Pink Bollworm: Biology And Host Preference in Laboratory

Scientific Name: Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders

Family: Gelechiidae


Stages of Pink Bollworm

Pink bollworm has 4 stages that is egg, larvae, pupa and adult.


Eggs are elongating and oval having 0.1mm length and 0.5mm width. Newly laid eggs are slightly greenish in colour but at maturity they turned reddish.


[woo_product_slider id=”64262″]

The larvae are white with a dark head at initial stage.  The full-grown larvae are 10 to 12 mm long and are white with a double red band on the upper portion of each segment.


The pupa is almost 8 to 10 mm long, reddish brown; posterior end pointed and terminating in a short, no long setae, spines or hooks, except on last joint. At maturity, the pupa becomes much darker; the adult’s eyes can be seen prominently under the gena of the pupal skin, and the segmentation of the adult antennae and legs becomes discernible.

Dr. Faisal Hafeez, Ayesha Iftikhar, Muhammad Sohaib.

Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad.


They are brown with a wingspan of 15 to 20 mm. 

The adults are dark-brown moths measuring about 12 to 20 mm across the wings. The head is reddish brown with pale, scales. Antennae are brown and the basal segment bears a pecten of five or six long hair-like scales. The have scaled proboscis.  

Forewings are elongating and oval, pointed at the tips and bearing a wide fringe. The hind wings are broader than the fore wings, and silvery gray in colour with a darker, iridescent hind margin.

Host preference of pink bollworm larvae:

Cotton bolls were collected from cotton sticks placed at field area of Entomological Research Institute, (AARI) Faisalabad. Cotton bolls were brought into Biological Control Laboratory. The larvae were separated from cotton bolls into a petri dish (6cm×0.5 inches). Further these larvae were used to check the host preference. The environmental conditions were 25 ± 30 % RH and 55 ± 65 ®C Temperature.

Three Choice Bioassay:

A glass petri dish (15 cm× 2.5 cm) was used having weight of 218.39 grams. Three hosts including okra, Abelmoschusesculentus, cotton, Gossypiumhirsutumand tomato, Solanum lycopersicum after weighing themthose were placed in petri dish at different positions. okra (3 g), cotton (2.53 g), tomato (5.81g). It was observed that larvae moved towards cotton boll after 6 minutes and started feeding.However, it reached on okra after 10 minutes. This showed that larvae preferred cotton as compared to other hosts.

Two Choice Bioassay:

 In the presence of okra and tomato, it preferred okra but didn’t feed as good as on cotton. Similarly, in case of cotton +tomato and okra +tomato, it preferred cotton and tomato respectively.

Free Choice Bioassay:

In free choice assay, above three hosts were placed in separate petri dishes and larvae was released at centre and stop watch was on. It was observed that towards cotton boll larvae moved within 4 minutes and start feeding, while it moved towards okra after 8 minutes and didn’t feed well and it reached on tomato almost after 15 minutesbut didn’t feed at all.

Homemade Organic Pesticide for Vegetables

Homemade Organic Pesticide for Vegetables

Growing greens supplies contemporary produce for you and your family whilst providing you with complete control over what’s used within the care and maintenance of the vegetables. Pest regulate is essential in vegetable gardens to stay hungry insects from feasting at the vegetation. However, insecticides steadily comprise harsh toxins that can go away chemical residue on greens. Thankfully, homemade organic insecticides are the more secure selection and can be created from affordable pieces that most people have of their home.

Oil Spray

For those aggravating sap-sucking bugs — akin to aphids, thrips, spider mites and whiteflies — create a do-it-yourself oil spray the usage of 1 tablespoon of dish cleaning soap and 1 cup of cooking oil from a newly open bottle of oil. This concentrated liquid must be mixed with water sooner than use with a ratio of 4 teaspoons of oil combination to 1 pint of water. Until you are ready to use it, retailer the concentrated oil mixture in a glass jar in a depressing, dry and cool location. Apply a liberal mist of the do-it-yourself oil spray to the vegetables once each and every seven days to entirely regulate the pests.

Baby Shampoo Spray

Baby shampoo is delicate and incorporates few, if any, pointless chemical substances. It can be used in a sprig to help keep watch over common garden pests on each indoor and out of doors crops, including aphids, whiteflies, scale, thrips and spider mites. Make child shampoo pesticide spray through combining 2 tablespoons of baby shampoo with 1 gallon of water. Thoroughly spray the answer at the vegetable plants and allow it to stick on for a number of hours prior to gently rising it off with a water hose. Do now not use this spray in the solar or on vegetation with furry leaves or a wax-like coating, akin to squash.

Garlic Spray

The strong smell of garlic assists in keeping certain pests from feeding in your vegetables. For this organic pesticide, mix 10 to 12 garlic cloves with 1 quart of water in a blender. After blending, allow the mixture to set for 24 hours. Then pressure it via cheesecloth overlaying the outlet of a glass jar and upload 1 cup of cooking oil. This concentrated combination may also be saved for several weeks till able to make use of. For an much more powerful do-it-yourself pesticide, upload 1 tablespoon of cayenne pepper to the concentrated mixture and let it soak for any other 24 hours ahead of straining the liquid once again. When ready to make use of, dilute half of cup of the liquid with 1 gallon of water.

Red Pepper Spray

Known for its ability so as to add spice and flavor to recipes, crimson pepper powder may also be used to create a do-it-yourself pesticide this is safe to use in vegetable gardens. Combine 1 tablespoon of pink pepper powder, 6 drops of dish soap and 1 gallon of water and blend the components totally. Pour the pink pepper aggregate in a lawn sprayer and carefully cover the vegetables with the spray. If wanted, reapply the spray as soon as a week to keep garden pests comparable to leafhoppers, spittlebugs, beetles and loopers off the crops.


Always check just a little of any organic spray mixture you make on a leaf earlier than spraying all of the plant to verify it doesn’t burn or damage the foliage. Do this step the day ahead of you plant to use the combination on your vegetable vegetation. It’s also best possible to spray your plant early within the morning earlier than the solar is hot or past due in the afternoon. Some produces, particularly those containing oils can burn vegetation if used right through the sunny and scorching portions of the day.

Major pests of Cotton

Major pests of Cotton
1.Fruit borer:  Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage

  • Bolls showing regular, circular bore holes
  • Larvae seen feeding on the boll by thrusting their heads alone inside and leaving the rest of the body outside
  • Presence of granular faecal pellets outside the bore hole. 
  • A single larva can damage 30-40 bolls. 
Cotton bollworm
Feeding injury

Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – Spherical in shape and creamy white in colour, present singly
  • Larva – Shows colour variation from greenish to brown.
  • It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines and also has dark and pale bands.
  • Pupa – Brown in colour, occurs in soil, leaf, pod and crop debris
  • Adult
  • Light pale brownish yellow stout moth.
  • Forewings are olive green to pale brown in colour with a dark brown circular spot in the centre.  
  • Hind wings are pale smoky white with a broad blackish outer margin.
Circular bore hole


ETL: One egg or one larva /plant

  • Monitoring :
    Pest monitoring through light traps, pheromone traps and in situ assessments by roving and fixed plot surveys has to be intensified at farm, village, block, regional and State levels. For management, an action threshold of one egg per plant or 1 larva/ plant may be adopted.

Cultural practices :

  • Synchronised sowing of cotton preferably with short duration varieties in each cotton ecosystem.
  • Avoid continuous cropping of cotton both during winter and summer seasons in the same area as well as ratooning.
  • Avoid monocropping. Growing of less preferred crops like greengram, blackgram, soyabean, castor, sorghum etc., along with the cotton as intercrop or border crop or alternate crop to reduce the pest infestation.
  • Removal and destruction of crop residues to avoid carry over of the pest to the next season,  and avoiding extended period of crop growth by continuous irrigation.
  • Optimising the use of nitrogenous fertilizers which will not favour mthe multiplication of the pest.
  •  Judicious water management for the crop to prevent excessive vegetative growth and larval harbourage.

Biological control :

  • Application of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) at 3 x 10 12 POB /ha in evening hours at 7th and
    12th week after sowing.
  •  Conservation and augmentation of natural predators and parasitoids for effective control of the pest.
  • Inundative release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma spp., at 6.25 cc/ha at 15 days interval 3 times from 45 DAS
  • Egg-larval parasitoid, Chelonus blackburnii and Predator Chrysoperla carnea at 1,00,000/ha at 6th, 13th and 14th week after sowing.
  • ULV spray of NPV at 3 x 10 12 POB /ha with 10% cotton seed kernel extract, 10% crude sugar, 0.1% each of Tinopal and Teepol for effective control of Helicoverpa.
  • Note: Dicofol, methyl demeton, monocrotophos and phosalone are comparatively safer to Chrysoperla larva
    recording low egg mortality.

Chemical control :

  • Discourage the indiscriminate use of insecticides, particularly synthetic pyrethroids.
  • Use of proper insecticides which are comparatively safer to natural enemies such as endosulfan, phosalone, etc., at the correct dosage and alternating different groups of insecticides for each round of spray.
  • Avoid combination of insecticides as tank mix.
  • Adopt proper delivery system using spraying equipments like hand compression sprayer, knapsack sprayer and mist blower to ensure proper coverage with required quantity of spray fluid and avoid ULV applications or Akela spray applications.
  • Proper mixing and preparation of spray fluid for each filling of spray fluid tank.

At early stages of square formation apply one of the following insecticides

  • Acephate 75%SP 780 g/ha
  • Azadirachtin 0.03% EC 500 ml/ha Carbaryl
    10%DP 25 kg/ha Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%
    SC 150 ml/ha Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 1250
    ml/ha Diflubenzuron 25%WP 300 g/ha
  • Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 190-220 g/ha
  • Fipronil 5%SC 2000 ml/ha
  • Flubendiamide 20%WG 250 g/ha
  • Flubendiamide 39.35%SC 100-125 ml/ha
  • Indoxacarb 14.5%SC 500 ml/ha
  • Lufenuron 5.4%EC 600 ml/ha
  • Novaluron 10%EC 1000 ml/ha
  • NPV of H. armigera 0.43% AS 400-600 ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1750-2500 ml/ha
  • Pyridalyl10%EC 1500-2000 ml/ha
  • Spinosad 45.0%SC 165-220 ml/ha
  • Thiodicarb 75%WP 1000 g/ha

During bolling and maturation stage, apply any one of the following insecticides (1000 l of spray fluid/ha):

  • Quinalphos 25 EC 2.0 l/ha
  • Carbaryl 50 WP 2.5 kg/ha
  • Pyraclofos 50 EC 1.5 l/ha

Biological control:

  • Bacillus thuringiensis-k 750-1000 g/ha
  • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP 500-1000 g/ha
  • Beauveria bassiana 1.15% WP 400 g/ha
2. Pink bollworm: Pectinophora gossypiella
Symptoms of damage

  • Rosetted flowers
  • The holes of entry plugged by excreta of larvae which are feeding inside the seed kernels.
  • They cut window holes (interlocular burrowing) in the two adjoining seeds thereby forming “double seeds
  • The attacked buds and immature bolls drop off.
  • Discolored lint and burrowed seeds.


