Kharif season: fertiliser makers not in favour of urea import

Domestic chemical makers don’t seem to be in favour of giant import of carbamide for Kharif season as they believe that spare stocks are obtainable for the approaching crop season. The Ministry of Industries & Production within the last meeting of the chemical Review Committee (FRC) had determined to import zero.125 million tons for Kharif season and therefore the chemical business supported the choice.

This acquisition are created against a $50 million loan facility recently approved by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) specifically for the acquisition of carbamide fertilizer.

Kharif season fertiliser makers not in favour of urea importAs per estimates of chemical makers of West Pakistan consultive Council (FMPAC) – a representative body of native fertilizer makers – around three.01 million heaps of carbamide stocks, as well as domestic production and carryover stocks from Rabi season, are obtainable within the country for the approaching crop season against a most demand of two.8 to 2.9 million tons.

The country would have some zero.370 million heaps of carbamide stock at begin|the beginning} of Kharif season that may start from Gregorian calendar month one, 2014. calculable production from domestic fertilizer plants throughout the Kharif season can stay a pair of.64 million tons (with gas offer on SNGPL in line with the last year) which means there would be around three.01 million heaps of carbamide obtainable within the country against a requirement of two.8 to 2.9 million tons. As a result, the carryover stock at the tip of Kharif 2014 is probably going to be zero.21 to 0.110 million tons, a political candidate of FMPAC aforesaid.

He aforesaid recent demand of two.9 million tons continues to be more than needs reported  by provinces. “Fertiliser plants will manufacture the specified and spare carbamide for domestic consumption by guaranteeing the required gas offer. The domestic production won’t need precious interchange and billions of rupees grant, being spent on import on carbamide,” he added.

The business sources aforesaid the govt call to import carbamide and distribute it through National chemical selling restricted (NFML) has additionally been politically motivated  within the past so this observe ought to be discourage by the PML-N government. The centralized is already considering shifting the foreign carbamide distribution from NFML to non-public sector so as to confirm clear and timely distribution of foreign carbamide, they added.

Sources aforesaid some quarters ar proposing an enormous import of zero.7 million heaps of carbamide import for Kharif season. However, they believed that the planned conceive to import zero.7 million heaps of carbamide is contrary to the fact on ground and therefore the call can drain around $266 million from the funds, that is already facing a crisis of depleting forex reserves.

According to sources, this estimate of foreign carbamide has been calculated at a median $380 per ton price and Fright (C&F). On this basis, the landed price involves Rs a pair of,900 per fifty kilo bag as well as port incidentals and native freight, etc. To sell this foreign carbamide at a fix value of Rs one,786 per bag, the govt would ought to offer a further grant of roughly Rs sixteen billion on zero.7 million tons foreign carbamide.

Domestic fertilizer makers urged the govt to require any call on carbamide import whereas keeping in sight this stock handiness position. carbamide is foreign to supply profit to farmers, however in point of fact, farmers don’t get any advantage of foreign carbamide and later grant by the funds, they added. Despite the country’s current carbamide production capability of six.9 million tons, that is world’s seventh largest, West Pakistan spent over $1.5 billion on carbamide import in last three years and additionally paid a grant of over Rs sixty billion on foreign carbamide.

Source: Business Recorder

Wheat output likely to remain below projected target this year

Pakistan’s wheat production is anticipated to stay regarding twenty four.5 to twenty five million tons this year, which is 0.25-0.75 million tons wanting the projected target of twenty five.25 million tons, Ministry of National Food Security and analysis officers aforementioned.

A senior official of the Ministry of National Food Security and analysis told Business Recorder, here on Wed that Asian nation is in an exceedingly position to supply bumper wheat crop this year however it depends on atmospheric condition in March: if the temperature remains average the country’s wheat output is anticipated to cross twenty five million tons, however if temperature is on top of the common for the year wheat output is probably going to stay twenty four.5 million tons.

Wheat output likely to remain below projected target this year“This year wheat growers have brought nearly twenty one million acres underneath wheat cultivation, that is sort of one thousand thousand acres but the past year. In arid areas, a decline within the space underneath wheat cultivation, low tide provides and fertiliser shortages square measure probably to cut back the wheat production, however on national level we tend to predict a healthy wheat crop”, the officers aforementioned.

“In Rabi season we’ve got 2 major crops wheat and gram, wheat production is probably going to cross twenty five million tons if atmospheric condition stay favourable, whereas gram production is anticipated to be 550,000 tons this year against set target of 600,000 tons” he added . Gram is especially cultivated in Bhakkar, Layyah, Khushab and Mianwali districts, whereas wheat is being cultivated across the country tho’ geographical region is that the major wheat manufacturing province, followed by Sind and KPK.

