasing out of huge tracts of land to overseas companies or governments has grow to be a highly emotive issue in Pakistan.

      The financial case for not encouraging huge scale company farming in Pakistan has been basically in accordance with the idea that this may result in an ejection of existing farmers particularly tenant farmers and at the similar time scale back labour absorption in

      agriculture. With job era in the formal sector being very low these ejected farmers and landless labour would simplest be absorbed in the city informal financial system which already suffers from low productiveness, low incomes and extremely deficient and unsafe operating stipulations.

      The debate on corporate farming has been intensified in recent months when with the new will increase in food and commodity costs led many nations exploring probabilities of meeting their meals grain needs by way of purchasing or leasing out of land in neighbouring countries and thus ensuring food security for themselves . In Pakistan such passion has been reputedly expressed by way of neighbouring Middle-East international locations.

      It is also claimed that South Korea and India have leased land in African international locations for the production of the so-called miracle crop Jatropha which has no longer quite lived up to its expectations.

      Key Issues

      Issues associated with corporate farming and even leasing out of enormous tracts of land to overseas corporations or nations wishes some dispassionate analysis because the solutions to those questions might well not be in black and white but be conditional on land location, its bodily traits and local labour marketplace prerequisites. If for instance Pakistan used to be to rent out semi-arid land and those wishing to rent it are ready to make enough investment to make the land cultivable then this would increase labour absorption and benefit the local economy. Also the stipulations of the hire could be such that the land would after some time revert to nationwide ownership. These prerequisites may additionally include limits on the use of floor and underground water as well as moving of generation and many others. Also in Pakistan some local massive land house owners have long gone in for enormous scale company farming but slightly than just eject those that had been already farming the land they have got absorbed them in activities each farm and non-farm which they run.

      Some of the problems that subsequently want to be researched may just center of attention on:

      –           Advantages and disadvantages of huge scale corporate farming and figuring out conditions below which it must be encouraged or discouraged.

      –           Under what stipulations should countries allow leasing of land to foreign companies or overseas governments with out compromising on nationwide financial pastime and sovereignty.

      Encouraging global elegance financial research on key agriculture (and business comparable) issues

      Policy makers in Pakistan are starved of data and analysis on key financial issues a few of that have been highlighted in this be aware.

      The Government is therefore significantly taking into account putting in of an overly top high quality research policy unit in the Ministry of Agriculture.

      However, past revel in suggests that such executive based totally analysis units are hardly ever a hit and get mired in bureaucracy and fail to attract just right researchers even though they are paid marketplace primarily based salaries.

      Pakistan has a number of Agriculure Universities and an excessively huge Pakistan Agriculture Research Council but those our bodies are a lot higher at doing medical research fairly than analysis on key economic problems.

      This raises some fundamental questions on how research should be organized that concentrates on key economic issues equivalent to terms of business, agriculture pricing and other such necessary issues. Currently advice on those issues is given through the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank together with below programme loans with conditionalities that their economic viewpoint on these issues is strictly carried out.

      Key Issues

      Governments can learn from each others studies in engaging in and drawing on coverage related research in taking agriculture related decisions. Some key issues are:

      –           How very best can research on key agriculture issues be organized which is each timely and related to wishes of coverage makers?

      –           Should analysis be conducted in our bodies working in government or must those be carried out in independent analysis organizations and if the latter how should the govt make stronger the surroundings up and expansion of such organizations.

      –           Role of global organizations (eg. GDN) in providing strengthen to build up of such analysis capability each on the nationwide level as well as via pooling of worldwide knowledge.


      Akmal Hussain, Institutions, Economic Structure and Poverty in Pakistan, South Asia Economic Journal, Volume 5, Number 1, January-June 2004, SAGE Publications, New Delhi.

      Akmal Hussain, An Institutional Framework for Inclusive Growth, 15 May 2009.

      Amjad, Rashid (1982) Private Industrial Investment in Pakistan 1960–70. Cambridge: South Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press.

      Chaudhry and A. Chaudhry (2008) “The Effects of Rising Food and Fuel Costs on

      Poverty in Pakistan”, The Lahore Journal of Economics, Special Edition, 2008.

      DFID  (March  2009).  Eliminating  World  Poverty:  Building  our  Common  Future.

      Background  paper  to  the  DFID  Conference  on  the  Future  of  International


      Economic Wing, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MINFAL), Government of Pakistan.  Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan (various issues).

      FAO website (2008). World Food Situation: Food Prices Indices.


      International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) et. al. Global Hunger Index Report

      (2009) Bonn, Washington D. C., Dublin.

      Ivanic, Maros and Will Martin (2008 a). Food Prices and Food Security: Don’t Blame Liberalization.   VOX   Research   Based   Policy   Analysis   and   Commentary. November 21, 2008.

      Planning Commission, Approach Paper to 10th Five Year Plan (2010-15), June, 2009

      Planning Commission, Report of Task Force on Food Security, 2008.

      Pakistan, Government of (2009) Pakistan Economic Survey 2008-09, Islamabad.

      Salam, Abdul.  Distortions to Incentives in Production of Major Crops in Pakistan: 1991-

      2008.   Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, Vol.5, Issue 2,


      UN High Level Task Force on Global Food Security Crisis 2008 and Ivanic and Martin, (2008a)

      Annexure 1: Average Farm Size in Pakistan (in hectares)

      Years Punjab Sindh NWFP Balochistan Pakistan
      1960 3.55 5.94 3.28 9.96 4.07
      1972 5.29 5.12 3.69 10.16 5.28
      1980 4.75 4.69 3.14 7.80 4.68
      1990 3.71 4.34 2.21 9.63 3.78
      2000 2.91 4.04 1.67 7.83 3.10

      Source: Economic Wing, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MINFAL) Agricultural Statistics of

      Pakistan (various issues).

      Annexure 2: Percentage of Farm Numbers and Farm Area by Farm Categories in


      Census year 2 hectares or less 2 to <5 hectares 5 to <10 hectares Above 10 hectares
      % farms % area % farms % area % farms % area % farms % area
      1980 34 7 40 27 17 25 9 41
      1990 47 12 34 28 12 22 7 40
      2000 58 16 28 28 9 19 5 37

      Source: Economic Wing, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (MINFAL) Agricultural Statistics of

      Pakistan (various issues).