Identification of the pest

  • Shows colour variation young larva white and late instar almost black, brown or green to pale or pink
  • several dark and light alternating bands running the entire length


  • Small moth.
  • Forewingarebrown or dull yellow olive grey with dark spots on the forewing.
  • Hind wings margins are deeply fringed.    


ETL: 10% infested fruiting parts

  • Use pheromone trap to monitor the adult moth activity
  • Three weekly releases of egg parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae @ 1,00,000/ha per release
    coinciding the incidence of the pest.Dust carbaryl 5%D 20 kg/ha

Spraying any one of the following insecticides:

  • Phosalone 35%EC 2000 ml/ha
  • Triazophos 40EC 2.5l/ha
3. Spotted bollworms: Earias vittella, Spiny bollworm: Earias insulana 

Symptom of damage

  • Drying and drooping of terminal shoots during pre –flowering stage
  • Shedding of squares and young bolls
  • Flaring up of bracts during square and young boll formation stage
  • Holes on bolls and rotting of bolls.
Larva attacking boll
Drying – terminal shoots
Bore holes and rotting
Flared square
Identification of the pest: E. vitella

  • Larva – Brownish with white streaks dorsally and pale yellow ventrally, Without finger shaped processes


  • Small buff coloured. 0
  • Forewings are pea green with a wedge shaped white band running from base to out margin

Identification of the pest: E. insulana

Larva – Brown with dorsum showing a white median longitudinal streak.
The last two thoracic segments and all the abdominal segments have two pairs of fleshy tubercles (finger shaped processes) one dorsal and the other lateral
Pupa – Brown and boat shaped
Adult – Small buff coloured.  Forewingsare uniformly silvery green


E. vitella – Larva
E. vitella – Adult
E. insulana – Larva
E. insulana – Adult
ETL: 10% infested shoots / squares / bolls

  • Spraying any one of the following insecticides
  • Carbaryl 5%DP 20 kg/ha
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 ml/ha
  • Flubendiamide 39.35%SC 100-125 ml/ha
  • Indoxacarb 14.5%SC 500 ml/ha
  • Phosalone 35%EC 1714ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1500-2000 ml/ha
  • Triazophos 40%EC 1500-2000 ml/ha

Biological control:

  • Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki (3a,3b,3c) 5%WP 750- 1000 g/ha
4. Cotton Stem Weevil:  Pempheres (Pempherulus) affinis
Symptoms of damage

  • Swellings on the stem just above the ground level.
  • Young plants are invariably killed
  • Older plants that survive, lack vigor and strength, and when strong winds blow, these plants sometimes break at the nodes.
Stem gall
Stem galls
Identification of the pest

  • Larva – Grub, white in colour without leg (apodous)
  • Adult – Very small weevil, dark in colour with two small white patches on the elytra

  • Basal application of FYM 25 t/ha and 250 kg/ha of neem cake.
  • Seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 10ml/kg of seed+ Drenching collar region with chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2.5ml/ l on 15 and 30 DAS+ Earthing up.

Spray any one of the following insecticides

  • Carbaryl 10%DP 25 kg/ha
  • Carbofuran 3%CG 33.3 kg/ha
5. Shoot weevil: Alcidodes affaber
Symptoms of damage

  • Terminal shoots with galls
  • Bore hole surrounded by raised margins
Identification of the pest

  • Adult – Weevil dark greyish brown with pale cross bands on the elytra

  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg may be done on 20 days after sowing and earthed up.
  • Basal application of FYM 25 t/ha or 250 kg/ha of neem cake.
6. Stem borer: Sphennoptera gossypii
Symptoms of damage

  • Plants with drooping leaves,
  • Wilting in patches

Identification of the pest

  • Adult – Dark brown jewel beetle


  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg may be done on 20 days after sowing and earthed up.
  • Basal application of FYM 25 t/ha or 250 kg/ha of neem cake.
Affected stem
Infested plants
 7. Leaf roller: Sylepta derogata
 Symptom of damage

  • Leaves rolled in the form of trumpets fastened by silken threads
  • Marginal portion of leaves eaten away
  • Plants defoliated in severe attack
Rolled leaves
Identification of the pest

  • Larva – Bright green (glistening) with dark head and prothoracic shield.
  • Adult – Moth with yellow wings having brown wavy markings


  • Collection and destruction of sheded plant parts.
  • Hand picking and destruction of grown up caterpillars.
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides
    • chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.0 l/ha
    • dichlorvos 76 WSC 1 lit/ha
    • fenitrothion 50 EC @ 625 ml.
8. Tobacco Cutworm: Spodoptera litura
Symptoms of damage

  • Scrapping the epidermal layer, leaving the skeleton of veins of leaf
  • During severe attack, only the stem and side shoots will be standing in the field without any leaf or bolls
  • Larvae feed  the leaves by making small holes.
Identification of the pest

  • Egg – Laid in masses which appear golden brown
  • Larva – Pale greenish with dark markings.
  • Gregarious in the early stages


  • Forewings – brown colour with wavy white marking
  • Hindwings– white colour with a brown patch along the margin
ETL: 8 egg masses/100 m row

  • Use of light trap to monitor and kill the attracted adult moths.
  • Set up the sex pheromone trap at 12/ha to monitor the activity of the pest and to synchronise the pesticide
    application, if need be, at the maximum activity stage.
  • Growing castor along border and irrigation bunds.
  • Removal and destruction of egg masses in castor and cotton crops.
  • Removal and destruction of early stage larvae found in clusters which can be located easily even from a distance.
  • Collection and destruction of shed materials.
  • Hand picking and destruction of grown up caterpillars.
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides per ha using, a high volume sprayer covering the foliage and soil surface :
  • Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.0 l
  • Chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1.25 l
  • Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC 150 ml
  • Diflubenzuron 25%WP 300-350 g
  •  Spraying of insecticides should be done either in the early morning or in the evening and virus in the evening.
  • Use of poison bait pellets prepared with rice bran 12.5 kg, jaggery 1.25 kg, carbaryl 50% WP 1.25 kg and water 7.5 litres. This bait can be spread in the fields in the evening hours so that the caterpillars coming out of the soil, feed and get killed.
  • Spraying nuclear polyhedrosis virus at 1.5 x 1012 POB per ha.
9. Ash weevils: Mylloecerus undecimpustulatus maculosus 
                      M. subfasciatus
                      M. viridanus
                      M. discolor
Symptom of damage

  • Leaf margins notched
  • Wilting of plants in patches
  • Plants come easily when pulled
  • Roots eaten away by grubs.

Identification of the pest

  • Grub – Small, white apodous grubAdult
  • Mylloecerus undecimpustulatus  – Greenish elytra having   dark lines
  • M. subfasciatus – Brownish weevil
  • M. viridanus –small light green weevil
  • M. discolor– brown weevil


  • Remove the affected branches / plants and destroy.
  • Spraying of quinalphos 0.05% or chlorpyriphes 0.05%.
10. Leafhopper:  Amrasca (Biguttula biguttula) devastans

Symptoms of damage

  • Tender leaves become yellow.
  • The margin of the leaves start curling downwards and reddening sets in.
  • In the case of severe infestation, leaves get a bronze or brick red colour which is typical “hopper burn” symptom.
  • The margin of the leaves get broken and crumble into pieces when crushed.
  • The leaves dried up and are shed and the growth of the crop is retarded.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph – Light green, translucent, wingless found between the veins of leaves on the under surface
  • Adult – Green, wedge shaped leafhopper.
ETL: 50 nymphs or adults/50 leaves

  • Apply carbofuran 3%CG 25 kg/ha

Spray any one of the following insecticides

  • Imidacloprid 200 SL at 100 ml/ha
  • Phosphamidon 40 SL 600 ml/ha
  • Acetamiprid 20%SP 50 g/ha
  • Azadirachtin 0.03%WSP 500-1000 g/ha
  • Buprofezin 25% SC 1000 ml/ha
  • Clothianidin 50%WDG 30-40 kg/ha
  • Diafenthiuron 50%WP 600 g/ha
  • Dimethoate 30%EC 660 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5%SC 1500-2000 ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1200 ml/ha
  • Phosalone 35%EC 857 ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Thiacloprid 21.7% SC 100-125 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 30% FS 10 kg/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25%WG 100 g/ha
  • NSKE 5% 25 kg/ha
  • Where the leafhopper is a big menace apply Neem oil formulation 0.5 % or neem oil 3% thrice at fortnightly
11. Cotton aphid: Aphis gossypii
 Symptom of damage

  • Infesting tender shoots and under surface of the leaves.
  • Curling and crinkling of leaves
  • Stunted growth
  • Blighted appearance when infestation  is severe
  • Development of black sooty mould due to the excretion of honey dew giving the plant a dark appearance
Cotton aphid Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs – Yellowish or greenish brown found on the undersurface of leaves.
  • Adults – Greenish brown, soft bodied and small insects.
  • Winged forms may be seen under crowded conditions.
ETL: 15% of infested plant
Spray any one of the following insecticides (500 l spray fluid/ha)

  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 500ml/ha
  • Dimethoate 30 EC 500ml/ha
  • Acetamiprid 20%SP 50 g/ha
  • Azadirachtin 0.03% EC 500 ml/ha
  • Buprofezin 25% SC1000 ml/ha
  • Carbosulfan 25%DS 60g/kg seed
  • Chlorpyrifos 20% EC 1250 ml/ha
  • Diafenthiuron 50%WP 600 ml/ha
  • Dimethoate 30%EC 660 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5%SC 1500-2000 ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 70% WG 30-35 kg/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100 -125 ml/ha
  • Malathion 50% EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25% EC 1200 ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Thiacloprid 21.7% SC 100-125 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25%WG 100 g/ha
12. Thrips: Thrips tabaci
Symptom of damage

  • Shriveling of leaves due to scrapping of epidermis and desapping
  • Attacked   terminal buds – have ragged edges
  • Silvery shine on the undersurface of leaves

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs – Very minute, slender, yellowish and microscopic.
  • Adult – Small, slender, yellowish to brown with fringed wings
ETL: 50 nymphs or adults/50 leaves

  • Seed treatment with imidacloprid 70 WS at 7 g/kg protect the crop from aphids, leafhoppers and thrips upto 8 weeks.