“Pakistan wants around 900,000 loads of gram to feed its population on low-cost macromolecule, however the country is at the present manufacturing solely 550,000 loads of gram. within the past, Asian nation was manufacturing nearly 800,000 loads of gram pulse. Even in worst-weather years, the gram production was ne’er less than 5 maunds per acre. sadly throughout the past few years it absolutely was solely two.5 maunds per acre. however and why did the yield call in over seventy % at intervals a matter of few years nobody knows”, Abraham Mughal Chairman Agri-Forum Asian nation aforementioned.

Mughal aforementioned the case could improve slightly if water and fertiliser handiness improves adding that at the present a bag of carbamide is obtainable at Rs one,900 to Rs two,000, that 3 years back was obtainable at Rs 800 per bag. the assembly value of various crops has increased  manifold throughout past few years and farmers square measure unable to buy necessary inputs to extend yield. Farmers have planted wheat over a locality of very little over eight.5 million hectares this year, down from nine.13 million hectares last year once the country created a bumper crop of regarding twenty three.8 million loads of wheat, Mughal aforementioned.

Source: Business Recorder 

Basic concepts in crop production

AGRONOMY

Scientific crop production is called Agronomy.

CROP

Community of plants to produce yield, which are economically important, called Crop.

 

OBJECTIVES OF CROP

To provide the food to the human beings and also useful to animals.

GENOTYPE

Genotype are the new varieties and cultivars.

 

  • Poor yield    =      poor genotype +         good environment
  • Poor yield    =      poor genotype +         poor environment
  • Poor yield    =      good genotype +         poor environment
  • Good yield   =      good genotype +         good environment

FACTORS EFFECTING GENOTYPE

These are the factors effecting genotype

  • Vulnerability of seed.
  • Viability of seed.
  • Poor storability.

SOIL

It is a layer of lithosphere. Soil is composed of aluminium and silica is 1:1 or 1:2 ratio.

Soil is the basic medium for plant growth.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

Physical properties of soil are
  • Bulk density
  • Porosity
  • Soil texture and structure.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

Chemical properties of soil are

  • Cation (-), Anion (+) exchange capacity
  • Soil ph.
  • Soil salts or electrical conductivity
  • Soil types.

CROPING SEASONS

We have two cropping seasons

RABI CROPS

Those crops which growing season starts in winter

For example; Wheat, Barley etc.

KHARIF CROPSBasic concepts in crop production 300x300 Basic concepts in crop production

Those crops which growing season starts in summer

For example; Cotton, Rice etc.

TYPES OF PLANTS ON THE BASIS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC SYSTEMS

There are two types of plants on the basis of photosynthetic systems
  • C3 Plants (Mesophyllous photosynthetic system)
  • C4 Plants (PEP carboxyl’s photosynthetic system)

DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF C3 AND C4 PLANTS

  • C4 are tropical plants.
  • C4 plants productivity is greater than C3 plants.
  • C4 plants are Sugar cane, Sorghum, Milit, Maize, and Weeds.
  • C4 plants does not utilize its own chloroplast whether C3 plants does use it.

SOIL COMPOSITION

Soil is the basic medium for plant growth.

Soil contain

  • 25% moisture
  • 25% Airspace
  • 5% Organic matter
  • 45% Minerals.

 

 

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF COMMON MICROORGANISMS PER GRAM OF SOIL.

  • Bacteria                           3,000,000 to 500,000,000
  • Actinomycetes                  1,000,000 to 20,000,000
  • Fungi                               5,000 to 1000,000
  • Protozoa                          1,000 to 500,000
  • Algae                               1,000 to 500,000

CN RATIO (CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO)

CN ratio indicates the decomposition of organic matter. Number of carbon units utilizes to produce nitrogen unit.

Crop Name C : N
· Green Legumes
12 : 1
· Compost (decompose form of O.matter) 15 : 1
· Garbage 25 : 1
· Sugar Cane thrash 50 : 1
· Weeds 80 : 1
· Rice straw 80 : 1
· Saw dust 500 : 1

Rabi Crops List

The crops that are sown in the winter season are called Rabi crops. (also known as the “winter crop”) in Pakistan and India. The Rabi means, when the crop is harvested.Crops that are grown in the winter season, from November to April are called Rabi Crops.Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard.

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Maize Maize (Zea mays, L)

Lucerne Lucerne (Hedicago sativa)

Cumin Cumin (Cuminum cyminum, L)

Coriender Coriender (Coriandrum sativum, L)

Wheat Wheat (Triticum vulgare, Vill)

Fenugreek Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum, L)

Gram Gram (Cicer arientinum)

Onion Onion (Allium cepa, L)

Mustard Mustard (Brassica juncea, L)

Tomato Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill)

Fennel Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare, Miller)

Potato Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Isabgol Isabgol (Plantago ovata. Fors)

 

OatOat (Avena sativa)