Spray any one of the following insecticides (500 l spray fluid/ha)

  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 500ml/ha
  • Dimethoate 30 EC 500ml/ha
  • Buprofezin 25% SC 1000 ml/ha
  • Diafenthiuron 50%WP 600 g/ha
  • Dimethoate 30%EC 660 ml/ha
  • Fipronil 5%SC 1500-2000 ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 70% WG 30-35 g/ha
  • Imidacloprid 48% FS/100kg seed 500-900 g/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 100 -125 ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Thiacloprid 21.7% SC 100-125 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 70% FS 430 g/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25%WG 100g/ha
13. Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci
Whitefllies damage to leaf  Symptom of damage

  • Chlorotic spots on the leaves which latter coalesce forming irregular yellowing of leaf tissue which extends from veins to the outer edges of the leaves
  • Severe infestation results in premature defoliation
  • Development of sooty mould
  • Shedding of buds and bolls and poor boll opening
  • It also transmits the leaf curl virus diseases of cotton.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymph – Greenish yellow, oval in outline,
  • Pupa – Puparia oval in shape, present on the under surface of the leaves.
  • Adult – Minute insects with yellow body covered with a white waxy bloom.
White fly adult
ETL: 5 – 10 /leaf

  • Avoid the alternate, cultivated host crops of the white fly in the vicinity of cotton crop.
  • Growing cotton only once a year either in winter or summer season in any cotton tract.
  • Adopting crop rotation with non-preferred hosts such as sorghum, ragi, maize etc., for the white fly to check the build up of the pest.
  • Removal and destruction of alternate weed hosts like Abutilon indicumChrozophore rottlariSolanum nigrum
    and Hibiscus ficulensus from the fields and neighbouring areas and maintaining field sanitation.
  • Timely sowing with recommended spacing, preferably wider spacing and judicious application of recommended dose of fertilizers, particularly nitrogenous and irrigation management is essential to arrest the excessive
    vegetative growth and pest build up. Late sowing may be avoided and the crop growth should not be extended
    beyond its normal duration.
  • Field sanitation may be given proper attention.
    Cultivation of most preferred alternate host crops like brinjal, bhendi, tomato, tobacco and sunflower may be
    avoided. In case their cultivation is unavoidable, plant  protection measures should be extended to these crops
  • Monitoring the activities of the adult white flies by setting up yellow pan traps and sticky traps at 1 foot height above the plant canopy and also in situ counts.
  • Collection and removal of whitefly infested leaves from the plants and those which were shed due to the attack of the pest and destroying them.
  • Chemical control : Acetamiprid
    20%SP 100 g/ha Azadirachtin 0.15%
    500-1000 ml/ha Buprofezin 25% SC
    1000 ml/ha Chlorpyriphos 20% EC
    1250 ml/ha Clothianidin 50%WDG 40-
    50 g/ha Diafenthiuron 50%WP 600
    g/ha Fipronil 5%SC 250-340 ml/ha
  • Imidacloprid 17.8% SL100 -125 ml/ha
  • Profenofos 50% EC 1000 ml/ha
  • Thiacloprid 21.7% SC 500-600 ml/ha
  • Thiamethoxam 25%WG 100 g/ha
  • Triazophos 40%EC 1500-2000 ml/ha

Spray any one of the following plant products alone or in combination with the recommended dose of insecticide (at 2 ml/l of water)

  • Neem seed kernel extract 5% (50 kg) and neem oil at 5 ml/l of water
  • Fish oil rosin soap 25 kg at 1 kg in 40 lit of water
  • Notchi leaves 5% extract Catharanthus rosea extract 5%

Spray any one of the following in early stage (500 l of spray fluid/ha)

  • Phosphamidon 40 SL 600 ml/ha

Spray any one of the following in mid and late stages (1000 l spray liquid/ha) Triazophos 40 EC 2.0 l/ha

  • In the early stages with high volume sprayer, use a goose neck nozzle to cover the under surface of the foliage to get good control of the pest. If high volume sprayers are not available, 375 litres of spray fluid may be used per hectare for application in the low volume motorised knapsack mist blower.
  • The use of synthetic pyrethroids should be discouraged in cotton to avoid the problem of whitefly.
  • Cypermethrin, fenvalerte and deltamethrin cause resurgence of whiteflies.
  • So avoid repeated spraying of pyrethroids.
  • The plant protection measures should be adopted on a community basis in a specified cotton areas.
  • Biological control: Verticillium lecanii 1.15% WP 2500 g/ha
14. Red cotton bug: Dysdercus cingulatusi
Symptom of damage

  • Red stained lint and rotting bolls.
  • Inner boll wall with warty growth or water soaked spots
  • Young bolls abort  and turn dark brown
  • The bacterium Nematospora gossypii enters the site of injury and stains the fibre.

Identification of the pest

  • Nymphs and Adults – Reddish bugs with white bands on the abdomen and black markings on the wings.

  • Plough the field to expose the eggs.
  • Spray phosphamidon 100 EC@250 ml/ha
15. Dusky cotton bug: Oxycarenus hyalinipennis
Symptom of damage

  • Sucks the sap from developing seeds in open bolls and stains the lint black.
  • Seeds discolored and shrunken.
Identification of the pest

  • Eggs – Cigar shaped, white eggs in clusters of 2-10 within the half opened bolls, on the bolls, flower or buds
  • Nymphs and adults – Dusky, greyish brown bug, with pointed head and hyaline wings


  • Spray phosphamidon 100 EC@250 ml/ha
16. Mealy bugs: Phenacoccus sp, Ferrisa sp and  Maconellicoccus sp 
Symptom of damage

  • Heavy clustering of mealy bugs usually seen under surface of leaves as a thick mat with waxy secretion.
  • Excrete copious amount of honey dew on which the fungus sooty mould grow.
  • Affected plants appear sick and black, resulting reduced fruiting capacity.
  • Management
    Remove the alternate weeds hosts
  • Monitor the incidence regularly and look for crawler emergence
  • Take up the management at intial stage to get maximum control
  • Wherever necessary use botanical insecticides like neemnderivatives such as neem oil 2% NSKE 5% and Fish oil rosin soap 25g/litre of water.(Consult the specialists for effective chemicals for individual species)
  • Use of Encyrtid parasitoids, Acerophagus papayae @ 100 per village against Paracoccus marginatus and Aenasius bambawaeli against Phenococcus solenopsis are recommended.
  • Use of dimethoate or profenophos @ 2ml / lit. may be adopted as an alternative
Infested plants
Mealy bugs on stem

Organic management of pest insects in stored wheat

FOOD safety has always been the most strategic purpose of the countries, worldwide. Food security is a complementary module due to losses persevered by a number of biotic and abiotic components throughout production, handling and garage. The extent of such losses relies on post-harvest management machine and pest regulate measures.

[woo_product_slider id=”64262″]

Among destructive brokers, pest insects play a significant role in post-harvest system of perishable and semi-perishable agricultural products. Wheat is a staple meals of the folks and meals security-cum-safety plans include its manufacturing and coverage.

Wheat manufacturing fluctuates round 20 million tons which is enough to accomplish our meals, feed, and seed requirements for few years. By 2010, our wheat requirement will be about 25.five million tons. Presently, any deficit in home production is compensated with imports.

According to scientists, post-harvest wheat losses range from 2.5 to 15.three according to cent depending upon the dealing with and storage prerequisites as those are top in non-public sector because of the unawareness about pest control protocols and uncertain garage and advertising gadget.

Presently, food grains are secure from pest insects by the usage of artificial insecticides and fumigants. In early 90’s, the Punjab Food Department controlled insect pests of stored-wheat with one pill of Aluminum Phosphide consistent with cubic meter volume which now is being carried out with three drugs for controlling the resistant lines of insects.

a Large Amount Of foreign currency is spent on the import of insecticides which can be have shyed away from via utilising our domestic herbal resources. Moreover, Codex Alimentarius Commission of the WTO beneficial natural regulate of insect pests to make food merchandise consistent with the International Standards Organization. Keeping in view the demands, it was decided to orientate the analysis towards natural control of pest insects in saved wheat and decided on native botanicals.

In the new previous, insecticidal properties including toxicity, feeding-repellence, floor protection and oviposition deterrence had been confirmed by means of other researchers in opposition to the insect pests of stored grains in laboratory studies. Accordingly, oils of those botanicals had been used in the natural control of pest-insects with the mixing of asepsis, disinfestations, and other packing fabrics below herbal prerequisites within the warehouses. This used to be achieved to increase an IPM protocol for protected storage system at farm level by means of replacing the artificial pesticides.

Insect-free jute and cotton luggage made from the material of various densities (mesh sizes) had been sprayed-over with 4 other concentrations from each of the botanical oils and combinations in 3 sets for three garage classes (30, 60 and 90 days) every, with 3 replications.

Infestation unfastened wheat of recent crop was packed in the luggage, handled with other concentrations of take a look at materials to evaluate their antixenosis and antibiosis. The experimental units were placed in ventilated warehouses of flourmills beneath beneficial conditions for the multiplication of stored product bugs.

The concentrations appearing considerable efficacy have been attempted as mixtures to note their effects. Absolute knowledge, regarding mortality, penetration into the treated bags and insect inhabitants construct had been gathered at specified intervals. After finishing touch of the experiment, rheological exams were applied to the flour constructed from the treated and untreated wheat to note adjustments in dough-development and sensory analysis of chapatti.

On the research of knowledge, other concentrations, storage periods and packing fabrics showed an important effect upon penetration of insects into the baggage and mortality of insects because of their frame touch with botanical oils. The stage of antixenosis and antibiosis confirmed a favorable correlation with the focus of the botanicals however adverse with the garage periods.

Penetration into bags was once inversely proportional and bug mortality directly proportional to the density of packing fabrics. Mixture of 3 botanical oils with 10 in step with cent concentration of each and every gave effective regulate of the objective bugs for 2 months with a superb cotton material packing which diminished gradually in the 3rd month.

Farinographic studies confirmed no important changes in dough development houses of the flour made out of the wheat saved in bags handled with the botanicals. Moreover, sensory evaluation proved that there used to be no distinguishable style or taint present in chapatti made out of the flour of the wheat packed in the handled luggage.

Recommendations: Farmers can save grain, environment and capital through the usage of the oil of castor seeds, neem seeds and rhizomes of candy flag plant to control insect pests. Oils will have to be jumbled together equivalent percentage and sprayed over jute/cotton luggage for use for packing of wiped clean/insect free wheat.

The mixture could also be sprayed with the help of a fine sprayer. New crop wheat will have to be unfold on steel sheets or cemented flooring in the sun as much as the temperatures at 55ºC for approximately 4 hours.

These sun-heated wheat grains having moisture contents not more than 8 in line with cent may be packed in treated baggage to get a protected garage for 2 to 3 months best. If wheat is to be stored for more than 3 months then repeat the botanical software after each two months. Insect loose new crop wheat with new handled baggage and proper sealing may give better effects.

Moreover, appropriate restore, cleansing and treatment of godowns/packing containers are also a supplement for the good fortune of the steered insect pests control measure.

Plant Defended Mechanism towards Pathogen

Plants, also called green plants are multicellular , autotrophic eukaryotes of the kingdom plantae.

Major plant pathogen





[woo_product_slider id=”64262″]

When pathogen attack on plants the genes of pathogen are activated (produce all their weapons of attack e:g enzymes, toxin etc).

Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan Mazhar

                  Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan


Plant show Resistance in Different Ways




Polygenic Resistance

                                        Many genes include in such type of resistance

Some plant genes code for the chemical substances

Toxic to pathogen or neutralize the toxin of pathogen

Some structural genes also preasant which slow down the entry of pathogen

Plant show resistance partiallt or incompletely

Different genes are involved

Plant pathogen attack

Monogenic, r- gene Resistance

                                                      Have one resistance genes per pathogen capable of attacking it.

Pathogen____ host

A-virulence genes in pathogen

Trigger the R-genes in the host

Host will plant  show the resistance

Induced Resistance

                                          Induced resistance is adefense system within plant which allow them to resist attack from pests such as fungal or bacterial pathogen. The defense system react to the external attack with physiological changes triggered by the generation of proteins and chemicals that lead to activation of plants immune system

Two main types of induced resistane exist

SAR                            ISR

SAR (systemic acquired resistance): occur when a localized wound is created on the plant causing necrosis

ISR(induce systemic resistance): occur when plant roots are colonized by plant growth promoting  rhizobacteria

Wheat | Diseases and Pests, Description, Uses, Propagation

Wheat, is the name given to several plants in the genus Triticum including Triticum aestivumTriticum compactumTriticum spelta and Triticum durum, which are annual or biennial grasses grown primarily for their grain. Wheat species possess an erect smooth stem with linear leaves that grow in two rows on either side of the stem with larger ‘flag’ leaves at the top of the stem. The stem terminates in a spike that is made up on individual spikelets, each possessing 3–9 florets. The wheat fruit develops within the spikelets, maturing to a seed (kernel). Wheat can reach 1.2 m (4 ft) in height and like other cereals, has been developed into different varieties that are adapted to planting at different times of the year. Spring wheat is planted for a late summer harvest, whereas Winter wheat is planted for harvesting in early to mid summer. Overwintering varieties are more commonly grown in regions with mild winters. Wheat may be referred to by variety and these include durum or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum), club wheat (Triticum compactum), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Wheat originated in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. 



Wheat is one of the most important food plants in the world. It is used primarily to produce flour for bread. It is used widely in the production of many other baked goods. Wheat grain is also used in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages and alcohol. Wheat straw is used as an animal feed and in the manufacture of carpets, baskets, packing, bedding, and paper. 



Wheat varieties 
One of the first things to consider before planting is which type of wheat you want to grow. There are several different varieties to choose from depending on the time of year and how you want to utilize your harvest. Wheat is broadly categorized into Winter wheat and Spring wheat. Winter wheat is high yielding and is planted in the Fall and harvested in the Spring or Summer of the following year (depending on location). Spring wheat is not as high yielding but tolerated drier conditions. It is planted in the Spring and harvested in the Fall. Both Spring and Winter wheat is then further categorized as soft wheat, hard wheat, spelt or durum.

General requirements
Wheat can be grown in a wide variety of climates but grows best in cool regions where the temperature is between 10 and 24°C (50–75°F). Wheat will not grow at temperatures above 35°C (95°F). Wheat will grow optimally in a deep, fertile, well draining and well aerated soil at a pH between 5.5 and 7.5.

Winter wheat varieties should be planted in the Fall approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost date. Spring wheat varieties should be planted as soon as the soil can be worked in the Spring. Commercially grown wheat is usually mechanically drilled using a machine that creates a furrow and drops the seed in before covering it back up. Wheat seeds can be sown by hand broadcasting in smaller areas, or using a hand-cranked seeder. Seeds are usually sown to at depths ranging from 2 to 12 cm (0.8–4.7 in) depending on soil conditions (seed must be sown deeper in drier soil). Once the seeds have been scattered, the soil should be raked lightly to set the seeds at the desired depth.

Wheat is ready to harvest when the stalks and heads have turned from green to yellow and the seed heads are drooping towards the ground. Check the seeds for ripeness before harvest. The should be firm and crunchy and not doughy in texture. Commercially produced wheat is usually harvested using a combine. Smaller plots can be harvested by hand using a scythe or sickle. Small plots can be harvested by snipping off the heads with a pair of scissors. 



Bockus, W., W., Bowden, R. L., Hunger, R. M., Morrill, W. L., Murray, T. D. & Smiley, R. W. (eds.) (2010). Compendium of wheat diseases. American Phytopathological Society Press. Available at:…Available for purchase from APS Press.

CABI Crop Protection Compendium. (2008). Triticum aestivum (wheat) datasheet. Available at: [Accessed 21 April 15]. Paid subscription required.

Duke, J. A. (1983). Triticum aestivum L.. Handbook of Energy crops, unpublished. Available at:…. [Accessed 21 April 15]. Free to access.


Common Pests and Diseases


Category : Bacterial

Bacterial leaf streak and black chaff Xanthomonas campestris

Sudden appearance of water-soaked, light brown, elongated lesions on upper leaves; lesions quickly dry out and turn into necrotic streaks on the leaves; black stripes occur on glumes and purple black lesions appear on rachis and peduncle if infection is in the head
Disease spread through infected seed and splashing water

Avoid planting seed from infected fields; avoid overhead irrigation; plant less susceptible cultivars

Basal glume rot Pseudomonas syringae

Dull brown to black discoloration of glumes which is more pronounced on the inner side; seeds may be shriveled; if infection is severe, entire glume may be discolored; small water-soaked lesions may form on leaves
Disease spreads primarily through infected seed

Avoid planting seed from plants grown in fields where the disease is known to be present

Category : Viral

Barley yellow dwarf Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)

Yellowing leaves, particularly the flag leaves; stunted plants due to shortened internodes; leaves may be red, purpple, orange, green or brown; leaves may be distorted
Transmitted by a few species of aphid; spread of disease is completely dependent on the movement of aphid vectors

Control of aphid population can provide some control of disease but is dependent on knowing which aphids are active in the field; planting to avoid periods of peak aphid activity can provide a measure of control

Category : Fungal

Common bunt (Stinking smut) Tilletia tritici

Slender heads which take longer to turn color than healthy heads; glumes spread apart to reveal spori or “bunt balls” (balls containing fungal spores) which are a similar size to normal kernel but are gray-brown in color; bunt balls break open on harvest and give off a fishy odor
Disease is most commonly introduced through infected seed although spores are spread by wind

Disease can be controlled by planting resistant wheat varieties, planting disease-free seed and using a seed treatment prior to planting; disease may also be avoided by planting wheat early in the Fall and by shallow seeding

Ergot disease Claviceps purpurea

Main symptoms of ergot is the grains in the head are replaced by dark purple to black sclerotia. This ergot bodies were made up of vegetative strands of fungus. The sclerotic interior is white or tennis white in color. The size of grain kernel and ergot are similar in size. The initial symptom before sclerotia bodies is honey dew symptom occur during flowering stage. The fungus produce yellowish, sugary excretions and can see as droplets on flower parts.
Ergot is toxic to animals including birds.

Follow crop rotation with non host crops for one year. Deep summer ploughing kills sclerotia bodies present in soil. Keep the field free from grasses and other weeds. Use disease free seeds.

Eyespot Oculimacula spp.

Elliptical lesions that first appear on leaf sheath and gradually spread to stem; lesions are yellow-brown to tan in color and occur length-ways down the stem; lesions can occur individually or groups of lesions can coalesce to form large areas of discoloration; lesions may eventually girdle the stem; a gray, thread-like fungal growth may occur on the stem beneath the lesion; mature stems may have a charred appearance; infected tillers mature early and develop white heads and poorly filled seed; tillers may fall if stems are severely infected
Primary route of infection is by splashing water; emergence of disease favored by high soil moisture content and a dense crop canopy

Rotation of crop away from cereals for a period of 2-3 years will reduce levels of inoculum in the field; fungicides are commonly applied close to stem elongation to control the disease; plant resistant wheat varieties if available in your area

Fusarium head blight (Scab) Fusarium spp.

One or more spikelets on newly emerged head bleached; pink or orange fungal masses may be visible at the base of infected spikelet; infected spikelets do not produce seed or produce shriveled and/or discolored seed; severe infections can cause the kernels to have a chalky appearance and are frequently lost during harvest
Fungus survives between seasons on host plant debris – other host include corn and barley; fungus can survive on host debris for several years; warm, moist conditions promote the spread of the disease when present

Control of the disease can be difficult; durum wheat appears to be more susceptible to the disease than common wheat; crop rotation to a non-host is recommended for at least one year; applications of appropriate fungicides if available can help to control the disease in conjunction with the other measures detailed here

Phythium root rot Phythium sp.

The infected plants become chlorotic and/ stunted. Often the symptom is confused with nitrogen deficiency. And the plants may produce shriveled grain. Even a mild infection reduce tillers, plant population and maturity. Since symptom appear through out the field make if difficult to diagnose the disease.
Fungus live for years in soil and on old root debris.

Use good quality seeds. Provide supplemental phosphorous. Sowing when soil temperature is about 50 F increase germination and establishment. Seed treatment with suitable fungicides.

Powdery mildew Erysiphe graminis

Patches of cottony, white-gray growth on upper surface of leaves which turn gray-brown; chlorotic patches develop on leaves opposite fungal growth; fungal fruiting bodies usually become visible as black dots on the mildew
Disease emergence favors heavy nitrogen fertilization; high humidity and cool temperatures

Planting resistant wheat varieties is one of the best ways to protect plants from powdery mildew; other control strategies include: application of appropriate foliar fungicides, if available; removal of crop debris from field after harvest to reduce the level of overwintering fungus; removal of volunteer wheat plants which can act as a reservoir for the disease

Rusts Stem rust (Puccinia graminis)
Leaf rust (P. triticina)
Stripe rust (P. striiformis)

Chlorotic flecks or brown necrotic spots on leaves or stems; yellow streaks or patches on foliage; brown necrotic streaks on foliage; raised orange pustules may be present on lesions
Disease emergence favors cool, wet conditions

The most effective method of controlling rusts is to plant resistant varieties of wheat; other methods of control include: destroying alternate hosts; applications of appropriate protective fungicides; growing wheat varieties that mature early

Tan spot Pyrenophora tritici-repentis

Oval or diamond shaped necrotic lesions with brown centers and yellow halos on leaves
Disease infection requires a wet period of between 6 and 48 days

Disease can be significantly reduced by rotating crops with non-hosts and tilling crop debris into soil after harvest


Category : Insects

Aphids (Bird cherry-oat aphid, Russian wheat aphid, Corn leaf aphid, etc.) Rhopalosuphum padi
Diuraphis noxia
Sitobion avenae

Yellow or white streaked leaves; flag leaves may be curled up; plants may be stunted and tillers may lie parallel to the ground; plants may turn a purple color in cold weather; insects are small and soft-bodied and may be yellow, green, black or pink in color depending on species; insects secrete a sugary substance called “honeydew” which promotes the growth of sooty mold on the plants
Fields should be checked for aphid populations periodically after emergence

Sturdy plants can be sprayed with a strong jet of water to knock aphids from leaves; insecticides are generally only required to treat aphids if the infestation is very high – plants generally tolerate low and medium level infestation; insecticidal soaps or oils such as neem or canola oil are usually the best method of control; always check the labels of the products for specific usage guidelines prior to use; in commercial plantations aphid numbers are usually kept in check by predators and natural enemies; beneficial insect populations should be assessed before chemical control is considered; if no beneficial insect populations are present and aphids are damaging then apply appropriate insecticides

Armyworms (Armyworm, Western striped armyworm) Mythimna unipunctata
Spodoptera praefica

Entire leaves consumed; notches eaten in leaves; egg clusters of 50-150 eggs may be present on the leaves; egg clusters are covered in a whitish scale which gives the cluster a cottony or fuzzy appearance; young larvae are pale green to yellow in color while older larvae are generally darker green with a dark and light line running along the side of their body and a pink or yellow underside
Insect can go through 3–5 generations a year

Organic methods of controlling armyworms include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis; there are chemicals available for commercial control but many that are available for the home garden do not provide adequate control of the larvae

Stinkbugs Euschistus spp.

Damage to head during milk or soft dough stage; stink bugs often carry pathogens in their mouthparts which can cause secondary infections; adult insect is shield-shaped and brown or green in color; may have pink, red or yellow markings; eggs are drum shaped and laid in clusters on the leaves; larvae resemble the adults but are smaller
Adult insects overwinter under leaves, on legumes, blackberries or on certain weeds such as mustard or Russian thistle

Remove weeds around crop which may act as overwintering sites for stink bugs and practice good weed management throughout the year; organically accepted control methods include the use of insecticidal soaps, kaolin clay and preservation of natural enemies

Wireworms Aeolus spp.
Anchastus spp.
Melanotus spp.
Limonius spp

Death of seedlings; reduced stand; girdled stems and white heads; wireworm larvae can be found in soil when dug round the stem; larvae are yellow-brown, thin worms with shiny skin
Larval stage can last between 1 and 5 years depending on species

Chemical control impossible in a standing crop, must be applied at preplanting or as a seed treatment; if wireworms are known to be present in soil fallow field during summer and till frequently to reduce numbers; rotate to non-host crop where possible; avoid planting susceptible crops after a wireworm infestation on cereals without either fallowing of applying appropriate pesticide

Common Pests and Disease

Pests and Disease

These are small brown colored insects. They suck the sap from the leaves and branches and cause great damage to trees and reduction of yield. Aphid attack is severe during Feb and April. Use Dizenon 40% or Eldrine 20%, 1 kg in 450 litres of water. Insecticides should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the fruit.

Citrus Leaf Minor:
This attacks the leaves. the attacked leaves become curled and deformed. If causes great losses in growth and yield. Use Malathion 57 or Matasystox 50% at the rate of 500 grams in 450 litres of water per acre for its control.

Lemon Butterfly
This also attacks fresh leaves. It can be controlled effectively by using Malathion and Metasystox.

Citrus Whitefly:
This attacks the fruits and causes great losses in yield and quality. This pest can also be controlled by using Malathion 57%. This should not be applied within 6 weeks of marketing the fruit.

Red Scales:
These are sucking types of insects and cause great damage to Kinnow and sweet oranges in Punjab. They can survive throughout the year. Use Parathion or Malathion at the rate of 752 grams in 450 litres of water per acre for its effective control.

Root Rot:
This is a fungus which attacks the root of the trees. Its attack is severe in poorly drained soils. The affected tree gradually dries up. Remove the soil from around the affected trees without damaging the roots and improve on farm drainage for its effective control.

This disease is caused by nutritional deficiencies. The branches and fruits of the affected trees start drying and the tree becomes uneconomical to maintain. Apply a balanced dose of Bordeaux Mixture 450 after cutting affected branches from the trees.

Citrus Canker:
This is a bacterial disease. It attacks leads and the fruits. It forms canker like spots on the leaves and stems of the fruit causing great reduction in yield and quality of the fruit. There is no effective treatment for this disease except to cut and remove the affected trees and spray Formaldehyde at the spots from where the diseased trees have been removed.

Picking of citrus fruits is done almost throughout the year. The fruit should be picked when it is fully ripe. It will not develop taste or sugar in storage after picking. The best method is to pick the individual fruit by holding it in one hand and cutting the stalk with a knife and collecting it into boxes or baskets to avoid injury to the stem. The average yield expected from different types of fruits in various species are 500 to 1000 fruit per tree.

Pakistan is blessed with a climate ideally suited to the farming of all kinds of fruits – rich in taste and juicy. Farmers have been developing new varieties of fruit by grafting one exotic variety with other.

Season of Kino in Pakistan starts from December and last till April. Kinnow is very delicious in taste and if treated with proper fungicide and wax and careful handing and storage of Kinnow at about 4 Degree Centigrade can retain it’s freshness until 2 months.

Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world where some of the varieties of fruits grown in cool temperate climate such as apples, pears, plums and cherries while in warm temperate climate such as apricots, grapes, pomegranates and melon and in tropical and subtropical climate such as bananas, mangoes, dates, guava and citrus so the fruits are usually available throughout the year.

Nature has blessed Pakistan with ideal climate for growing a wide range of delicious fruits and large varieties of vegetables. Over the years, Pakistani experts have developed unique stains of exotic fruit varieties unmatched for their rich flavor and taste. From the selection of the finest fruits grown, a reasonable quantity is processed and properly packed for sales and consumption in local market and exporting abroad.

Pakistan exported 268,741 tones of fruits worth US$ 79.83 million during 2000-01, while the export of vegetables stood at $22.50 million. Out of the total exports of fruits and vegetables the share of mangoes was 53,443 tonnes valuing $16.54 million, showing an increase of 43 per cent over the 1999-00.

Agriculture is the main contributor to GDP either directly or indirectly in the form of agro-based industries. The production of fruits and vegetables is not fully utilized and after their domestic consumption a major part is wasted due to lack of infrastructure, storage and processing facilities. The wastage quantity can be utilized by just streamlining and regulating the system from grower to export markets.

Pakistan produces large varieties of mangoes, its production has increased from 908 thousand tonnes in 1995-96 to 937 thousand tonnes in 1999-00. World production of mangoes stood at 19 million tons in 1995, which rose to 23.8 million tonnes in 1999, registering an increase of 24.75 per cent over the five years. Philippines and China have achieved much over 100 per cent increase in mango production during that period. Thailand is another country, which has also registered a significant increase. Rise in Pakistan’s annual mango production during 1995-99 is only 3.4 per cent. Our share in global mango production in 1999 is 3.8 per cent.

Beside mangoes, Pakistani kinoos and apples are also in great demand in the international market. Balochistan produces about 480,000 tones of apples annually but only 3,000 tones were exported last year. About 30 per cent apples wasted every year in Balochistan only. Recently the government has given approval for the establishment of treatment plant in Quetta. While two plants are about to start working in Karachi. It is estimated that after starting of these treatment plants export of apples would be increased to about 20,000 tons per annum. There are good investment opportunities for the private sector to establish processing units near the fruits and vegetable growing areas. This would not only prevent wastage but would also help to earn foreign exchange.

There are also bright prospects for exporting fruit juices and pulps. By establishing modern plants, Pakistan can earn foreign exchange three times more than that being earned by export of fresh fruits and vegetables.

Sunny winters in Pakistan yield a large variety of citrus fruits. The juicy kinno is a unique hybrid of two varieties of California Oranges. It has a soft skin which is easy to peel and has a lovely fragrance.

Pakistan is fortunate in having great diversity in its soil and in its ecological and climatic conditions, ranging from extremely warm to temperate, to very cold. This enables the country to grow many kinds of trees, plants, shrubs, vines and creepers which yield a large variety of fruits and vegetables.

20 Common Tomato Plant Problems and How to Fix Them

If you’re one of the three million people who planted a home garden this year, you’re most likely growing tomatoes. Nine out of 10 gardeners grow tomatoes, and that number would be 10 out of 10 if the holdouts would taste a fresh garden tomato and compare it to a grocery store purchase. Nothing beats the taste of a fresh home-grown.

Many gardeners who grow tomatoes, however, are frustrated with the progress of their plants. The plant may not set fruit. Or your tomatoes may ripen, but have ugly, spongy black spots at the bottom. Worse still, your plants may look great in the evening when you say goodnight to them, but in the morning, they’re skeletons waving empty branches in the breeze.

Welcome to the world of tomato problems. This list of 20 common tomato problems and their solutions will help you identify an issue — whether it’s just starting or already full-blown — and show you how to correct it, so you can save your tomato plants and harvest yummy tomatoes this year.


Before diving into the list, it’s important for you to correctly identify the problem or tomato plant disease. When trying to identify tomato plant diseases, use these steps:

  1. Identify the affected part of the plant — Is it the tomato itself, the leaves, stems, flowers or roots?
  2. Note differences — When you compare your tomato plant to a healthy plant, how does yours differ? For example, a healthy tomato plant has softly fuzzed, medium-green leaves. If the leaves of your plant have brown or black patches, holes, chewed edges or fuzzy mold growing on them, make a note of that before perusing the list of problems.
  3. Look for insects — What insects do you see on your plants? If you need help identifying them, take a photo and contact your local Cooperative Extension agent to identify the insects.

Armed with this information, you can easily scan this list and narrow down the possible tomato plant disease or pest problem and how to fix it.


The list is divided into two sections: 16 diseases caused by poor cultivation habits, bacteria or fungi, and 5 insect-specific tomato problems. We have also included some tips for growing delicious, healthy tomato plants so you can keep those problems away next year.


Tomato diseases, garden fungi and certain environmental conditions can quickly cripple your plants. Oftentimes, you can rescue the tomato plant with a little TLC, but some circumstances may require you to destroy the plant and plant another crop in its place.

Help for tomato plants

Be sure to browse the extended information below on tomato plant problems, but, overall, here are the most common disease and fungus triggers in tomato plants:

  • Not enough fertilizer. (Solution: Test your soil and apply fertilizer as appropriate for the growth stage.)
  • Over-pruning. (Solution: Always use a tomato cage and leave enough foliage to shield the fruit.)
  • Not enough calcium. (Solution: Test your soil, apply lime and gypsum as needed.)
  • Planting before temperatures raise to ideal levels. (Solution: Wait for the right planting time for your Hardiness Zone.)
  • Too much water or too little water. (Solution: Water them evenly through the growing season.)
  • Watering overhead, which promotes fungal growths. (Solution: Water at the base of the plant. and apply fungicide.)
  • Lack of air flow around plants. (Solution: When planting, space tomato plants at appropriate distance from one another and prune leaves (but not too much, see above) as they grow. Apply  fungicide if powdery mildew appears.)

what does blossom end rot look like on tomatoes

1. Blossom End Rot

  • What it looks like: The tomato plants appear healthy, but as the tomatoes ripen, an ugly black patch appears on the bottoms. The black spots on tomatoes look leathery. When you try to cut off the patch to eat the tomato, the fruit inside looks mealy.
  • What causes it: Your plants aren’t getting enough calcium. There’s either not enough calcium in the soil, or the pH is too low for the plant to absorb the calcium available. Tomatoes need a soil pH around 6.5 in order to grow properly. This soil pH level also makes it possible for them to absorb calcium. Uneven watering habits also contribute to this problem. Hot, dry spells tend to exacerbate blossom end rot.
  • What to do about it: Before planting tomatoes in the spring, have your local garden center or Cooperative Extension conduct a soil test. Tell them you’ve had problems with blossom end rot in the past, and they will give you recommendations on the amendments to add to your soil. Lime and gypsum may be added for calcium, but they must be added in the proper amounts depending on your soil’s condition. That’s why a soil test is necessary. Adding crushed eggshells to your compost pile can also boost calcium naturally when you add compost to the soil. A foliar spray containing calcium chloride can prevent blossom end rot from developing on tomatoes mid-season. Apply it early in the morning or late in the day — if sprayed onto leaves midday, it can burn them. Water plants regularly at the same time daily to ensure even application of water.

blossom drop on tomato plants

 2. Blossom Drop

  • What it looks like: Flowers appear on your tomato plants, but they fall off without tomatoes developing.
  • What causes it: Temperature fluctuations cause blossom drop. Tomatoes need night temperatures between 55 to 75 degrees F in order to retain their flowers. If the temperatures fall outside this range, blossom drop occurs. Other reasons for blossom drop on tomatoes are insect damage, lack of water, too much or too little nitrogen, and lack of pollination.
  • What to do about it: While you can’t change the weather, you can make sure the rest of the plant is strong by using fertilizer for tomatoes, drawing pollinators by planting milkweed and cosmos, and using neem oil insecticides.

 why are my tomatoes cracking

3. Fruit Cracks

  • What they look like: Cracks appear on ripe tomatoes, usually in concentric circles. Sometimes insects use the cracks as an opportunity to eat the fruit, or birds attack cracked fruit.
  • What causes them: Hot, rainy weather causes fruit crack. After a long dry spell, tomatoes are thirsty. Plants may take up water rapidly after the first heavy rainfall, which swells the fruit and causes it to crack.
  • What to do about them: Although you can’t control the rain, you can water tomatoes evenly during the growing season. This prevents them from being so thirsty that they take up too much rainwater during a heavy downpour.


what does sunscald on tomatoes look like

 4. Sunscald

  • What it looks like: The plants look healthy, and the fruit develops normally. As tomatoes ripen, yellow patches form on the red skin. Yellow patches turn white and paper-thin, creating an unpleasant appearance and poor taste.
  • What causes it: As the name implies, the sun’s rays have actually scalded the tomato.
  • What to do about it: Tomato cages, or a wire support system that surrounds the plants, give the best branch support while shading the developing tomatoes naturally. Sunscald usually occurs on staked plants that have been too-vigorously pruned, exposing many of the tomatoes to the sun’s rays. Leaving some foliage and branches provides shade during the hottest part of the day.


Poor Fruit Set - Why are my tomatoes not growing

 5. Poor Fruit Set

  • What it looks like: You have some flowers but not many tomatoes. The tomatoes you do have on the plant are small or tasteless.
  • What causes it: Too much nitrogen in the soil encourages plenty of green leaves but not many flowers. If there aren’t enough flowers, there won’t be enough tomatoes. Another cause may be planting tomatoes too closely together. Tomatoes are self-pollinating, meaning that each flower contains both the male (stamens) and female (pistils) parts. Wind typically pollinates tomatoes, but if plants are too close together, the wind can’t reach the flowers.
  • What to do about it: Have your soil tested. If you’re planting tomatoes in the spring, leave at least two feet or more between plants so that good air circulation can help pollinate them. If your plants are already in the garden, you can simply shake the flowering branches to simulate wind and get the pollen from the stamens to the pistils.


catfacing tomato

 6. Catfacing

  • What it looks like: Catfacing makes tomatoes appear deformed. The blossom end is rippled, bumpy and lumpy.
  • What causes it: Plants pollinated during cool evenings, when the temperatures hover around 50 to 55 degrees F, are subject to catfacing. Blossoms fall off when temperatures drop too low. However, if the flower is pollinating before the petals begin to drop off, some stick to the developing tomato. This creates the lumps and bumps typical of catfacing.
  • What to do about it: If possible, plant tomatoes a little later in the season. Make sure the weather has truly warmed up enough to support proper tomato development. Devices such as a “Wall of Water” — a circle of water-filled plastic tubes — raise temperatures near the tomato and help keep them high enough on cold nights to prevent cold-related problems. Using black-plastic spread on the soil can also help. As the plastic heats during the day, it releases the heat back towards the plants at night. Black plastic can be used as a temporary measure until the temperatures warm up enough that it’s no longer needed.


Why are my tomato plant leaves rolling and shriveling up

 7. Leaf Roll

  • What it looks like: Mature tomato plants suddenly curl their leaves, especially older leaves near the bottom. Leaves roll up from the outside towards the center. Sometimes up to 75% of the plant is affected.
  • What causes it: High temperatures, wet soil and too much pruning often result in leaf roll.
  • What to do about it: Although it looks ugly, leaf roll won’t affect tomato development, so you will still get edible tomatoes from your plants. Avoid over-pruning and make sure the soil drains excess water away.


tomatoes look normal but gaps inside

 8. Puffiness

  • What it looks like: The tomato plants look fine, they bloom according to schedule, and ripe red tomatoes are ready for harvest. When the tomato is sliced, the interior has large, open spaces and not much fruit inside. Tomatoes may feel light when harvested. The exterior of the tomato may have an angular, square-sided look.
  • What causes it: Under-fertilization, poor soil nutrition or inadequate pollination.
  • What to do about it: Make sure you are feeding your tomato plants throughout the season. A balanced fertilizer such as a 10-10-10 should be fed biweekly or monthly. Tomatoes are heavy feeders and need fertilizer throughout the growing season. For gardeners, frequent top-dressings with homemade compost and compost teas are a must.


tomato plant disease - bacterial canker

 9. Bacterial Canker

  • What it looks like: Often confused with cloudy spot disease, bacterial cankers start as yellow dots on ripening red tomatoes. If you look carefully at the spots — using a magnifying glass if you have one — you’ll see a dark, birds-eye-type rim around each of the yellowed spots. This is what distinguishes bacterial canker from cloudy spot disease.
  • What causes it: A bacteria called Clavibacter michiganensis. The bacteria occurs naturally but can be brought into the garden on infected plants or tools. Once it gets into the soil, rainwater splashes it up onto the plants. If there’s an open sore, such as insect damage or a leaf missing from pruning, it can enter the plant and infest it.
  • What to do about it: Remove the infected plants immediately and do not plant tomatoes again in that soil for at least three years. Rotate your crops regularly to prevent these and other diseases from taking hold in the soil. Don’t compost the dead plants — instead, put them in the trash to avoid spreading the bacteria.


Anthracnose - dark mushy spot on tomatoes

10. Anthracnose

  • What it looks like: As tomatoes ripen, a dark, bull’s-eye circle appears on the blossom end or bottom of the tomato. The spot is sunken and mushy to the touch. When you slice into the tomato, there’s a black mushy spot underneath that looks like rot.
  • What causes it: A fungus called Colletotrichum phomoides. The fungus loves hot, moist weather and is often spread by overhead irrigation, sprinklers striking infected soil and splashing the fungus up onto the plants, and infected plants.
  • What to do about it: Switch your watering methods so water drips on the roots, not the leaves of the plants. Harvest tomatoes when ripe, since overly ripe tomatoes tend to contract the fungus more than tomatoes in the early stages of ripening.


early blight on tomatoes

 11. Early Blight

  • What it looks like: You’ll find brown spots on tomato leaves, starting with the older ones. Each spot starts to develop rings, like a target. Leaves turn yellow around the brown spots, then the entire leaf turns brown and falls off. Eventually the plant may have few, if any, leaves.
  • What causes it: A fungus called Alternaria solani. This fungus can live in the soil over the winter, so if your plants have had problems before like this, and you’ve planted tomatoes in the exact same spot, chances are good the same thing will happen to your plants this year.
  • What to do about it: Crop rotation prevents new plants from contracting the disease. Avoid planting tomatoes, eggplants or peppers in the same spot each year as these can all be infected with early blight. A garden fungicide can treat infected plants.


Tomato fungus - Septoria Leaf Spot

 12. Septoria Leaf Spot

  • What it looks like: After the plants begin to develop tomatoes, the lower leaves break out in yellow spots. Within the yellow spots, dark gray centers with dark borders appear. Black dots appear in the center of the spots. Foliage dies and falls off.
  • What causes it: A fungus called Septoria lycopersici thatinfects foliage.
  • What to do about it: Avoid watering tomatoes from the top, as the spray can force the spores developing on the leaves back into the soil and continue the disease cycle. Certis Double Nickel 55™ Fungicide & Bactericide was developed for use against Septoria Leaf Spot on tomatoes.

wilted tomato plant fungus

13. Fusarium Wilt

  • What it looks like: Your tomato plants look fine, when suddenly, they start to wilt. At first, only one side may be affected, but then the whole plant is wilting. You water them, and the problem gets worse. Within a day or two, the plant is dead!
  • What causes it: A nasty fungus called Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici that attacks the vascular system of the plant, roughly equivalent to a human’s veins. The fungus destroys the xylem tubes, which transport water and nutrients up from the roots and into the leaves.
  • What to do about it: In the case of fusarium wilt, the best defense is a good offense. Rotate your crops so tomatoes aren’t planted in the same section of the garden each year. Purchase wilt-resistant varieties if you’ve lost tomatoes to wilting diseases in the past, since the fungus can overwinter in garden and lawn soils.

Verticillium Wilt - Tomato plant fungus with yellow spots on leaves

 14. Verticillium Wilt

  • What it looks like: Yellow blotches appear on the lower leaves. As the blotches spread, the veins in the leaves turn brown. After the leaves turn brown, they fall off. The disease progresses up the stem until the plant is stunted.
  • What causes it: A fungus that lives in the soil, Verticilliurn albo-atrum, attacks the roots and travels up the xylem tubes with water. It then prevents the normal flow of water and nutrients to the leaves.
  • What to do about it: Once plants are infected, there isn’t much you can do to treat Verticillium wilt. Rotate your crops, because the fungus can live for long periods in the soil and even live among weeds such as ragweed. Choosing wilt-resistant varieties to plant is the best way to prevent Verticillium wilt.

What wrong with my tomatoes - spotted wilt virus

 15. Viral Diseases

  • What they looks like: Viral diseases mainly attack the tomatoes themselves. You might find black spots on tomatoes, or weird stripes on them. Don’t confuse signs of disease for just how some heirloom tomatoes look with natural stripes.
  • What causes them: Many of these viruses spread when plants are stressed by heat, drought or poor soil.
  • What to do about them: If you’ve read through all of these tomato problems and think your tomatoes may be suffering from a viral disease, spray your tomato plants with neem oil. Good soil management and using organic fertilizer for tomatoes also helps keep your plants healthy, which can help them naturally resist viruses better.


powdery mildew on tomato leaves

16. Powdery Mildew On Tomatoes

  • What it looks like: Powdery mildew is easy to find on tomato plants as it looks like someone brushed the leaves with a white powder. You might find white spots on tomato leaves or even the stem. If you let the fungi thrive it will turn your tomato leaves yellow and then brown.
  • What causes it: Powdery mildew on tomatoes is more common in greenhouses than an outdoor garden because of the lack of air flow and high humidity.
  • What to do about it: The best way to prevent powdery mildew on tomato plants is to use a preventative spray formulated with sulfur. For more information, read this post on prevention and treatment of powdery mildew on plants.


In addition to diseases, insects can damage tomato plants, too. Not all bugs are bad — some insects are extremely helpful, and some will even attack the “bad” bugs plaguing your tomato plants.

Help for tomato plants

Be sure to browse the extended information on tomato plant pests below, but, overall, here are your best options for fighting insect infestations on tomato plants:

  • Caterpillar Killer with B.t. (Solution: Fight hornworms and other plant-eating caterpillars with this OMRI Listed® biological control that targets destructive larvae.)
  • Insect Killing Spray for Tomatoes. (Solution: An insect-killing formula for use on tomatoes that’s compliant for use with organic gardening and fights tomato hornworm, Colorado potato beetles, whiteflies and other caterpillars.)
  • Insecticidal Soap. (Solution: An OMRI Listed® insecticide soap that can be used up to the day of harvest on aphids, mealybugs, spider mites and other pests.)
  • Insecticidal Soap with Pyrethrin. (Solution: By mixing the features of insecticidal soap and pyrethrin, you can maintain your organic garden and fight spider mites, hornworms and destructive beetles.)
  • Neem Oil. (Solution: Neem oil kills insects in every life stage — from eggs to adults.)
  • Insect Traps. (Solution: Lure pest insects away from your plants and trap them before they can do more damage.)

The following tend to be the most common causes of various tomato pest problems.

cutworms on tomatoes

1. Cutworms

  • What they are: Cutworms feed at night on seedlings. They “cut” or eat through the stem at soil level or an inch or less above the soil. Cutworms aren’t exactly worms — they are the larvae of certain moths. They only emerge at night and can be difficult to spot. Cutworms kill tomato plants by snipping them right in half.
  • What to do about them: Prevent cutworm damage by making a paper collar that fits around your seedlings. Just take newspaper or cardboard and fold it into an inch-wide strip. Use tape to make a collar around the plant, leaving about two to three inches around the stem. Remove the collar once the plant has several sets of leaves. You can also cut the bottom off of a paper cup and slide the open-bottom cup over the seedling to prevent cutworm damage.


hornworm on tomato plants

 2. Hornworms

  • What they are: Tomato or tobacco hornworms can decimate mature tomato plants in one night. These crafty insects are large green worms about two to three inches long with tiny horns on their head and ridged bodies. Hornworms are perfectly camouflaged so they look exactly like a tomato stem or branch, making them difficult to spot. They emerge at night, eat all the leaves off the plant and move on to the next section or plant.
  • What to do about them: Nature provides the best control for tomato hornworm in the form of a parasitic wasp that lays her eggs on the body of the hornworm. As the wasp’s larvae hatch, they eat into the living worm and eventually kill it. Natural methods to control tomato hornworms include planting marigolds around tomatoes. The strong marigold scent repels them naturally. Safer® Brand Caterpillar Killer II With B.T. uses a naturally occurring fungus to quell hornworms without harming earthworms. You can also use an insect-killing spray.


Colorado potato beetle damaging tomato plants

 3. Colorado Potato Beetle

  • What they are: Colorado potato beetles are native to the United States. They love plants in the nightshade family, especially potatoes. If they can’t find potatoes, however, they will gravitate towards tomatoes, eggplant and other nightshade family vegetables. The beetles are about the size of dimes, with yellow-and-black striped wings. The adults use their mouthparts to chew holes in the leaves of tomato plants. Females lay clusters of bright gold or yellow eggs underneath the leaves. When the larvae hatch, they spread out among the tomato leaves, easily eating their way through the entire plant. Larvae are red to dark pink with black spots and frequently hide under the leaves during the day.
  • What to do about them: Use a pesticide with pyrethrins to spray on your tomato plants. This method works best in early spring before the larvae mature.

how to get rid of stink bugs on tomato plants

4. Stink Bugs

  • What they are: The brown marmorated stink bug isn’t only an annoyance inside the home. These insects also use their needle-like mouthparts to suck the juice right out of your tomatoes. They can be spotted with the naked eye on your tomatoes, or you can see their damage in the yellow, uneven spots that appear on the ripening tomatoes. When you slice into a yellow-spotted tomato, white sections appear under the yellow spots, which distinguish stink bug damage from fungal or viral problems.
  • What to do about them: Safer® Brand makes stink bug traps that harmlessly attract the insects to the trap and away from your tomatoes.


how to get rid of spidermites on tomatoes

5. Spider Mites

  • What they are: Spider mites are difficult to see because they’re so tiny, but you can clearly see the damage they leave behind. Mites scuttle along the stems and leaves, piercing the leaves to feed on the juices. Eventually, tomato leaves look stippled and bronzed, with damage to the plant’s leaf structure.
  • What to do about them: The best method for treating spider mites on tomato plants is to use a neem oil spray. Another option is insecticidal soap, which also offers a treatment for spider mites.


One final tomato problem is often mistaken for insect damage: birds. Some birds, especially crows, love to eat ripening fruit, and tomatoes are technically a fruit. Crows peck with their large, sharp beaks at the ripening tomatoes, ripping open gashes and eating partial segments from various fruits. Other birds and even squirrels may also be at work if you find tomatoes that look like they have bites taken out of them.

The best control for bird problems is a net. A large fruit tree net, available at your local home or garden store, can be draped over the plants. The net is an effective deterrent to birds and usually a good deterrent for squirrels, too.

Although this list of tomato problems is extensive, don’t let it deter you from growing great tomatoes. The good news is that most of these diseases and problems still leave you with some edible tomatoes. And once you take precautions to avoid these diseases and pests in your future gardens, your tomatoes will continue to be fruitful and successful. 

Source of Article:

Top 10 pests of Wheat

1.       Termites


Egg: Dull, kidney shaped and hatches in 30-90 days.

Nymph: Moult 8-9 times and are full grown in 6-12 months.

Adult: Creamy coloured tiny insects resembling ants with dark coloured head.

Damage symptoms

TermitesTermites damage the crop soon after sowing and sometimes near maturity. They feed on roots, stem of growing plants, even dead tissues of plant feeding on cellulose. The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears. Infestation is heavy under unirrigated conditions and in the fields where un-decomposed farm yard manure is applied before sowing.

2.       American pod borer


It is a polyphagous, infesting gram, lablab, safflower, chillies, groundnut, tobacco, cotton etc.

Egg: The spherical, yellowish eggs are laid singly on tender parts and buds of plants. The egg period lasts for 2-4 days.

Larva: Caterpillars are of varying colour, initially brown and later turn greenish with darker broken lines along the side of the body.

The larval period lasts for 18-25 days. Body covered with radiating hairs. When full grown, they measure 3.7 to 5 cm in length. The full grown caterpillar pupates in the soil in an earthen cell and emerges in 16-21 days.

Pupa: Pupation takes place inside the soil, pupal stage lasts 7-15 days.

Adult: Moth is stout, medium sized with brownish/greyish forewings with a dark cross band near outer margin and dark spots near costal margins, with a wing expanse of 3.7cm.

Damage symptoms

Young larva feeds on the leaves for some time and then attacks earheads. Internal tissues are eaten severely and completely hollowed out. While feeding the caterpillar thrust its head inside leaving the rest of the body outside.

Fed leaves awns and earheads.

Natural enemies of american pod borer

Parasitoids: Tricogramma chilonis, Tetrastichus spp., Chelonus spp., Telenomus spp. (egg) Bracon spp., Ichneumon promissorius, Netelia product, Chrysoperla zatrowii sillemi, Carcelia spp., Ovomermis albicans, a nematode, Chaetopthalmus, Campoletis chloridae (larval), Lissopimpla excels, Ichneumon promissorius (pupal)

Predators: Coccinellids, King crow, Braconid wasp, green lacewing, dragon fly, spider, robber fly, reduviid, praying mantis, red ants.

3.       Aphids


Eggs: Eggs are dirty white in colour and laid along the veins of leaves.

Nymphs: There are four nymphal stages (instars). The general appearance of each stage is similar except for increase in size during subsequent instars. The first, second, third and fourth nymphal stages last 1-2, 2, 2, and 3 days respectfully. The nymphs and the females look alike, except that the latter are larger. It breeds at a fast rate during cold weather and reaches the height of its population in February-March when the ears are ripening.

Adults: Aphids are small, soft-bodied, pearl-shaped insects that have a pair of cornicles (wax-secreting tubes) projecting out from the fifth or sixth abdominal segment. Aphids are green colour. Both apterous (wingless) and alatae (winged) forms pass through 4-5 nymphal instars in their development and the nymphal period ranges from 5-7 days. Both the forms mate within a day or two after the final moult and start reproducing young ones. The apterous forms produce significantly more number of young ones than alatae but their life-period is shorter than that of alatae.

In the field generally viviparous apterous forms are observed in large number.

Damage symptoms

Like other aphids, the nymphs and adults suck the sap from plants, particularly from their ears. They appear on young leaves or ears in large numbers during the cold and cloudy weather.

The damage is particularly severe in years of cloudy weather. A heavily manured, well-irrigated and succulent crop will harbour the pest for a longer period and suffer greater damage.

Natural enemies of aphid

Parasiotids: Aphidius spp., Aphelinus spp. etc.

Predators: Syrphid fly, lacewing, minute pirate bug damsel bug and ladybird beetle, praying mantis, predatory thrips, rove beetle etc.

4.       Brown mite


Eggs: Hyaline, globular laid in mass. Eggs are generally laid beneath clods and are either active i.e. red in colour and not visible to the naked eye or dormant i.e. white eggs.

Clearly visible on the underside of clods

Nymphs: Yellowish in colour

Adults: The mites are very small measuring about 0.5 mm in length, metallic brown to black with pale yellow legs and their forelegs are distinctively longer than the other three pair of legs.

Damage symptoms

They feed on leaves by sucking sap by inserting two needle like stylets into the leaf there by withdrawing nutrients from the plants.

Affected leaves become whitish and under severe conditions become reddish brown and bronzy Leaves wither and dry

Natural enemies of mite

Predators: Oligota spp., Anthrocnodax occidentalis, Feltiella minuta etc., Green lacewings (Mallada basalis and Chrysoperla zatrowii sillemi), lady bugs.

Predatory mite: Amblyseius alstoniae, Phytoseiulus persimilis. Predatory coccinellid beetle – Stethorus punctillum.

5.       Army worm/cut wormBiology

Eggs: Eggs are laid in cluster, consisting of approximately 500 eggs

Larvae: The younge caterpillars hatch from the eggs in 4-5 days. After hatching the caterpillars starts feeding on the leaves of the seedlings. The caterpillars are fully grown in about 15 days and measures 3-5 cm in length. Larvae usually have 6 instars (very seldom 7 instars), reaching 40 mm in length at older age. Larva with 2 wide black-brown and one intermediate light dorsal stripe, with black-brown lateral stripe along spiracle line; spiracles brown with black rim.

Pupae: Larvae pupate in soil at depths to 2 cm, under lumps of ground or under tussocks. Pupal phase lasts 13-21 days. Pupae are yellowish-brown, shiny. Body length is about 15-20 mm. It has a cremaster on last segment bearing 2 bent and crossed spines and 4 thin hooked setae.

Adults: Adult is brownish white in colour. Forewings are grayish-yellow, with dark-gray or reddish-yellow tint. Round and reniform spots are light or yellowish with indistinct edges; reniform spot with white point at lower margin. External wing margin blackened obliquely from top backward, with dark stroke and with a row of dark points. Hind wings are gray, with dark external margin. Antennae are thread-like.

Damage symptoms

The primary symptom is defoliation of the plant. Larvae feed on leaves, chewing from the edges to the midrib, or on the heads of cereal plants.

Heavy infestations can be very destructive; larvae may climb the plant and sever the neck just below the head. Some species may be found feeding at the soil surface, others underground feeding on roots, and still others feeding inside the stem.

The armyworm feeds during dawn and dusk period as it is shy of sun light.

Parasitoids and Predators: Same as Helicoverpa armigera

6.       Shoot fly


Eggs: The eggs hatch in 1 – 3 days and the maggots which are yellow in colour migrate to the dorsal surface of the leaf, enter the space between the leaf sheath and the axis and make a clean cut at the base of the leaf. The growing point of the plant dies and decays on which the maggots feed.

Larvae: The larval period lasts for 6 – 10 days.

Pupae: Pupation takes place inside the stem itself and the adults emerge in about a week.

Adults: The adult is a small dark fly. It deposits whitish eggs singly on the central surface of the leaves. Each female fly is capable of laying 30 eggs during its life time. Life cycle occupies 17 – 20 days.

Damage symptoms

The maggots bore into the shoot of young plants, a week after germination to about one month and as a result the central shoot dries up resulting in „dead hearts‟. If it is a little later the mother plant may produce side tillers. But the tillers also may be attacked. The infestation often goes as high as 60%.

7.       Wheat thrips


Eggs: Embryonic development lasts 9-10 days.

Nymphs: There are 2 instars; nymphal development lasts 23-27 days. The young nymph feeds on the lemmae and then penetrates the flower which may become sterile due to the nymph’s feeding damage. When the grain has reached the milky-ripe stage, the nymph moves into the furrow of the grain and attacks the pericarp. Once it has completed its development, the nymph vacates the lemmae and falls to the ground. ‘Pupation’: there are 3 stages, 1 ‘pre-pupal’ and 2 ‘pupal’, lasting only a few days.

Adults: Adults are very small, brown or black insects with a tapering, segmented abdomen, elongated and fast moving measuring 2 mm in length with four narrow fringed wings and live for about 10-12days.

Damage symptoms

They are usually infecting the sheath of the flag leaf, feeding on the stem. However, leaves, stems, and heads may be attacked. Adults and nymphs both can cause damage and, if present in large numbers, may cause the tissue on which they are feeding to take on a silver coloration.

Natural enemies of wheat thrips

Parasitoids: Thripobius semiluteus

Predators: Franklino thrips, predatory mite, hoverfly.

8.       Pink stem borer


Eggs: Round pearl like yellowish eggs ranging 80-300 are layed in 2-3 longitudinal rows usually within the sheaths of bottom leaves of young plant of two to three weeks old. As the time for hatching approaches, eggs become brown or shy grey.

Larvae: Newly hatched larvae remain in group behind the leaf sheath and begin chewing on the stem and epidermal layer of the sheath. Full grown larvae are stout smooth about 25 to 30 mm in length purplish pink on the dorsal side and white on ventral side.

Pupae: Pupa is dark brown in colour.

Adults: The adult moth is straw-coloured with white wings. Life cycle is completed in 6-7 weeks with 4-5 generations in a year.

Damage symptoms

Severe damage causes the stem to break. Severely infected plants due to stunting may appear to have some times the cob and tassel at one place. Whorl feeding of larvae results in rows of oblong holes in unfolding leaves unlike round shot holes produced by Chilo partellus.

Later they bore in to central shoot resulting in the drying up of the growing point and formation of “dead heart” in young plant as a result of larval feeding sometimes the bottom internodes show circular ring like cuts. At ear head stage “white ears” are produced.

Natural enemies of pink borer

Parasitoids: Apanteles,Tetrastichus, Telenomus, Trichogramma japonicum ,T chilonis, Bracon etc.

Predators: Spiders, drynids, water bugs, mirid bugs, damsel flies, dragonflies, meadow grasshoppers, staphylinid beetles, carabids, coccinellids etc.

9.       Ghujhia weevil


Eggs: Insect mate frequently and lay 6-76 eggs in 5-11 installments in the soil under clods or in crevices in the ground. The egg period is 6-7 weeks.

Larvae: Young grubs enter the soil. Grub period is 10-18 days.

Pupae: Larvae pupate in earthen chambers at a depth of 15-60 cm. The pupal stage lasts 7-9 weeks.

Adults: Weevils are earthen grey and measure about 6.8 mm in length and 2.4 mm in width. Their fore wings are oblong and hind wings are more or less triangular, but they cannot fly. The pest is active from June to December and undergoes larval or pupal diapause during rest of the year in the soil.

Damage symptoms

Only adults feed on leaves and tender shoots of the host plants. They cut the germinating seedlings at the ground level. Often the crop is resown. The damage is particularly serious during October-November when the rabi crops are germinating.

10.   Root-knot nematode


Wheat showing symptoms of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Infestations of root knot nematodes are characterized by the formation of small knots or galls near the tips of the roots. Above ground, infested plants are stunted and chlorotic. Excessive branching of affected roots sometimes occurs.

Most species of plant parasitic nematodes have a relatively simple life cycle consisting of the egg, four larval stages and the adult male and female.

Development of the first stage larvae occurs within the egg where the first molt occurs.

Second stage larvae hatch from eggs to find and infect plant roots or in some cases foliar tissues.

Under suitable environmental conditions, the eggs hatch and new larvae emerge to complete the life cycle within 4 to 8 weeks depending on temperature.

Nematode development is generally most rapid within an optimal soil temperature range of 70 to 80°F.

Damage symptoms

Infected plants in patches in the field

Formation of galls on host root system is the primary symptom

Roots branch profusely starting from the gall tissue causing a „beard root‟ symptom

Infected roots become knobby and knotty

In severely infected plants the root system is reduced and the rootlets are almost completely absent. The roots are seriously hampered in their function of uptake and transport of water and nutrients

Plants wilt during the hot part of day, especially under dry conditions and are often stunted

Nematode infection predisposes plants to fungal and bacterial root pathogens

Survival and spread

Primary: Egg masses in infected plant debris and soil or collateral and other hosts like Solonaceous, Malvaceous and Leguminaceous plants act as sources of inoculums.

Secondary: Autonomous second stage juveniles that may also be water dispersed.

Favourable conditions:  Loamy light soils.

How to manage rice pests and diseases

Farmers lose an estimated average of 37% of their rice crop to pests and diseases every year. In addition to good crop management, timely and accurate diagnosis can significantly reduce losses. If you are facing a problem in your crop and need help with diagnosis, seek advice from a professional.

The best control for pests and disease problems is prevention. To limit pest and disease damage:

[restabs alignment=”osc-tabs-left” responsive=”true” text=”More”]
[restab title=”Step 1″ active=”active”]

Diseases can be spread between fields or between seasons if you do not take proper precautions. After harvest, be sure to clean the harvesting equipment to prevent the spread of infected plants.

Some diseases can live on the stubble between seasons and infect a healthy planted crop. In general, plowing after harvest removes stubble that serves as remaining food and shelter for pests, especially insects. In cases where your field was infested, you should remove all stubble from the previous season.

Clean the bunds and patch all rat holes on bunds and around your field. If there are nearby fallow fields or forested areas, you may want to have a community rat control effort or put up trap barriers to keep rats from damaging your crop .

Ratooning (allowing your crop to sprout and continue growing after harvest) is not recommended because diseases and insect hosts can be sustained from season to season. It is best to clean the field of any crop and leave it fallow for a few weeks to a few months before planting again. 

[restab title=”Step 2″]Certified seed is recommended but if you can’t get certified seed, use clean seed that does not have any discolored seeds, weed seeds or other rice varieties mixed in.

Use short-duration and resistant cultivars to decrease insect pest populations. In short-duration cultivars, insects cannot compete as many generations, so populations may not reach damaging levels. Resistant varieties experience less feeding damage on their leaves and stems, which means less entry points for bacteria and fungal diseases.[/restab]
[restab title=”Step 3″]Planting at the same time (or within a 2 week window) as the neighboring fields can help to minimize insect, disease, bird, and rat pressure on individual fields.[/restab]
[restab title=”Step 4″]High nitrogen can increase susceptibility to certain pests and diseases that is why specific fertilizer recommendations is very important.[/restab]
[restab title=”Step 5″]Overuse of pesticide is common among farmers and can actually lead to pest outbreaks. Natural insect enemies of the rice pests are also killed when pesticides are applied and this can lead to an outbreak of other rice insect pests. Other ways to encourage natural pest enemies are to allow plants on the bunds and between fields to flower (yellow and white flowers attract natural enemies).[/restab]
[restab title=”Step 6″]Generally, a rice crop can recover from early damage without affecting yield. The diseases section show the information on specific diseases that require early management. [/restab]
[restab title=”Step 7″]

Store grain at moisture content below 13-14%, preferably in an airtight container. Clean the grain before storing so it is free of dust, chaff, and excessive broken grains. The storage area should be clean and have a dampproof floor and waterproof walls and roofs. Ideally, the storage area should be sealed to keep out rats and birds and to allow for fumigation if necessary. Stack bags on a pallett with at least 50cm of space on every side of the stack. 

Do not store grain for more than 6 months. Do not store new grain next to old grain that is infested with insects. Store grain as paddy or rough rice because it is less prone to insect attack than milled rice. Parboiled rice is also less susceptible to damage than raw rice.


Source of Article: